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1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare socio-demographic and clinical characteristics in men and women with depression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 388 patients with unipolar depression, 74 men and 314 women. The survey was carried out using the clinical-psychopathological method and psychometric scales for depression. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Gender differences are identified for several parameters. Women are older, more often had comorbid somatic and organic disorders; men have personality disorders and chronic depression. The severity of depression in women was higher due to symptoms such as reported sadness, anxiety, reduced sleep and appetite, concentration difficulties, and suicidal thoughts. Apparent sadness did not significantly differ in men and women. Anhedonia was more pronounced in men.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo , Anedonia , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Nervenarzt ; 92(9): 878-891, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374803

RESUMO

In this paper, the domain positive valence systems (PVS) of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) matrix and its subconstructs are presented and discussed. The PVS basically reflect different forms and aspects of reward processing. These have been investigated in psychiatry in the context of addiction, schizophrenia and depression for decades; the latter are therefore not the topic of this paper. This article presents the heuristic value of the RDoC system in understanding other disorders and constructs, namely the transdiagnostic symptom of anhedonia, autism spectrum disorder and eating disorders. In addition, it outlines how the PVS domain has also enriched the clinical perspective of traditional psychopathology and stimulated the development of new behavioral measurement instruments. Finally, the limitations and potential future developments of the framework are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Neurociência Cognitiva , Esquizofrenia , Anedonia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recompensa , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
3.
Curr Protoc ; 1(8): e208, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406704

RESUMO

Major depression is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by affective, cognitive, and physiological impairments that lead to maladaptive behavior. The high lifetime prevalence of this disabling condition, coupled with limitations of existing medications, make necessary the development of improved therapeutics. This requires animal models that allow investigation of key biological correlates of the disorder. Described in this article is the unpredictable chronic mild stress mouse model that can be used to screen for antidepressant drug candidates. Originally designed for rats, this model has been adapted for mice to capitalize on the advantages of this species as an experimental model, including inter-strain variability, which permits an exploration of the contribution of genetic background; the ability to create transgenic animals; and lower cost. Thus, because it combines genetic features and socio-environmental chronic stressful events, the unpredictable chronic mild stress model in mice is a relevant and valuable paradigm to gain insight into the etiological and developmental components of major depression, as well as to identify novel treatments for this condition. © 2021 The Authors. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS) Test in Mice Basic Protocol 2: Assessment Of Self-Directed Activity And Anhedonia in Mice.


Assuntos
Depressão , Estresse Psicológico , Anedonia , Animais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Ratos
4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 395, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282121

RESUMO

Anhedonia is a core symptom of multiple psychiatric disorders and has been associated with alterations in brain structure. Genome-wide association studies suggest that anhedonia is heritable, with a polygenic architecture, but few studies have explored the association between genetic loading for anhedonia-indexed by polygenic risk scores for anhedonia (PRS-anhedonia)-and structural brain imaging phenotypes. Here, we investigated how anhedonia and PRS-anhedonia were associated with brain structure within the UK Biobank cohort. Brain measures (including total grey/white matter volumes, subcortical volumes, cortical thickness (CT) and white matter integrity) were analysed using linear mixed models in relation to anhedonia and PRS-anhedonia in 19,592 participants (9225 males; mean age = 62.6 years, SD = 7.44). We found that state anhedonia was significantly associated with reduced total grey matter volume (GMV); increased total white matter volume (WMV); smaller volumes in thalamus and nucleus accumbens; reduced CT within the paracentral cortex, the opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus, precentral cortex, insula and rostral anterior cingulate cortex; and poorer integrity of many white matter tracts. PRS-anhedonia was associated with reduced total GMV; increased total WMV; reduced white matter integrity; and reduced CT within the parahippocampal cortex, superior temporal gyrus and insula. Overall, both state anhedonia and PRS-anhedonia were associated with individual differences in multiple brain structures, including within reward-related circuits. These associations may represent vulnerability markers for psychopathology relevant to a range of psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Substância Branca , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Reino Unido , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 161-171, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neural mechanisms associated with anhedonia treatment response are poorly understood. Additionally, no study has investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) accompanying psychosocial treatment for anhedonia. METHODS: We evaluated a novel psychotherapy, Behavioral Activation Therapy for Anhedonia (BATA, n = 38) relative to Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT, n = 35) in a medication-free, transdiagnostic, anhedonic sample in a parallel randomized controlled trial. Participants completed up to 15 sessions of therapy and up to four 7T MRI scans before, during, and after treatment (n = 185 scans). Growth curve models estimated change over time in anhedonia and in rsFC using average region-of-interest (ROI)-to-ROI connectivity within the default mode network (DMN), frontoparietal network (FPN), salience network, and reward network. Changes in rsFC from pre- to post-treatment were further evaluated using whole-network seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI edgewise analyses. RESULTS: Growth curve models showed significant reductions in anhedonia symptoms and in average rsFC within the DMN and FPN over time, across BATA and MBCT. There were no differences in anhedonia reductions between treatments. Within-person, changes in average rsFC were unrelated to changes in anhedonia. Between-person, higher than average FPN rsFC was related to less anhedonia across timepoints. Seed-to-voxel and edgewise rsFC analyses corroborated reductions within the DMN and between the DMN and FPN over time, across the sample. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in rsFC within the DMN, FPN, and between these networks co-occurred with anhedonia improvement across two psychosocial treatments for anhedonia. Future anhedonia clinical trials with a waitlist control group should disambiguate treatment versus time-related effects on rsFC.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Atenção Plena , Anedonia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
6.
Neuroscience ; 469: 31-45, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182055

