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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD011352, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many women experience perineal pain after childbirth, especially after having sustained perineal trauma. Perineal pain-management strategies are an important part of postnatal care. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a commonly-used type of medication in the management of postpartum pain, and their effectiveness and safety should be assessed. This is an update of a review first published in 2016. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of a single dose of an oral NSAID for relief of acute perineal pain in the early postpartum period. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (9 December 2019), OpenSIGLE and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (28 February 2020), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing a single dose of a NSAID versus a single dose of placebo, paracetamol or another NSAID for women with perineal pain in the early postpartum period. We excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over trials. We included papers in abstract format only if they had sufficient information to determine that they met the review's prespecified inclusion criteria. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors (FW and VS) independently assessed all identified papers for inclusion and risks of bias, resolving any discrepancies through discussion. Two review authors independently conducted data extraction, including calculations of pain relief scores, and checked it for accuracy. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 35 studies examining 16 different NSAIDs and involving 5136 women (none were breastfeeding). Studies were published between 1967 and 2013. Risk of bias due to random sequence generation, allocation concealment and blinding of outcome assessors was generally unclearly to poorly reported, but participants and caregivers were blinded, and outcome data were generally complete. We downgraded the certainty of evidence due to risk of bias, suspected publication bias, and imprecision for small numbers of participants. NSAID versus placebo Compared to women who receive a placebo, more women who receive a single-dose NSAID may achieve adequate pain relief at four hours (risk ratio (RR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64 to 2.23; 10 studies, 1573 women; low-certainty evidence) and at six hours (RR 1.92, 95% CI 1.69 to 2.17; 17 studies, 2079 women; very low-certainty evidence), although we are less certain about the effects at six hours. At four hours after administration, women who receive a NSAID are probably less likely to need additional analgesia compared to women who receive placebo (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.58; 4 studies, 486 women; moderate-certainty evidence) and may be less likely to need additional analgesia at six hours after initial administration, although the evidence was less certain at six hours (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.40; 10 studies, 1012 women; very low-certainty evidence). One study reported that no adverse events were observed at four hours post-administration (90 women). There may be little or no difference in maternal adverse effects between NSAIDs and placebo at six hours post-administration (RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.71 to 2.70; 13 studies, 1388 women; low-certainty evidence). Fourteen maternal adverse effects were reported in the NSAID group (drowsiness (5), abdominal discomfort (2), weakness (1), dizziness (2), headache (2), moderate epigastralgia (1), not specified (1)) and eight in the placebo group (drowsiness (2), light-headedness (1), nausea (1), backache (1), dizziness (1), epigastric pain (1), not specified (1)), although not all studies assessed adverse effects. Neonatal adverse effects were not assessed in any of the studies. NSAID versus paracetamol NSAIDs may lead to more women achieving adequate pain relief at four hours, compared with paracetamol (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.22; 3 studies, 342 women; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain if there is any difference in adequate pain relief between NSAIDs and paracetamol at six hours post-administration (RR 1.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 5.47; 2 studies, 99 women; very low-certainty evidence) or in the need for additional analgesia at four hours (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.13; 1 study, 73 women; very low-certainty evidence). NSAIDs may reduce the risk of requiring additional analgesia at six hours compared with paracetamol (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.67; 1 study, 59 women; low-certainty evidence). One study reported that no maternal adverse effects were observed at four hours post-administration (210 women). Six hours post-administration, we are uncertain if there is any difference between groups in the number of maternal adverse effects (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.27 to 2.08; 3 studies, 300 women; very low-certainty evidence), with one case of pruritis in the NSAID group and one case of sleepiness in the paracetamol group. Neonatal adverse effects were not assessed in any of the included studies. Comparisons of different NSAIDs or doses did not demonstrate any differences in effectiveness for any primary outcome measures; however, few data were available on some NSAIDs. None of the included studies reported on any of this review's secondary outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In women who are not breastfeeding and who sustained perineal trauma, NSAIDs (compared to placebo or paracetamol) may provide greater pain relief for acute postpartum perineal pain and fewer women need additional analgesia, but uncertainty remains, as the evidence is rated as low- or very low-certainty. The risk of bias was unclear for many studies, adverse effects were often not assessed and breastfeeding women were not included. While this review provides some indication of the likely effect, there is uncertainty in our conclusions. The main reasons for downgrading were the inclusion of studies at high risk of bias and inconsistency in the findings of individual studies. Future studies could examine NSAIDs' adverse effects, including neonatal effects and the compatibility of NSAIDs with breastfeeding, and could assess other secondary outcomes. Future research could consider women with and without perineal trauma, including perineal tears. High-quality studies could be conducted to further assess the efficacy of NSAIDs versus paracetamol and the efficacy of multimodal treatments.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Períneo/lesões , Período Pós-Parto , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Analgesia , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23515, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is gradually emerging as the treatment of choice for end-stage osteoarthritis. In the past, intravenous (IV) versus oral acetaminophen (APAP) treatment is still a controversial subject in TKA. Therefore, we write this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of IV versus oral APAP on pain and recovery after TKA. METHODS: Embase, Pubmed, and Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched. Randomized controlled trials, cohort studies were included in our meta-analysis. Five studies that compared IV APAP groups with oral APAP groups were included in our meta-analysis. The research was reported according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to ensure the reliability and verity of results. RESULTS: Pooled results indicated that no significant difference between the IV APAP groups and oral APAP groups in term of VAS score at 24 hours (P = .67), 48 hours (P = 0.08), and total morphine consumption at 24 hours (P = .07), but there was a significant difference in terms of length of hospital stay (LOS) (P = .0004). CONCLUSION: IV APAP was not found to be superior to oral APAP in patients undergoing TKA in terms of VAS scores at 24 hours, 48 hours, and total morphine consumption at 24 hours. However, it can significantly reduce the LOS. We still need a large of high-quality research to verify the relationship between the oral and the IV APAP to give the conclusion.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21691, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899001

