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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19710, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311955

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Classical trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is a kind of trigeminal neuralgia which is due to neurovascular compression. The common neurological treatment CTN drug called carbamazepine is the main measure, although it usually has side effects and a high-rate of relapse. As a critical alternative therapy, electroacupuncture (EA) has been shown to benefit for neuropathic pain. The aims of this study are to observe the therapeutic effect and safety of EA for CTN, to evaluate whether EA has the advantage over carbamazepine in the analgesia of CTN. Furthermore, we would to establish a standardized, effective, and convenient therapy program of EA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: One hundred twenty patients diagnosed with CTN will be randomized for a 4-week intervention. The interventions will be different according to the four groups (EA + carbamazepine group, sham EA + carbamazepine group, EA + placebo group and sham EA + placebo group). EA therapy will be performed in specific acupoints with a dilute wave (2/100 Hz) for 60 minutes. Carbamazepine tablets will be taken orally with 0.1 g each time, thrice daily. Sham EA and placebo intervention will not receive EA and drug treatment. The main outcomes are the change from baseline intensity of pain at 6 months (pain evaluation by visual analogue score) and the change from baseline brief introduction of 2-week pain to evaluate pain comprehensively. The data management and statistical analysis will be conducted by third party statisticians. Incidence of adverse events will be investigated. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the Clinical Trial Ethics Committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University (NO. ZSLL-KY-2017-033) and Jiaxing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (NO. 2018-JZLK-002). The results will be disseminated by presentation at peer-reviewed journals.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Eletroacupuntura/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa/complicações , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa/terapia , Seleção de Pacientes , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD011219, 2020 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Newborn infants have the ability to experience pain. Hospitalised infants are exposed to numerous painful procedures. Healthy newborns are exposed to pain if the birth process consists of assisted vaginal birth by vacuum extraction or by forceps and during blood sampling for newborn screening tests. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for the prevention or treatment of procedural/postoperative pain or pain associated with clinical conditions in neonates. To review the effects of various doses and routes of administration (enteral, intravenous or rectal) of paracetamol for the prevention or treatment of pain in neonates. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 9 May 2016), Embase (1980 to 9 May 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 9 May 2016). We searched clinical trials' databases, Google Scholar, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of paracetamol for the prevention/treatment of pain in neonates (≤ 28 days of age). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from the articles using pre-designed forms. We used this form to decide trial inclusion/exclusion, to extract data from eligible trials and to request additional published information from authors of the original reports. We entered and cross-checked data using RevMan 5 software. When noted, we resolved differences by mutual discussion and consensus. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included nine trials with low risk of bias, which assessed paracetamol for the treatment of pain in 728 infants. Painful procedures studied included heel lance, assisted vaginal birth, eye examination for retinopathy of prematurity assessment and postoperative care. Results of individual studies could not be combined in meta-analyses as the painful conditions, the use of paracetamol and comparison interventions and the outcome measures differed. Paracetamol compared with water, cherry elixir or EMLA cream (eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine) did not significantly reduce pain following heel lance. The Premature Infant Pain Profile score (PIPP) within three minutes following lancing was higher in the paracetamol group than in the oral glucose group (mean difference (MD) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 3.70; one study, 38 infants). Paracetamol did not reduce "modified facies scores" after assisted vaginal birth (one study, 119 infants). In another study (n = 123), the Échelle de Douleur et d'Inconfort du Nouveau-Né score at two hours of age was significantly higher in the group that received paracetamol suppositories than in the placebo suppositories group (MD 1.00, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.40). In that study, when infants were subjected to a heel lance at two to three days of age, Bernese Pain Scale for Neonates scores were higher in the paracetamol group than in the placebo group, and infants spent a longer time crying (MD 19 seconds, 95% CI 14 to 24). For eye examinations, no significant reduction in PIPP scores in the first or last 45 seconds of eye examination was reported, nor at five minutes after the eye examination. In one study (n = 81), the PIPP score was significantly higher in the paracetamol group than in the 24% sucrose group (MD 3.90, 95% CI 2.92 to 4.88). In one study (n = 114) the PIPP score during eye examination was significantly lower in the paracetamol group than in the water group (MD -2.70, 95% CI -3.55 to 1.85). For postoperative care following major surgery, the total amount of morphine (µg/kg) administered over 48 hours was significantly less among infants assigned to the paracetamol group than to the morphine group (MD -157 µg/kg, 95% CI -27 to -288). No adverse events were noted in any study. The quality of evidence according to GRADE was low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The paucity and low quality of existing data do not provide sufficient evidence to establish the role of paracetamol in reducing the effects of painful procedures in neonates. Paracetamol given after assisted vaginal birth may increase the response to later painful exposures. Paracetamol may reduce the total need for morphine following major surgery, and for this aspect of paracetamol use, further research is needed.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Dor/prevenção & controle , Manejo da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18538, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine in patients undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty for postoperative pain control. METHODS: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified in systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Database and the Chinese SinoMed Database. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs with a total of 1220 patients were included. Overall, dexmedetomidine therapy was associated with significantly decreased pain scores 24 hours after surgery (WMD, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.49 to -0.22; I = 90.0%, P < .001) compared with scores in the control group after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Furthermore, the rate of postoperative delirium was also markedly decreased with dexmedetomidine therapy (RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.59; I = 0.0%, P < .001). Moreover, compared with the control group, dexmedetomidine treatment was associated with a decreased risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing TKA (RR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.79; I = 0.0%, P = .012), and there was a similar risk of hypotension (RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.49; I = 24.4%, P = .87) regardless of whether patients underwent TKA or THA. However, the rate of bradycardia was significantly increased with dexmedetomidine treatment in those undergoing TKA (RR, 6.11; 95% CI, 2.35 to 15.91; I = 0.0%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine therapy seems to be an effective treatment for pain control and postoperative delirium in patients undergoing TKA/THA. However, the incidence of bradycardia is markedly increased in patients undergoing TKA. Hence, much larger prospective clinical studies are warranted to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18188, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860965

