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2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111566, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396095

RESUMO

Androgens and estrogens often co-exist in aquatic environments and pose potential risks to fish populations. However, little is known about the endocrine disrupting effects of the mixture of androgens and estrogens in fish. In this study, transcriptional level of target genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver (HPGL) axis, sex hormone level, VTG protein concentration, histology and secondary sex characteristic were assessed in the ovaries and livers of adult female western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) exposed to 17ß-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and mixtures of E2 and T for 91 days. The results showed that the transcriptional expression of cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1a (Cyp19a1a) was suppressed in the 200 ng/L T treatment and the 50 ng/L E2 + 200 ng/L T treatment in the ovaries. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star) and Cyp11a1 showed a similar expression pattern in the T treatment to its corresponding T + E2 mixtures. In the ovaries, the concentrations of 17ß-estradiol and testosterone were decreased in most treatments compared with the solvent control. VTG protein was induced in all steroid treatment. However, exposure to T or E2 + T mixture did not cause the abnormal cells of the ovaries and livers and an extension of the anal fins in female G. affinis. This study demonstrates that chronic exposure to E2, T and their mixtures affects the transcripts of genes in the HPGL axis, steroid hormone level and VTG protein concentration in the ovaries and livers, but fails to cause the histopathological effect of the ovaries and livers and alter the morphology of the anal fins in G. affinis.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes/fisiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estradiol/toxicidade , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Ciprinodontiformes/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/metabolismo , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013211, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins are one of the most prescribed classes of drugs worldwide. Atorvastatin, the most prescribed statin, is currently used to treat conditions such as hypercholesterolaemia and dyslipidaemia. By reducing the level of cholesterol, which is the precursor of the steroidogenesis pathway, atorvastatin may cause a reduction in levels of testosterone and other androgens. Testosterone and other androgens play important roles in biological functions. A potential reduction in androgen levels, caused by atorvastatin might cause negative effects in most settings. In contrast, in the setting of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), reducing excessive levels of androgens with atorvastatin could be beneficial. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective To quantify the magnitude of the effect of atorvastatin on total testosterone in both males and females, compared to placebo or no treatment. Secondary objectives To quantify the magnitude of the effects of atorvastatin on free testosterone, sex hormone binding globin (SHBG), androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations, free androgen index (FAI), and withdrawal due to adverse effects (WDAEs) in both males and females, compared to placebo or no treatment. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to 9 November 2020: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; Embase; ;two international trials registries, and the websites of the US Food and Drug Administration, the European Patent Office and the Pfizer pharmaceutical corporation. These searches had no language restrictions. We also contacted authors of relevant articles regarding further published and unpublished work. SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs of daily atorvastatin for at least three weeks, compared with placebo or no treatment, and assessing change in testosterone levels in males or females. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the citations, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We used the mean difference (MD) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) to report the effect size of continuous outcomes,and the risk ratio (RR) to report effect sizes of the sole dichotomous outcome (WDAEs). We used a fixed-effect meta-analytic model to combine effect estimates across studies, and risk ratio to report effect size of the dichotomous outcomes. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs involving 265 participants who completed the study and their data was reported. Participants in two of the studies were male with normal lipid profile or mild dyslipidaemia (N = 140); the mean age of participants was 68 years. Participants in four of the studies were female with PCOS (N = 125); the mean age of participants was 32 years. We found no significant difference in testosterone levels in males between atorvastatin and placebo, MD -0.20 nmol/L (95% CI -0.77 to 0.37). In females, atorvastatin may reduce total testosterone by -0.27 nmol/L (95% CI -0.50 to -0.04), FAI by -2.59 nmol/L (95% CI -3.62 to -1.57), androstenedione by -1.37 nmol/L (95% CI -2.26 to -0.49), and DHEAS by -0.63 µmol/l (95% CI -1.12 to -0.15). Furthermore, compared to placebo, atorvastatin increased SHBG concentrations in females by 3.11 nmol/L (95% CI 0.23 to 5.99). We identified no studies in healthy females (i.e. females with normal testosterone levels) or children (under age 18). Importantly, no study reported on free testosterone levels. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no significant difference between atorvastatin and placebo on the levels of total testosterone in males. In females with PCOS, atorvastatin lowered the total testosterone, FAI, androstenedione, and DHEAS. The certainty of evidence ranged from low to very low for both comparisons. More RCTs studying the effect of atorvastatin on testosterone are needed.