RESUMO

This retrospective study explored the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine in treating early postoperative cognitive dysfunction (EPPNCD) after video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy (VATL) in elderly male patients with lung cancer (LC).This study included a total of 80 elderly male patients with LC who received VATL. All of them were equally assigned to a treatment group and a control group, with 40 patients each group. The primary outcome included cognitive dysfunction, as evaluated by mini-mental state examination scale. The secondary outcomes consisted of incidence of EPPNCD, lung function (as measured by forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, peak expiratory flow, and maximal voluntary ventilation), and adverse events. All outcome data were analyzed before and 3 days after surgery.After surgery, all patients in the treatment group exerted better efficacy in mini-mental state examination scale (P < .01) and incidence of EPPNCD (P = .03), than patients in the control group. However, no significant differences were detected in forced vital capacity (P = .65), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P = .50), peak expiratory flow (P = .73), and maximal voluntary ventilation (P = .27) between 2 groups. In addition, there is similar safety profile between 2 groups.The findings of this study showed that dexmedetomidine may benefit EPPNCD after VATL in elderly male patients with LC. Future studies are needed to warrant the present conclusions.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239896, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986770

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pain management is the pillar of caring for patients with traumatic rib fractures. Intravenous lidocaine (IVL) is a well-established non-opioid analgesic for post-operative pain, yet its efficacy has yet to be investigated in trauma patients. We hypothesized that IVL is associated with decreased inpatient opioid requirements among patients with rib fractures. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated adult patients presenting to our Level 1 trauma center with isolated chest wall injuries. After 1:1 propensity score matching patients who received vs did not receive IVL, we compared the two groups' average daily opioid use, opioid use in the last 24 hours of admission, and pain scores during admissions hours 24-48. We performed multivariable linear regression for these outcomes (with sensitivity analysis for the opioid use outcomes), adjusting for age as a moderating factor and controlling for hospital length of stay and injury severity. RESULTS: We identified 534 patients, among whom 226 received IVL. Those who received IVL were older and had more serious injury. Compared to propensity-score matched patients who did not receive IVL, patients who received IVL had similar average daily opioid use and pain scores, but 40% lower opioid use during the last 24 hours of admission (p = 0.002). Multivariable regression-with and without sensitivity analysis-did not show an effect of IVL on any outcomes. CONCLUSION: IVL was crudely associated with decreased opioid requirements in the last 24 hours of admission, the time period associated with opioid use at 90 days post-discharge. However, we did not observe beneficial effects of IVL on multivariable adjusted analyses; we are conducting a randomized control trial to further evaluate IVL's opioid-sparing effects for patients with rib fractures.