RESUMO

AIM: We compared the effects of 50% N2O and N2O titration in burn management to alleviate pain and anxiety associated with burn dressing. METHODS: In this single-blind prospective randomized controlled trial, 70 stable adult burn patients were randomized to 2 groups during May 2015 to January 2016. The experimental group was titrated with N2O ranging from 30% to the ideal sedation concentration before dressing change until the end. The control group was treated with 50% N2O 2 minutes before dressing change until the end. Pain, anxiety, vital signs, and the highest concentrations of N2O inhaled were recorded at 1 minute before N2O inhalation (T0), dismantling of outer (T1), inner dressings (T2), debridement (T3), drug-smearing (T4), bandaging (T5), and 10 minutes after completion of the procedure (T6). RESULTS: The pain and anxiety scores in the experimental group performed significantly less than the control group during T2-T6. The systolic blood pressure in T2 and the heart rate at T2 and T3 varied significantly between the 2 groups. The highest N2O concentrations of the experimental group were mainly 60% to 70% at T2 (87.9%), T3 (87.9%), and T4 (81.8%). CONCLUSION: N2O titration significantly reduced pain and anxiety in burn patients, with minimal side effects.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Queimaduras/terapia , Óxido Nitroso/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nitroso/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Opioid Manag ; 15(6): 469-477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate opioid prescribing patterns among patients with fibromyalgia (FM) in terms of age, gender, race, type of opioids, and to examine changes in opioid prescription over the past 8 years compared to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved FM medications. DESIGN: Retrospective review of data using the Healthcare Enterprise Repository for Ontological Narration database. The collected data were analyzed descriptively and a chi-square test for trend was used to analyze a possible linear relationship between the proportions of opioid and non-opioid users along the time. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with a diagnosis of FM who had received opioid prescriptions from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2017, and FM patients who had received prescriptions of FDA-approved FM medications in the same period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Trends in opioid and non-opioid prescriptions in patients with FM. RESULTS: The opioid medications were prescribed more frequently in 2010 (40 percent) and 2011 (42 percent), but the percentages have decreased since 2012 and reached the lowest numbers in 2016 (27 percent). The chi-square test for trend shows that from 2010 to 2017 the prescriptions of opioids had a statistically significant (p < 0.0001) decrease. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the frequency of prescribed opioids in FM patients has decreased since 2012. This decline could be attributed to (1) FDA monitoring programs, (2) national efforts to increase awareness of the addictive and harmful effects of opioids, and (3) the growing research on the efficacy of non-opioid therapies to treat chronic pain conditions including FM.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes , Analgésicos Opioides , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibromialgia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Fibromialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
6.
Drug Metab Rev ; 51(4): 498-523, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726891