Assuntos
Atorvastatina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Idoso , Androgênios/sangue , Androstenodiona/sangue , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Viés , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Placebos/farmacologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128313, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182081

RESUMO

Androgens and androgen receptor regulate a variety of biological effects in the human body. The impaired functioning of androgen receptor may have different adverse health effects from cancer to infertility. Therefore, it is important to determine whether new chemicals have any binding activity and act as androgen agonists or antagonists before commercial use. Due to the large number of chemicals that require experimental testing, the computational methods are a viable alternative. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop predictive QSAR models for classifying compounds according to their activity at the androgen receptor. A large data set of chemicals from the CoMPARA project was used for this purpose and random forest classification models have been developed for androgen binding, agonistic, and antagonistic activity. In addition, a unique effort has been made for multi-class approach that discriminates between inactive compounds, agonists and antagonists simultaneously. For the evaluation set, the classification models predicted agonists with 80% of accuracy and for the antagonists' and binders' the respective metrics were 72% and 78%. Combining agonists, antagonists and inactive compounds into a multi-class approach added complexity to the modelling task and resulted to 64% prediction accuracy for the evaluation set. Considering the size of the training data sets and their imbalance, the achieved evaluation accuracy is very good. The final classification models are available for exploring and predicting at QsarDB repository (https://doi.org/10.15152/QDB.236).


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/classificação , Androgênios/classificação , Modelos Químicos , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/química , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Androgênios/química , Androgênios/farmacologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Ligação Proteica , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1270: 169-183, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123999

RESUMO

The key function of mesenchymal/stromal androgen receptor (AR) signaling for prostate development has been well documented by tissue recombination experiments. Some studies have addressed the expression and function of AR in stromal cells in prostate cancer, yet our understanding of the role of stromal AR in other tissues beyond prostate is still insufficient.Genomic analysis has revealed that cellular responses to androgens differ between epithelial and stromal cells. AR in stromal cells seems not to act via classical AR transcription factors such as FOXA1 but rather depends on the JUN/AP1 complex. Stromal AR appears to have tumor-promoting and tumor-protective functions depending on tumor stage. Loss of AR signaling in fibroblasts has been detected already in premalignant lesions in the skin and prostate and has been associated with tumor induction in xenografts of skin cancer and aggressive disease features and poor patient prognosis in prostate cancer. Moreover, AR expression is found on virtually all tissue-infiltrating immune cells and plays critical roles in immune cell function. These findings suggest a potential deleterious impact of current androgen deprivation therapies which inhibit both epithelial and stromal AR, highlighting the need to develop tissue-specific AR inhibitors.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128006, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297039

RESUMO

Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exhibit endocrine disrupting activity but studies on some POPs, e.g., polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), are very scarce. The present study investigates the (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities of 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexachloronaphthalane (PCN67) and 1,3,5,8-tetrachloronaphthalene (PCN43) using the yeast estrogen and androgen reporter bioassays. Among the tested substances, antiestrogenic response was only shown by PCN67. The strongest inhibition of estrogenic activity (up to 17.4%) was observed in the low concentration ranges (5 pM - 0.5 nM) in the presence of 1.5 nM 17ß-estradiol. Both tested compounds showed partial estrogenic activity with a hormetic-type response. However, both studied chemicals showed strong antiandrogenic effects: their potency in the presence of 100 nM 17ß-testosterone for PCN43 (IC50 = 2.59 µM) and PCN67 (IC50 = 3.14 µM) was approximately twice that of the reference antiandrogen flutamide (IC50 = 6.14 µM). It cannot be excluded that exposure to PCNs, together with other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), may contribute to the deregulation of sex steroid hormone signaling.