Assuntos
Administração Intravenosa , Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas das Costelas/cirurgia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Paediatr Drugs ; 22(5): 525-534, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918268

RESUMO

Worldwide, > 380 million children and adolescents are overweight or obese, including 41 million children aged < 5 years. Obesity can change the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs by altering their distribution, metabolism, and elimination. Thus, children who are overweight or obese are at increased risk for receiving inappropriate doses of commonly used drugs, which can result in treatment failure, adverse events, and/or drug toxicity. This review analyzes available data on paracetamol dosing for pain and fever in children and adolescents who are overweight or obese to identify gaps and challenges in optimal dosing strategies. Literature searches using Medline, Embase, and ClinicalTrials.gov were conducted to identify English-language articles reporting paracetamol pharmacokinetics, dosing practices, and guidelines in children and adolescents who are overweight or obese. Of 24 relevant studies identified, 20 were specific to overweight/obese individuals and 15 were specific to children and/or adolescents. Data on paracetamol pharmacokinetics in children and adolescents who are overweight or obese are lacking, and there is no high-quality evidence to guide paracetamol prescribing practices in these patients. Adult data have been extrapolated to pediatric populations; however, extrapolation does not address differences in paracetamol metabolism in adults versus children; the efficacy and safety effects of such differences are unknown. Given the growing worldwide prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents and the likelihood that paracetamol use in this population will increase accordingly, obesity-specific pediatric dosing guidelines for paracetamol are urgently needed. High-quality research is necessary to inform such guidelines.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Acetaminofen/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/farmacocinética , Criança , Humanos
6.
Am Surg ; 86(8): 926-932, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rib fractures are common injuries among traumatically injured patients, and elderly patients with rib fractures are at increased risk for adverse events and death. The purpose of this study was to determine if oral Per os (PO) acetaminophen is as effective as intravenous (IV) acetaminophen in treating the pain associated with rib fractures. METHODS: We performed a single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. Trauma patients who were ≥65 years old and had ≥1 rib fracture were included in this study. Patients were randomized into IV acetaminophen and oral placebo (n = 63) or IV placebo and oral solution acetaminophen (n = 75) groups. The primary outcome was a mean reduction in pain score at 24 hours, and secondary outcomes included opioid use, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, hospital mortality, the difference in incentive spirometry, and development of pneumonia. RESULTS: Among the 138 patients included, there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 study groups in a mean reduction in pain score at 24 hours after injury (PO: 3.24, IV: 2.49; P = .230). Opioid pain medication use was equivalent between groups (P = .212), and there was no significant difference in hospital mortality rate between groups (P = .827). There was no statistically significant difference in ICU LOS, hospital LOS, or development of pneumonia. DISCUSSION: In elderly trauma patients (age ≥65 years) with 1 or more rib fractures, PO acetaminophen is equivalent to IV acetaminophen for pain control, with no difference in morbidity or mortality. Oral acetaminophen should be preferentially used over IV acetaminophen when treating the elderly trauma patient with rib fractures.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Dor Musculoesquelética/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Dor Aguda/etiologia , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Phytomedicine ; 78: 153307, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current therapies for neuropathic pain are generally symptomatic and possess several side effects, limiting their prolonged usage. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Thus, it is urgent to develop novel and safe candidates for the management of this chronical condition. For this purpose, we investigated the analgesic effect of a standardized extract from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes (ZOE) obtained by CO2 supercritical extraction, in a mice model of peripheral neuropathy. We also explored the mechanism of action of ZOE and its main constituents using an in vitro model of neuroinflammation. METHODS: Peripheral mono-neuropathy was induced in mice, by spared nerve injury (SNI). The analgesic effect of ZOE after oral administration was assessed by measuring mechanical and thermal allodynia in SNI mice. The mechanism of action of ZOE and its main constituents were investigated using spinal cords samples and in an in vitro model of neuroinflammation by ELISA, western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. RESULTS: Oral administration of ZOE 200 mg kg-1 ameliorated mechanical and thermal allodynia in SNI mice, with a rapid and a long-lasting effect. ZOE did not alter locomotor activity. In BV2 cells and spinal cord samples, ZOE, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol reduced pERK levels, whereas ZOE and terpene fraction reduced HDAC1 protein levels, inhibited NF-κB signalling activation and decreased IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-6 release. ZOE and each tested constituent had a positive effect on inflammation-impaired SH-SY5Y cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: The oral administration of ZOE attenuated SNI-induced neuropathic pain symptoms by reducing spinal neuroinflammation, suggesting ZOE as a novel and interesting candidate for the management of neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Gengibre/química , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/química , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Rizoma/química , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
JAMA ; 324(4): 350-358, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721009