RESUMO

Articular cartilage has a complex structure and metabolism which allow for a proper movement within joints. Nevertheless, several systemically administered pharmacological agents have been proved to improve the anabolic response in the case of cartilage lesions. Alendronate, glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, collagen hydrolysate, vitamin C, vitamin D, aspirin and strontium ranelate have shown positive results in clinical trials. On the other hand, calcitonin, risedronate, doxycycline, and celecoxib did not slow the progression of cartilage lesions in clinical trials. Other systemic drugs or supplements such as teriparatide, leptin, zoledronic acid, bevacizumab, atorvastatin, omega-3 fatty acid, naringin, MSM, selenium, zinc, magnesium, resveratrol, donepezil, naproxen, etodolac, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), lithium chloride, and rebamipide showed positive results in in vitro and animal studies but clinical trials are needed to confirm the positive impact on cartilage repair. A number of molecules, not currently available on the market, have also shown promising results in cartilage healing, such as licofelone, sclerostin, cyclopamine, cyclodextrin polysulfate, AG-041R, osteoprotegerin, rhMK, ß-cryptoxanthine, NF-κb essential modulator binding domain (NBD), TGF-ß-neutralizing antibody, osteogenic protein-1 (BMP-7), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and RhBMP-2. Currently available systemic drugs that impair cartilage healing are represented by corticosteroids, vitamin A, and fluoroquinolones.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Capsaicina/uso terapêutico , Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(4): 991-999, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568318

RESUMO

With the growing opioid epidemic, plastic surgeons are being encouraged to transition away from reliance on postoperative opioids. However, many plastic surgeons hesitate to use nonopioid analgesics such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and local anesthetic blocks because of concerns about their safety, particularly bleeding. The goal of this systematic review is to assess the validity of risks associated with nonopioid analgesic alternatives. A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted regarding the safety of opioid alternatives in plastic surgery. Inclusion and exclusion criteria yielded 34 relevant articles. A systematic review was performed because of the variation between study indications, interventions, and complications. Thirty-four articles were reviewed that analyzed the safety of ibuprofen, ketorolac, celecoxib, intravenous acetaminophen, ketamine, gabapentin, liposomal bupivacaine, and local and continuous nerve blocks after plastic surgery procedures. There were no articles that showed statistically significant bleeding associated with ibuprofen, celecoxib, or ketorolac. Similarly, acetaminophen administered intravenously, ketamine, gabapentin, and liposomal bupivacaine did not have any significant increased risk of adverse events. Nerve and infusion blocks have a low risk of pneumothorax. Limitations of this study include small sample sizes, different dosing and control groups, and more than one medication being studied. Larger studies of nonopioid analgesics would therefore be valuable and may strengthen the conclusions of this review. As a preliminary investigation, this review showed that several opioid alternatives have a potential role in postoperative analgesia. Plastic surgeons have the responsibility to lead the reduction of postoperative opioid use by further developing multimodal analgesia.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medição de Risco
9.
S D Med ; 72(9): 393-395, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581374

RESUMO

Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is an underreported condition characterized by discomfort elicited through involvement of the ninthcranial nerve. Triggering phenomena and associated vagal nerve involvement creates the potential for an unexpected clinical presentation. In this case report, we present a 60-year-old male who described a shock-like pain throughout his neck and jaw. The patient initially responded to carbamazepine but the clinical course was complicated by cardiac pauses with syncope requiring pacemaker implantation. Failure of pharmacologic treatment led to surgical intervention.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes , Carbamazepina , Doenças do Nervo Glossofaríngeo , Neuralgia , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Nervo Glossofaríngeo , Doenças do Nervo Glossofaríngeo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Nervo Glossofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marca-Passo Artificial , Síncope
10.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1155-1158, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657314