Assuntos
Androgênios , Disruptores Endócrinos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estrogênios , Naftalenos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141766, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889472

RESUMO

The occurrence of biologically potent sex hormones in agricultural soils is of growing concern due to their ability to disrupt the endocrine systems of aquatic organisms after being transported to surface waters via runoff. This study, therefore, examined the large-scale occurrence of 34 natural and synthetic sex hormones (13 progestins, 16 androgens, and 5 estrogens) in soils from 7 provinces and 1 municipality in China. The target sex hormones were detected in 99.3% of the soil samples, indicating their widespread occurrence in most agricultural areas. Additionally, seven synthetic progestins were detected in soils for the first time. The total concentration of the 34 sex hormones (Σsex hormones) in the sampled soils ranged from below the method detection limit to 23.7 ng/g (mean of 4.72 ± 4.07 ng/g), with androgens and progestins being the most dominant hormone groups. Significant correlations were observed among the concentrations of Σestrogens, Σandrogens, and Σprogestins (r = 0.117-0.433, p < 0.001), suggesting similar sources of sex hormones. The mean concentration of Σsex hormones varied considerably across the selected provinces/municipality. Notably, the annual slaughter of poultry and swine (R2 = 0.75-0.88), female population (R2 = 0.57-0.58), and soil organic carbon content (R2 = 0.20-0.55) in each province were significantly correlated with the concentrations or mean concentrations of Σsex hormones, Σestrogens, or Σprogestins. This finding implies that these parameters contributed to the occurrence and distribution of sex hormones in the studied soils. Finally, risk quotients for some sex hormones exceeded 0.01, indicating medium or high risks to agroecosystems. This study highlights the importance of designing an optimal manure fertilization strategy in order to mitigate the risks posed by sex hormones in agroecosystems.


Assuntos
Androgênios , Poluentes do Solo , Androgênios/análise , Animais , Carbono , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estrogênios/análise , Congêneres da Progesterona , Progestinas/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Suínos
8.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153395, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curcumin is a biologically active phytochemical ingredient found in turmeric. It has several pharmacologic effects that might benefit patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized curcumin to be effective in improving blood sugar levels, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in individuals with PCOS. METHODS: In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, individuals with PCOS were treated with curcumin (500 mg three times daily) or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures were fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FI), sex hormone levels, and hirsutism (Ferriman-Gallwey [mFG] score). Secondary outcomes included anthropometric measurements. RESULTS: Of 72 randomized individuals, 67 completed the trial. The two groups were comparable at baseline. At the end of the study, FPG and Dehydroepiandrosterone levels had decreased significantly in the intervention group compared to control (difference of change (post-pre) between intervention and placebo groups: -4.11 mg/dL; 95% CI: -8.35, -0.35 mg/dL; p = 0.033 and -26.53 microg/dL; 95% CI: -47.99, -4.34 µg/dL; p = 0.035, respectively). We also observed a statistically non-significant increase (p = 0.082) in Estradiol levels in the intervention group compared to control. No serious adverse events were reported throughout the trial. CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin might be a safe and useful supplement to ameliorate PCOS-associated hyperandrogenemia and hyperglycemia. However, longer trials investigating different dosages in longer durations are needed to underpin these findings.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Androgênios/sangue , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hirsutismo/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Insulina/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 66(4): 77-81, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351362

RESUMO

The WHO has declared a SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. During a pandemic, the researches aimed at finding the new treatments for SARS-CoV-2 become relevant. The review focuses on studies of androgens and antiandrogens in this disease. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic, it has been noted that men have more severe forms of infection and higher mortality. The main cause of both the severity of the disease and the high mortality of men from COVID-19 are associated with androgens. It was found that patients receiving androgen deprivation are less likely to become infected and easily tolerate COVID-19. The researchers explain the effect of the therapy by the effect on the TMPRSS2 protein. It was found that both TMPRSS2 expression and a more severe course of coronavirus infection are observed in men with hyperandrogenism - androgenic alopecia, acne, excessive facial hair growth and increased skin oiliness. In this regard, some researchers suggest to use androgen deprivation for men at high risk of developing COVID-19. Steroid and non-steroidal antiandrogens are used for androgen deprivation. At the same time, obtaned scientific data on the relationship of severe forms and mortality of COVID-19 with low testosterone levels leads to a hypothesis about the possibility of a positive effect not of androgen devrivation therapy but of androgen replacement therapy in case of hypogonadism have diagnosed. These studies have not been completed recently, and data on the effectiveness and safety of antiandrogens and androgens in the treatment of a new coronavirus infection require clarification.