RESUMO

Importance: Opioid-induced ventilatory depression and hypoxemia is common, severe, and often unrecognized in postoperative patients. To the extent that nonopioid analgesics reduce opioid consumption, they may decrease postoperative hypoxemia. Objective: To test the hypothesis that duration of hypoxemia is less in patients given intravenous acetaminophen than those given placebo. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted at 2 US academic hospitals among 570 patients who were undergoing abdominal surgery, enrolled from February 2015 through October 2018 and followed up until February 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive either intravenous acetaminophen, 1 g (n = 289), or normal saline placebo (n = 291) starting at the beginning of surgery and repeated every 6 hours until 48 postoperative hours or hospital discharge, whichever occurred first. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the total duration of hypoxemia (hemoglobin oxygen saturation [Spo2] <90%) per hour, with oxygen saturation measured continuously for 48 postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes were postoperative opioid consumption, pain (0- 10-point scale; 0: no pain; 10: the most pain imaginable), nausea and vomiting, sedation, minimal alveolar concentration of volatile anesthetic, fatigue, active time, and respiratory function. Results: Among 580 patients randomized (mean age, 49 years; 48% women), 570 (98%) completed the trial. The primary outcome, median duration with Spo2 of less than 90%, was 0.7 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.1-5.1) minutes per hour among patients in the acetaminophen group and 1.1 (IQR, 0.1-6.6) minutes per hour among patients in the placebo group (P = .29), with an estimated median difference of -0.04 (95% CI,-0.18 to 0.11) minutes per hour. None of the 8 secondary end points differed significantly between the acetaminophen and placebo groups. Mean pain scores within initial 48 postoperative hours were 4.2 (SD, 1.8) in the acetaminophen group and 4.4 (SD, 1.8) in the placebo group (difference, -0.28; 95% CI, -0.71 to 0.15); median opioid use in morphine equivalents was 50 mg (IQR, 18-122 mg) and 58 mg (IQR, 24-151 mg) , respectively, with a ratio of geometric means of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.61-1.21). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients who underwent abdominal surgery, use of postoperative intravenous acetaminophen, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the duration of postoperative hypoxemia over 48 hours. The study findings do not support the use of intravenous acetaminophen for this purpose. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02156154.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Falha de Tratamento
9.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 129(12): 1210-1214, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this Quality Improvement (QI project) it was hypothesized that an increase in dosing intervals for postoperative analgesia when alternating Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen would reduce post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) rates for those undergoing tonsillectomies with or without adenoidectomy, while maintaining the standard of postoperative analgesia and reducing visits to the Emergency Room (ER) for reasons other than PTH. Data was collected from 353 children. Utilizing run chart analysis, it was determined that patients experiencing the 4-hour dosing interval had lower rates of PTH, fewer ER visits, and no increase in postoperative phone calls from caregivers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were treated with standing Acetaminophen 15 mg/kg q6h and Ibuprofen 10 mg/kg q6h for postoperative analgesia from July of 2017 until January of 2018. Starting January of 2018 through November of 2018, the dosage interval was lengthened 1 hour. Data relating to PTH, ER visits for reasons other than bleeding, and phone calls from caregivers was collected. RESULTS: Run charts were used to assess outcomes regarding PTH, postoperative visits to the ER for reasons other than PTH, and phone calls from caregivers. Our results suggest that a standing protocol of alternating Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen given every 4 hours improves the post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage rate without increasing ER visits or calls about pain. CONCLUSIONS: This data shows promise in reducing PTH and ER visits with a longer dose interval when alternating Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen for postoperative analgesia in tonsillectomy patients. A randomized clinical trial should be carried out to further validate these claims.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Tonsilectomia , Criança , Esquema de Medicação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade
11.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 10(3): 343-349, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticipatory prescribing (AP) of injectable medications in advance of clinical need is established practice in community end-of-life care. Changes to prescribing guidelines and practice have been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate UK and Ireland clinicians' experiences concerning changes in AP during the COVID-19 pandemic and their recommendations for change. METHODS: Online survey of participants at previous AP national workshops, members of the Association for Palliative Medicine of Great Britain and Ireland and other professional organisations, with snowball sampling. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-one replies were received between 9 and 19 April 2020 from clinicians in community, hospice and hospital settings across all areas of the UK and Ireland. Changes to AP local guidance and practice were reported: route of administration (47%), drugs prescribed (38%), total quantities prescribed (35%), doses and ranges (29%). Concerns over shortages of nurses and doctors to administer subcutaneous injections led 37% to consider drug administration by family or social caregivers, often by buccal, sublingual and transdermal routes. Clinical contact and patient assessment were more often remote via telephone or video (63%). Recommendations for regulatory changes to permit drug repurposing and easier community access were made. CONCLUSIONS: The challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic for UK community palliative care has stimulated rapid innovation in AP. The extent to which these are implemented and their clinical efficacy need further examination.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Administração Bucal , Administração Sublingual , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Clínicos Gerais , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/métodos , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Lorazepam/administração & dosagem , Metotrimeprazina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Enfermeiras Especialistas , Medicina Paliativa , Pandemias , Médicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/métodos , Adesivo Transdérmico , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 512-517, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530891