RESUMO

The utility of opioid-sparing multimodal analgesia protocols (OSMMAPs) in opioid-tolerant (OT) patients is unknown. We sought to determine the impact of a standardized OSMMAP in OT versus opioid-naïve (ON) patients after major colorectal surgery. Consecutive patients undergoing surgery before (January 2015-March 2017) and after OSMMAP implementation (April 2017-March 2018) were identified from a single-institution prospective colorectal surgery registry. OT was defined by the presence of an opioid on the preadmission medication record. Opioid use (measured in oral morphine equivalents (OMEs)) and surgical outcomes were compared between OT and ON patients pre- and post-OSMMAP. The study cohort of 201 patients included 59 OT patients (25 pre- and 34 post-OSMMAP) and 142 ON controls (34 pre- and 108 post-OSMMAP). The median age was 47.5 years (IQR 32), and 50% were male. 185 patients (92%) had a laparoscopic/robotic resection and 16 (8%) open. There were statistically significant reductions in OME required post-OSMMAP on each postoperative day (days 1 to 4) and cumulative OME for both OT and ON patients. The reduction in opioid requirements was significantly larger in OT than ON patients. We present the first study highlighting a larger opioid usage reduction in OT than in ON patients after OSMMAP implementation.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Protocolos Clínicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Medicação Pré-Anestésica/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(7-8): 279-281, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517461

RESUMO

Introduction - Complex regional pain syndrome is a di-stressing neuropathic pain condition without known etiology and evidence based treatment. Case presentation - Here a posttraumatic severe case of complex regional pain syndrome is presented, successfully treated by amitriptyline monotherapy. Amitriptyline is one of the most effective evidence based treatments of peri-pheral diabetic neuropathic pain and other neuropathic pain syndromes. Discussion - Amitriptyline seems to be effective to decrease pain, autonomic and motor symptoms in chronic regional pain syndrome. Conclusion - Controlled trials may be warranted to test the effectiveness of amitriptyline in complex regional pain syndrome.


Assuntos
Amitriptilina/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Síndromes da Dor Regional Complexa/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Neuralgia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 42(12): 1663-1677, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uterine fibroid embolisation (UFE) is an effective treatment for fibroids. There are varying analgesia protocols published to control procedure associated pain. We aimed to assess what protocols are most effective in controlling post-procedural pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of the Embase and Medline databases was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Studies regarding analgesia protocols post-uterine fibroid embolisation with Visual Analogue Scale or Numerical Rating Scale pain scores were included. The mean maximal pain scores of patients post-procedure were evaluated. ANOVA and t tests were performed. RESULTS: We identified 26 studies (total 3353 patients), with a mean procedural success rate of > 87%. We stratified protocols into four groups. Mean pain scores were: opioids ± NSAIDs ± acetaminophen (4.84, SD = 1.56); opioids ± NSAIDs ± acetaminophen + nerve block (4.7, SD = 1.37); opioids ± NSAIDs ± acetaminophen + intrauterine artery drug administration (4.09, SD = 0.60); and opioids ± NSAIDs ± acetaminophen + other (5.30, SD = 1.13) without significant difference between groups (p = 0.71). Similarly, there was no difference (p = 0.057) between groups for time to discharge or side effects. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence to suggest that there is any superiority of one protocol above another in the published literature. Appropriate use of opioids ± NSAIDs ± acetaminophen alone appears to be sufficient to control pain post-UFE. However, due to large heterogeneity of the literature no firm conclusions can be reached, and further research is warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1, Systematic review.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Leiomioma/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Uterinas/terapia , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Protocolos Clínicos , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Med J Aust ; 211(7): 326-332, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522464