Assuntos
Androgênios/genética , Hiperandrogenismo/epidemiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hiperandrogenismo/complicações , Hiperandrogenismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperandrogenismo/virologia , Masculino , Pandemias , /patogenicidade
10.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(4): 291-296, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351293

RESUMO

Testis is the male gonad with the main functions of secreting androgens and producing sperm. Testicular aging can induce sexual and reproductive dysfunctions and a series of systemic symptoms, which not only seriously affect the life quality of elderly and middle-aged men but are also closely related to the development and progression of chronic diseases, such as vascular and metabolic disorders. This review focuses on the concept, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, evaluation methods and intervention strategies of testicular aging, as well as the prospects for its future research directions, aiming to help clinicians gain a deeper insight into and attach more importance to this condition, so as to improve its prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Testículo/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Androgênios , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espermatozoides
11.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 48(287): 323-326, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130791

RESUMO

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss both in male and female patients. As regards its etiopathology, it is postulated that hair follicles grow sensitive to androgens in persons who are genetically predisposed to it. In the pathomechanism of the disease, hair follicles undergo miniaturization. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the levels of selected hormones (sex hormones, adrenal and thyroid hormones), and the results of laboratory tests (iron metabolism) performed in a group of female patients with AGA in order to specify which of those tests should be taken during the diagnostic process in such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Test results and types of therapies have been analyzed for a group of 106 adult female patients (of different age) with female pattern hair loss (FPHL) of different duration. Selected hormone parameters have been analyzed as well as iron metabolism, BMI ( body mass index), and signs of androgenization in the patients' histories (presence of menstrual disorders, hirsutism and acne). Additionally, their insulin levels were measured. RESULTS: The most common hormonal disorders in the study population involved increased concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in 38.8%, decreased concentration of total testosterone in 25.4%, increased antibody titers against thyroid peroxidase (ATPO) in 17.3%, decreased concentrations of dihydroepiandrostendione (DHEAS) in 15.6%, and increased concentrations of insulin in 12.6%. Increased concentrations of free testosterone were only observed in 6.8 % of the study participants, and increased concentrations of cortisol were revealed in 6.7% of them. 40% of the patients complained about symptoms related to menstrual disorders, hirsutism and acne. Sex hormone concentrations did not correlate with the reported symptoms, and test results in that sub-group were not found to significantly differ from the rest of the patients who did not report signs of hyperandrogenism. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the fact that nearly half of the patients reported symptoms which may be suggestive of hormonal disorders, no significant abnormalities were revealed in hormone tests.


Assuntos
Alopecia , Hiperandrogenismo , Adulto , Alopecia/diagnóstico , Androgênios , Feminino , Hirsutismo , Humanos , Masculino , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual , Testosterona
12.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(5): 529-536, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071222

RESUMO

Objective: Transgender individuals sometimes report a lack of physical change during hormone treatment, such as alterations in muscle tone or fat distribution. Identifying characteristics of this subgroup could be a step toward individualizing hormone therapy in transgender individuals. Therefore, we study the variation of changes in body composition and characteristics associated with a lack of change. Design and methods: Body composition measures were recorded in 323 transmen and 288 transwomen at every visit from the start of hormone therapy to a maximum of 24 months follow-up. Absence of change was defined as transmen with a decrease in lean body mass or transwomen with a decrease in fat percentage. Results: A lack of change at 24 months was observed in 19 of 94 (20.2%) transmen and in 9 of 96 (9.4%) transwomen. The risk of not achieving change in body composition was related to lower testosterone levels and less suppression of LH in transmen (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.94 per SD increase in testosterone and OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.01-1.83 per SD increase in LH). Conclusions: There is a large variation in body composition changes during hormone therapy, with a substantial proportion of individuals with no measurable effects. In transmen, serum testosterone and LH were associated with a lack of change, but serum hormone levels were not associated with body composition changes in transwomen. The results provide a rationale for individualizing hormone therapy in transmen, by considering individual effects rather than solely relying on a standardized dosage of hormone therapy.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Composição Corporal , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Acetato de Ciproterona/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Impedância Elétrica , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão , Procedimentos de Readequação Sexual/métodos , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Testosterona/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(6): 1099-1113, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040851