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to address the feasibility of opioid free anesthesia (OFA). The use of opioids to provide adequate perioperative pain management has been a central practice of anesthesia, and only recently has been challenged. Understanding the goals and challenges of OFA is essential as the approach to intraoperative analgesia and postsurgical management of pain has shifted in response to the opioid epidemic in the United States. RECENT FINDINGS: OFA is an opioid sparing technique, which focuses on multimodal or balanced analgesia, relying on nonopioid adjuncts and regional anesthesia. Enhanced recovery after surgery protocols, often under the auspices of a perioperative pain service, can help guide and promote opioid reduced and OFA, without negatively impacting perioperative pain management or recovery. SUMMARY: The feasibility of OFA is evident. However, there are limitations of this approach that warrant discussion including the potential for adverse drug interactions with multimodal analgesics, the need for providers trained in regional anesthesia, and the management of pain expectations. Additionally, minimizing opioid use perioperatively also requires a change in current prescribing practices. Monitors that can reliably quantify nociception would be helpful in the titration of these analgesics and enable anesthesiologists to achieve the goal in providing personalized perioperative medicine.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Manejo da Dor/tendências , Estados Unidos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e20405, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of buprenorphine transdermal patch (BTP) has been well established in chronic pain, but data regarding acute postoperative pain relief is still very limited. Therefore, we design a prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the BTP for postoperative analgesia in total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: This study is designed as a single-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Group A receives a 10 mg patch of buprenorphine at the conclusion of surgery which is continued for 14 days. Group B receives a conventional analgesic regimen, that is, IV paracetamol 1 mg every 8 hours alternating with parenteral tramadol 50 mg every 8 hours for the first 2 postoperative days followed by oral administration of the same drug still the end of 2 weeks. A total of 160 patients are needed with an allowance for 10% drop-out. The primary outcome of this noninferiority study is opioid consumption within the first 24 hours following surgery. The secondary outcomes included numerical rating scale scores at rest, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and patient satisfaction. RESULTS: This trial is expected to be the largest randomized trial assessing the efficacy of BTP after primary total hip arthroplasty and powered to detect a potential difference in the primary outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5524).