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is characterised by repetitive compromise of the upper airway, causing impaired ventilation, sleep fragmentation, and daytime functional impairment. It is a heterogeneous condition encompassing different phenotypes. The prevalence of OSA among patients presenting for elective surgery is growing, largely attributable to an increase in age and obesity rates, and most patients remain undiagnosed and untreated at the time of surgery. This condition is an established risk factor for increased perioperative cardiopulmonary morbidity, heightened in the presence of concurrent medical comorbidities. Therefore, it is important to perform preoperative OSA screening and risk stratification - using the STOP-Bang screening questionnaire, nocturnal oximetry, and ambulatory and in-laboratory polysomnography, for example. Postoperative risk assessment is an evolving process that encompasses evaluation of upper airway compromise, ventilatory control instability, and pain-sedation mismatch. Optimal postoperative OSA management comprises continuation of regular positive airway pressure, a multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia strategy to limit respiratory depression, avoidance of supine position, and cautious intravenous fluid administration. Supplemental oxygen does not replace a patient's regular positive airway pressure therapy and should be administered cautiously to avoid risk of hypoventilation and worsening of hypercapnia. Continuous pulse oximetry monitoring with specified targets of peripheral oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry is encouraged.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Assistência Ambulatorial , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Hidratação/métodos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Síndrome de Hipoventilação por Obesidade/diagnóstico , Oximetria , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Posicionamento do Paciente , Polissonografia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Medição de Risco
15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(1): 100-103, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative outpatient narcotic overprescription plays a significant role in the opioid epidemic. Outpatient opioid prescription ranges from 150 to 350 oral morphine equivalent (OME) for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy or appendectomy, with 75 OME (10 pills of 5 mg of oxycodone) being the lowest recommendation (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2018). We hypothesized that the addition of nonopioid medications to the outpatient pain control regimen would decrease the need for narcotics. METHODS: In this prospective, observational pilot study, we prescribed a 3-day regimen of ibuprofen and acetaminophen to patients after uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomies and appendectomies. An additional opioid prescription for 5 pills of 5 mg of oxycodone (37.5 OME) was written for breakthrough pain. During their postoperative visit, we evaluated patients' adherence to the pain control regime, their postdischarge opioid use, and the adequacy of their pain control. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients were included in the study (52% male). The majority (80%) of surgeries were performed urgently or emergently. The visual analog scale pain score at home was significantly better than upon discharge (3.7 vs. 5.5, p = 0.001). The average number of oxycodone pills taken postdischarge was 1.8 pills. Half (51%) of the patients did not take any opioids. All but four patients reported that their pain was adequately controlled. No patient required additional opioid prescriptions or visited the emergency department. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that opioids can be eliminated in at least half of the patients and that five pills of 5 mg of oxycodone (37.5 OME) is sufficient for outpatient pain control when a 3-day course of ibuprofen and acetaminophen is prescribed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level V.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Apendicectomia/métodos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxicodona/uso terapêutico , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 41(3): 373-378, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282332

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the 50% effective dose(ED50)and 95% effective dose(ED95)of dexmedetomidine(DEX)combined with 0.032 µg/(kg·h)sufentanil as well as its analgesic effect for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia(PCIA)after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery(VATS).Methods Totally 25 patients undergoing elective VATS were enrolled. DEX and 0.032 µg/(kg·h)sufentanil were used for postoperative PCIA. The loading dose of DEX was 0.048 µg/(kg·h),and the dose difference between two adjacent patients was 0.008 µg/(kg·h). The DEX dose of a current patient was determined by whether the previous patient was satisfied with postoperative analgesic effect. If the previous patient was satisfied with postoperative analgesic effect,the DEX dose of the current patient was decreased by 0.008 µg/(kg·h);and if the previous analgestic effect was not satisfactory,DEX dose of the current patient was increased by 0.008 µg/(kg·h). The study endpoint was dexmedetomidine dose was<0.008 µg/(kg· h) within 7 upper and lower cycles in 7 consecutive cases. Finally,the probability unit regression was used to estimate the ED50 and ED95 of DEX and their 95% CI.Results When DEX combined with 0.032 µg/(kg·h) sufentanil was used for postoperative PCIA in young patients undergoing VATS,the ED50 and ED95of DEX were 0.0346 µg/(kg· h)[95%CI:0.0283-0.0408 µg/(kg·h)] and 0.0459 µg/(kg·h)[95%CI:0.0400-0.0880 µg/(kg·h)],respectively. No adverse reaction such as vomiting,respiratory depression,or bradycardia occurred. The average Visual Analogue Scale(VAS)scores at rest(Z=-5.128,P=0.000)and cough(Z=-6.642,P=0.000)and the Ramsay sedation score(Z=-2.335,P=0.020)within 6 hours after surgery were higher than those after 6 hour.Conclusion DEX combined with 0.032 µg/(kg·h) sufentanil are effective for postoperative PCIA in patients undergoing VATS when the ED50 and ED95 are 0.0346 µg/(kg·h)and 0.0459 µg/(kg·h),respectively.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Sufentanil/uso terapêutico , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Sufentanil/administração & dosagem
17.
J Mol Neurosci ; 69(1): 106-114, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190218