RESUMO

Endocrine disorders associated with adrenal pathologies can be caused by insufficient adrenal gland function or excess hormone secretion. Excess hormone secretion may result from adrenal hyperplasia or hormone-secreting (ie, functioning) adrenal masses. Based on the hormone type, functioning adrenal masses can be classified as cortisol-producing tumors, aldosterone producing tumors, and androgen-producing tumors, which originate in the adrenal cortex, as well as catecholamine-producing pheochromocytomas, which originate in the medulla. Nonfunctioning lesions can cause adrenal gland enlargement without causing hormonal imbalance. Evaluation of adrenal-related endocrine disorders requires clinical and biochemical workup associated with imaging evaluation to reach a diagnosis and guide management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/diagnóstico por imagem , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adrenalectomia/métodos , Aldosterona/metabolismo , Androgênios/metabolismo , Síndrome de Cushing/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22962-22966, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868418

RESUMO

Gonadal hormones are linked to mechanisms that govern appetitive behavior and its suppression. Estrogens are synthesized from androgens by the enzyme aromatase, highly expressed in the ovaries of reproductive-aged women and in the brains of men and women of all ages. We measured aromatase availability in the amygdala using positron emission tomography (PET) with the aromatase inhibitor [11C]vorozole in a sample of 43 adult, normal-weight, overweight, or obese men and women. A subsample of 27 also completed personality measures to examine the relationship between aromatase and personality traits related to self-regulation and inhibitory control. Results indicated that aromatase availability in the amygdala was negatively associated with body mass index (BMI) (in kilograms per square meter) and positively correlated with scores of the personality trait constraint independent of sex or age. Individual variations in the brain's capacity to synthesize estrogen may influence the risk of obesity and self-control in men and women.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Androgênios , Aromatase/análise , Inibidores da Aromatase , Índice de Massa Corporal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estrogênios/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipogênese , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Autocontrole
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4822, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973149

RESUMO

Abiraterone acetate (AA) is an inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis, though this cannot fully explain its efficacy against androgen-independent prostate cancer. Here, we demonstrate that androgen deprivation therapy depletes androgen-utilizing Corynebacterium spp. in prostate cancer patients and that oral AA further enriches for the health-associated commensal, Akkermansia muciniphila. Functional inferencing elucidates a coinciding increase in bacterial biosynthesis of vitamin K2 (an inhibitor of androgen dependent and independent tumor growth). These results are highly reproducible in a host-free gut model, excluding the possibility of immune involvement. Further investigation reveals that AA is metabolized by bacteria in vitro and that breakdown components selectively impact growth. We conclude that A. muciniphila is a key regulator of AA-mediated restructuring of microbial communities, and that this species may affect treatment response in castrate-resistant cohorts. Ongoing initiatives aimed at modulating the colonic microbiota of cancer patients may consider targeted delivery of poorly absorbed selective bacterial growth agents.