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adesivo Transdérmico/efeitos adversos , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Medição da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição da Dor/tendências , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Tramadol/administração & dosagem , Tramadol/uso terapêutico
14.
Life Sci ; 255: 117832, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450164

RESUMO

AIMS: N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is an effective antidote for the treatment of acetaminophen (APAP) poisoning; however, due to its low stability and bioavailability, repeated dosing of NAC is needed. This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of NAC by niosomal carriers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Niosomes were synthesized using surface active agents film hydration method and their physicochemical properties were characterized. In the in vivo study, in addition to control group, male rats were divided in different groups and challenged with an oral dose of APAP (2000 mg/kg); 4 h later, rats were administered normal saline, empty niosome (NIO), NAC (25 mg/kg) and NAC-loaded niosome (NAC-NIO) respectively, and sacrificed 48 h post-APAP overdose. KEY FINDINGS: The particle size and zeta potential of NAC-NIO were 242.3 ± 18.5 nm and -23.9 ± 1.6 mV. The loading and encapsulation efficiency of niosomes were 1.22% ± 0.02% and 26.76% ± 6.02%. APAP administration leads to hepatic damage as evidenced by increases in serum hepatic enzyme levels and tissue levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation as well as decreases in hepatic levels of reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Treatment of rats with NIO-NAC was remarkably more effective than NAC in improving biochemical changes such as serum hepatic aminotransferases. These findings were correlated well to the histopathological experiments. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that NAC when delivered as a niosomal structure, is potentially more effective than NAC standard, in improving APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antídotos/administração & dosagem , Antídotos/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipossomos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tensoativos/química
15.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 28(1): 36, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown disparate results on the consequences of morphine use in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). No study has evaluated alternative treatments that could be at least non-inferior to morphine without its potentially damaging consequences for myocardial function and platelet reactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether nitrous oxide/oxygen plus intravenous acetaminophen (NOO-A) is non-inferior to morphine to control chest pain in STEMI patients. METHODS: This multicenter, open-label, cluster-randomized, controlled, non-inferiority study compared NOO-A with morphine in 684 prehospital patients with ongoing suspected STEMI of < 12 h duration and a pain rating score ≥ 4. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving pain relief (numeric rating score ≤ 3) after 30 min. Secondary safety endpoints included serious adverse events and death at 30 days. RESULTS: The median baseline pain score was 7.0 in both groups. The primary endpoint occurred in 51.7% of the NOO-A group and 73.6% of the morphine group (absolute risk difference - 21.7%; 95% confidence interval - 29.6 to - 13.8). At 30 days, the rate of serious adverse events was 16.0 and 18.8% in the NOO-A and morphine groups respectively (p = NS). The rate of death was 1.8% (NOO-A group) and 3.8% (morphine group) (p = NS). CONCLUSION: Analgesia provided by NOO-A was inferior to morphine at 30 min in patients with acute STEMI in the prehospital setting. Rates of serious adverse events did not differ between groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02198378.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Dor no Peito/terapia , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Óxido Nitroso/uso terapêutico , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Administração por Inalação , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(6): 1289-1295, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether prophylactic dronabinol, a synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol, reduces pain during medical abortion. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of women undergoing medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol up through 70 days of gestation. All participants received 800 mg of ibuprofen and were randomized to either 5 mg of oral dronabinol or a placebo 30 minutes before misoprostol administration. Participants used a text messaging service to report pain on a numeric rating scale from 0 to 10 (0=no pain, 10=worst pain). The primary outcome was maximum pain experienced during the 24 hours after misoprostol administration. Secondary outcomes were pain scores at 0, 6, and 24 hours after misoprostol administration; maximum anxiety and nausea scores; use of additional pain medication; reported side effects; and satisfaction (yes or no). We needed 68 participants (34 per group) to have 80% power to detect a 2-point difference in maximum pain on a numeric rating scale. RESULTS: From November 2018 to May 2019, we randomized 70 women (dronabinol=35, placebo=35). Participants in the study arms had comparable baseline characteristics. We found no difference between groups in the median maximum pain score reported (dronabinol 7 [interquartile range 6-8], placebo 7 [interquartile range 5-8], P=.82) or median pain scores at any timepoint. Groups were also no different in mean maximum anxiety (dronabinol 3.33 [SD 3.06], placebo 3.23 [SD 2.53], P=.88) or nausea scores (dronabinol 2.21 [SD 2.32], placebo 2.72 [SD 2.64], P=.41). Most women were satisfied with their pain management (76% dronabinol, 82% placebo, P=.51). CONCLUSION: Dronabinol does not reduce the maximum level of pain experienced by women undergoing medical abortion. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03604341.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Dronabinol/uso terapêutico , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Dor/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Dronabinol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Dor/etiologia , Manejo da Dor , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
17.
Anesth Analg ; 131(2): 411-448, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467512