RESUMO

Microglial cell activation after spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCIRI) commonly causes the secondary nerve motion function injury. This study aims to study the mechanism by which the drug dexmedetomidine (DEX) inhibits microglial cell activation and improves motion function of SCIRI mice. Mice SCIRI model was established, and microglia from spinal cord were isolated and cultured for subsequent molecule analysis of let-7a-1-3p, let-7a-2-3p, HMGB1, TNF-α, and IL-6. DEX was given by intraperitoneal injection. Mice motion function was evaluated by Basso mouse score. In vitro microglial cells were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) to imitate ischemia-reperfusion injury stimulation. DEX injection improves the mouse motion function in SCIRI model and upregulates let-7a-1/2-3p expression in the isolated activated microglia from SCIRI mice. In OGD/R-stimulated microglia, DEX treatment also caused the inactivation of cells, the upregulation of let-7a-1/2-3p expression, and the downregulation of HMGB1 expression. While the co-silencing of let-7a-1/2-3p in microglia in addition to DEX treatment restored the activation of microglia. HMGB1 is a targeted gene for let-7a-1/2-3p and negatively regulated by them. HMGB1 knockdown abrogates the pro-activation impact on microglial cell by let-7a-1/2-3p silencing. DEX inhibits the activation of microglial cell in the spinal cord of SCIRI mice, mediated by the let-7a-1/2-3p/HMGB1 pathway.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Proteína HMGB1/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Medula Espinal/irrigação sanguínea , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(11): 1824-1834, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207169

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the efficacy, general safety, and joint safety of fasinumab, an anti-nerve growth factor monoclonal antibody, in osteoarthritis (OA) hip and/or knee pain. METHODS: Patients with moderate-to-severe OA pain (knee or hip) and history of inadequate response or intolerance to analgesics were randomized to receive fasinumab (at 1 mg, 3 mg, 6 mg, or 9 mg) or placebo every 4 weeks over 16 weeks and were followed up to week 36. Efficacy end points were the change from baseline to week 16 in the pain and physical function subscale scores of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA Index (WOMAC), and patient global assessment (PGA) of OA. Joints were monitored at scheduled assessments (by plain film radiography and magnetic resonance imaging) during treatment and follow-up, and if prompted, at the time of active joint symptoms. RESULTS: Of the 421 patients randomized, 342 completed the 36-week study. All doses of fasinumab yielded statistically significant and clinically important reductions in pain compared to placebo (least squares mean difference in WOMAC pain subscale scores at week 16 ranging -0.78 to -1.40), without any clear dose dependence. Physical function and PGA scores improved in parallel. Treatment-emergent adverse event rates were 17% with fasinumab and 10% with placebo, and 4% and 1% of patients, respectively, discontinued treatment. Arthropathies (25 in total, 7% of fasinumab-treated patients and 1% of placebo-treated patients) occurred in a dose-dependent manner, with 2 occurring in patients receiving the lowest dose of fasinumab and 10 in patients receiving the highest dose. Most of the arthropathies (16 of 25) were discovered with scheduled radiographs and not based on symptoms. Destructive arthropathy (in 1 of 337 treated patients) occurred in 1 patient who was receiving 6 mg fasimumab. CONCLUSION: Fasinumab provided improvements in OA pain and function, even in those benefitting little from previous analgesics. The observed benefit-to-risk relationship favors further clinical development to explore the lowest doses of fasinumab in patients with knee or hip OA.


Assuntos
Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Artralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite do Quadril/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Radiografia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
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