Assuntos
Acetato de Abiraterona/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Verrucomicrobia/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetato de Abiraterona/metabolismo , Acetato de Abiraterona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Androgênios/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Verrucomicrobia/genética , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo , Vitamina K 2/metabolismo , Vitamina K 2/farmacologia
18.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(11): 1513-1525, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the CARD study, cabazitaxel significantly improved radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival versus abiraterone or enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel and the alternative androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. Here, we report the quality-of-life outcomes from the CARD study. METHODS: CARD was a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 4 study involving 62 clinical sites across 13 European countries. Patients (aged ≥18 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤2) with confirmed metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were randomly assigned (1:1) by means of an interactive voice-web response system to receive cabazitaxel (25 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks, 10 mg daily prednisone, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) versus abiraterone (1000 mg orally once daily plus 5 mg prednisone twice daily) or enzalutamide (160 mg orally daily). Stratification factors were ECOG performance status, time to disease progression on the previous androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor, and timing of the previous androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. The primary endpoint was radiographic progression-free survival; here, we present more detailed analyses of pain (assessed using item 3 on the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form [BPI-SF]) and symptomatic skeletal events, alongside preplanned patient-reported outcomes, assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) questionnaire and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions, 5 level scale (EQ-5D-5L). Efficacy analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. Pain response was analysed in the intention-to-treat population with baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment of BPI-SF item 3, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were analysed in the intention-to-treat population with baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment of either FACT-P or EQ-5D-5L (PRO population). Analyses of skeletal-related events were also done in the intention-to-treat population. The CARD study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02485691, and is no longer enrolling. FINDINGS: Between Nov 17, 2015, and Nov 28, 2018, of 303 patients screened, 255 were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel (n=129) or abiraterone or enzalutamide (n=126). Median follow-up was 9·2 months (IQR 5·6-13·1). Pain response was observed in 51 (46%) of 111 patients with cabazitaxel and 21 (19%) of 109 patients with abiraterone or enzalutamide (p<0·0001). Median time to pain progression was not estimable (NE; 95% CI NE-NE) with cabazitaxel and 8·5 months (4·9-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (hazard ratio [HR] 0·55, 95% CI 0·32-0·97; log-rank p=0·035). Median time to symptomatic skeletal events was NE (95% CI 20·0-NE) with cabazitaxel and 16·7 months (10·8-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0·59, 95% CI 0·35-1·01; log-rank p=0·050). Median time to FACT-P total score deterioration was 14·8 months (95% CI 6·3-NE) with cabazitaxel and 8·9 months (6·3-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0·72, 95% CI 0·44-1·20; log-rank p=0·21). There was a significant treatment effect seen in changes from baseline in EQ-5D-5L utility index score in favour of cabazitaxel over abiraterone or enzalutamide (p=0·030) but no difference between treatment groups for change from baseline in EQ-5D-5L visual analogue scale (p=0·060). INTERPRETATION: Since cabazitaxel improved pain response, time to pain progression, time to symptomatic skeletal events, and EQ-5D-5L utility index, clinicians and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer can be reassured that cabazitaxel will not reduce quality of life when compared with treatment with a second androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. FUNDING: Sanofi.


Assuntos
Androstenos/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Androgênios/genética , Androstenos/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Life Sci ; 260: 118414, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926929

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the possible modulatory effect of febuxostat in testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats with emphasis on xanthine oxidase (XO)/Janus Kinases (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) axis. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with testosterone with/out febuxostat. Effect of febuxostat on BPH was assessed at the structural level by histopathology and determination of prostate weight/index. Cyclin D1 protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA expression was determined by real time polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR). Besides, uric acid serum level was determined colorimetrically. Prostatic XO activity, as well as oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Additionally, western blot analysis was performed for determination of JAK-1 and phosphorylated form of STAT-3 expression in tissues. KEY FINDINGS: Results revealed that febuxostat inhibited the increase in prostatic weight and index compared to testosterone-treated group. Additionally, febuxostat ameliorated testosterone-induced histopathological changes, prevented the rise in cyclin D1 expression and enhanced Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Febuxostat suppressed testosterone induced- increase in XO activity in prostates and serum level of uric acid. Moreover, it regulated oxidative stress markers including; malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content. Also, it inhibited the increase in prostate contents of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1ß (IL-1 ß), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and nuclear factor (NF-κB). Interestingly, febuxostat markedly reduced JAK-1 and subsequent phosphorylation of STAT-3 protein expression. SIGNIFICANCE: Febuxostat ameliorates testosterone-induced BPH via suppressing XO/JAK/STAT axis. This may help to re-purpose the use of XO inhibitors.


Assuntos
Febuxostat/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Supressores da Gota/farmacologia , Janus Quinase 1/metabolismo , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Testosterona/toxicidade , Androgênios/toxicidade , Animais , Janus Quinase 1/genética , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/metabolismo , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética
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