RESUMO

This consensus statement presents a comprehensive and evidence-based set of guidelines for the care of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in both adult and pediatric populations. The guidelines are established by an international panel of experts under the auspices of the American Society of Enhanced Recovery and Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia based on a comprehensive search and review of literature up to September 2019. The guidelines provide recommendation on identifying high-risk patients, managing baseline PONV risks, choices for prophylaxis, and rescue treatment of PONV as well as recommendations for the institutional implementation of a PONV protocol. In addition, the current guidelines focus on the evidence for newer drugs (eg, second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 [5-HT3] receptor antagonists, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonists, and dopamine antagonists), discussion regarding the use of general multimodal PONV prophylaxis, and PONV management as part of enhanced recovery pathways. This set of guidelines have been endorsed by 23 professional societies and organizations from different disciplines (Appendix 1).Guidelines currently available include the 3 iterations of the consensus guideline we previously published, which was last updated 6 years ago; a guideline published by American Society of Health System Pharmacists in 1999; a brief discussion on PONV management as part of a comprehensive postoperative care guidelines; focused guidelines published by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada, the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain & Ireland and the Association of Perianesthesia Nursing; and several guidelines published in other languages.The current guideline was developed to provide perioperative practitioners with a comprehensive and up-to-date, evidence-based guidance on the risk stratification, prevention, and treatment of PONV in both adults and children. The guideline also provides guidance on the management of PONV within enhanced recovery pathways.The previous consensus guideline was published 6 years ago with a literature search updated to October 2011. Several guidelines, which have been published since, are either limited to a specific populations or do not address all aspects of PONV management. The current guideline was developed based on a systematic review of the literature published up through September 2019. This includes recent studies of newer pharmacological agents such as the second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, a dopamine antagonist, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonists as well as several novel combination therapies. In addition, it also contains an evidence-based discussion on the management of PONV in enhanced recovery pathways. We have also discussed the implementation of a general multimodal PONV prophylaxis in all at-risk surgical patients based on the consensus of the expert panel.


Assuntos
Consenso , Gerenciamento Clínico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/diagnóstico
18.
Anesthesiology ; 132(5): 992-1002, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various multimodal analgesic approaches have been proposed for spine surgery. The authors evaluated the effect of using a combination of four nonopioid analgesics versus placebo on Quality of Recovery, postoperative opioid consumption, and pain scores. METHODS: Adults having multilevel spine surgery who were at high risk for postoperative pain were double-blind randomized to placebos or the combination of single preoperative oral doses of acetaminophen 1,000 mg and gabapentin 600 mg, an infusion of ketamine 5 µg/kg/min throughout surgery, and an infusion of lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg/h intraoperatively and during the initial hour of recovery. Postoperative analgesia included acetaminophen, gabapentin, and opioids. The primary outcome was the Quality of Recovery 15-questionnaire (0 to 150 points, with 15% considered to be a clinically important difference) assessed on the third postoperative day. Secondary outcomes were opioid use in morphine equivalents (with 20% considered to be a clinically important change) and verbal-response pain scores (0 to 10, with a 1-point change considered important) over the initial postoperative 48 h. RESULTS: The trial was stopped early for futility per a priori guidelines. The average duration ± SD of surgery was 5.4 ± 2.1 h. The mean ± SD Quality of Recovery score was 109 ± 25 in the pathway patients (n = 150) versus 109 ± 23 in the placebo group (n = 149); estimated difference in means was 0 (95% CI, -6 to 6, P = 0.920). Pain management within the initial 48 postoperative hours was not superior in analgesic pathway group: 48-h opioid consumption median (Q1, Q3) was 72 (48, 113) mg in the analgesic pathway group and 75 (50, 152) mg in the placebo group, with the difference in medians being -9 (97.5% CI, -23 to 5, P = 0.175) mg. Mean 48-h pain scores were 4.8 ± 1.8 in the analgesic pathway group versus 5.2 ± 1.9 in the placebo group, with the difference in means being -0.4 (97.5% CI; -0.8, 0.1, P = 0.094). CONCLUSIONS: An analgesic pathway based on preoperative acetaminophen and gabapentin, combined with intraoperative infusions of lidocaine and ketamine, did not improve recovery in patients who had multilevel spine surgery.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gabapentina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231675, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate medication use is a major patient safety concern, especially for the elderly population. Amitriptyline is widely used in primary care in South Africa and a cross-sectional study found that amitriptyline was prescribed potentially inappropriately in 6.5% of elderly patients. An analysis of prescriptions from the Chronic Dispensing Unit in the Western Cape revealed that amitriptyline was one of the most common medicines prescribed without a suitable diagnosis listed on the prescription. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the medicine use evaluation (MUE) was to determine whether amitriptyline was prescribed in accordance with recommendations from standard treatment guidelines (STG) and essential medicines lists (EML) endorsed by the National Department of Health, South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional, multicentre review of patients' clinical notes was conducted. The study population was selected by systematic random sampling from adult outpatients who were prescribed amitriptyline for longer than three months. Criteria for evaluation included amitriptyline indication and total daily dose prescribed. RESULTS: Of the sample of 2237 patient medical records reviewed, 1732 (77.4%) included amitriptyline prescriptions that were according to the approved STG indications. For the approved STG indications, amitriptyline was prescribed mainly for osteoarthritis (25.8%), neuropathies (18.5%) and chronic non-cancer pain (17.9%). Major depressive disorders constituted only 8.6% of the patient records reviewed; however, doses were atypically low. The main inappropriate indication for amitriptyline was sleep disorders (16%). CONCLUSION: This MUE has highlighted the need to improve the use of amitriptyline in specific patient populations, e.g. the elderly and patients with sleeping disorders.


Assuntos
Amitriptilina/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amitriptilina/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , África do Sul
20.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(2): 447-450, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the effectiveness and rationality of different administration modes of dexmedetomidine with 0.5% ropivacaine on intercostal nerve block. METHODS: In total, 150 patients aged from 20-45 years with a body mass index (BMI): 18.5-23.9 kg/m2, met the criteria from the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class: I-II, and underwent lumpectomy in our center were equally randomized into three groups using a table of random numbers. Group D1: perineural administration of dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg/kg + intercostal nerve block with 0.5% ropivacaine; group D2: intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine0.5 µg/kg + intercostal nerve block with 0.5% ropivacaine; and group R: intercostal nerve block with 0.5% ropivacaine. The Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) of pain and the Ramsay Sedation Scale were used for assessing pain and sedation levels 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the operation. The total duration of analgesia, total requirement of rescue analgesia, and adverse reactions were recorded. RESULTS: The NRS scores in groups D1 and D2 were significantly lower than that in group R, 8 hours after the operation (both P<0.05), and the NRS score in group D1 was significantly lower than in group D2 12 hours after the operation (P<0.05). The Ramsay scores showed no significant differences among all three groups at all time points after surgery. The duration of analgesia in group D1 was significantly longer than in group D2 (P<0.05). No rescue analgesia was needed in all three groups, and no adverse reactions such as dizziness, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The combinations of dexmedetomidine with ropivacaine for intercostal nerve blocking can prolong the duration of analgesia after lumpectomy; however, the duration of analgesia is longer via the perineural route than via the intravenous route.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Nervos Intercostais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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