RESUMO

Serotonin transporter gene variance has long been considered an essential factor contributing to depression. However, meta-analyses yielded inconsistent findings recently, asking for further understanding of the link between the gene and depression-related symptoms. One key feature of depression is anhedonia. While data exist on the effect of serotonin transporter gene knockout (5-HTT-/-) in rodents on consummatory and anticipatory anhedonia, with mixed outcomes, the effect on decisional anhedonia has not been investigated thus far. Here, we tested whether 5-HTT-/- contributes to decisional anhedonia. To this end, we established a novel touchscreen-based go/go task of visual decision-making. During the learning of stimulus discrimination, 5-HTT+/+ rats performed more optimal decision-making compared to 5-HTT-/- rats at the beginning, but this difference did not persist throughout the learning period. During stimulus generalization, the generalization curves were similar between both genotypes and did not alter as the learning progress. Interestingly, the response time in 5-HTT+/+ rats increased as the session increased in general, while 5-HTT-/- rats tended to decrease. The response time difference might indicate that 5-HTT-/- rats altered willingness to exert cognitive effort to the categorization of generalization stimuli. These results suggest that the effect of 5-HTT ablation on decisional anhedonia is mild and interacts with learning, explaining the discrepant findings on the link between 5-HTT gene and depression.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina , Animais , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Ratos , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética
7.
J Psychiatr Res ; 140: 30-34, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090100

RESUMO

Anhedonia is common in individuals with traumatic experience. Anhedonia symptoms play an important role in posttraumatic psychopathology, and are related to various adverse outcomes. The current study is a preliminary neuroimaging study of the neural correlates of posttraumatic anhedonia symptoms. Resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 88 Chinese earthquake survivors. Whole brain analyses and exploratory ROI-to-ROI analyses were performed to examine the relationship between posttraumatic anhedonia symptoms and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of reward-related subcortical nucleus including nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. The rsFC between left ventral pallidum and areas of bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus cortex were found lower in the high posttraumatic anhedonia group, after controlling for sex, age and other posttraumatic stress symptoms. The rsFC between left ventral pallidum and PCC and the rsFC between left ventral pallidum and lateral parietal cortex were significantly lower in the high anhedonia group. Our findings suggest that decreased functional connectivity between the ventral pallidum and the brain default mode network (DMN) regions could be the neural correlates of posttraumatic anhedonia symptoms.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Prosencéfalo Basal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Rede de Modo Padrão , Giro do Cíngulo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
J Affect Disord ; 293: 1-8, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153656

RESUMO

Depression is associated with blunted reactivity to acute stress, as well as blunted responsivity to rewards. However, the extent to which responses to stress are associated with responses to reward in individuals meeting criteria for a depressive disorder is unknown. The goal of this study was to examine the relation of responses to stress and reward, and to determine if this relation is moderated by depression diagnosis, anhedonia, and sex. Participants included 114 adults (68 depressed, 46 non-depressed; 75% women) recruited from the community. Stress reactivity was operationalized as the total salivary cortisol output to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993). Response bias to monetary reward was assessed following the TSST recovery period with a probabilistic reward task (PRT; Pizzagalli et al., 2005). In men only, total cortisol output during the TSST was more strongly positively associated with response bias to reward across the three blocks of the PRT. In addition, among depressed participants with high levels of anhedonia, higher cortisol output during the TSST was significantly associated with higher overall response bias to reward. We suggest that in men, the stress and reward systems may both respond quickly, and resolve rapidly, in the face of acute stress. Further, in depression, our findings suggest that anhedonia may represent a specific phenotype in which the stress and reward systems are particularly tuned together.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Hidrocortisona , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Recompensa
9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 298, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016951

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is highly comorbid with depression. Withdrawal from chronic alcohol drinking results in depression and understanding brain molecular mechanisms that drive withdrawal-related depression is important for finding new drug targets to treat these comorbid conditions. Here, we performed RNA sequencing of the rat hippocampus during withdrawal from chronic alcohol drinking to discover key signaling pathways involved in alcohol withdrawal-related depressive-like behavior. Data were analyzed by weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify several modules of co-expressed genes that could have a common underlying regulatory mechanism. One of the hub, or highly interconnected, genes in module 1 that increased during alcohol withdrawal was the transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), a known regulator of immune gene expression. Total and phosphorylated (p)STAT3 protein levels were also increased in the hippocampus during withdrawal after chronic alcohol exposure. Further, pSTAT3 binding was enriched at the module 1 genes Gfap, Tnfrsf1a, and Socs3 during alcohol withdrawal. Notably, pSTAT3 and its target genes were elevated in the postmortem hippocampus of human subjects with AUD when compared with control subjects. To determine the behavioral relevance of STAT3 activation during alcohol withdrawal, we treated rats with the STAT3 inhibitor stattic and tested for sucrose preference as a measure of anhedonia. STAT3 inhibition alleviated alcohol withdrawal-induced anhedonia. These results demonstrate activation of STAT3 signaling in the hippocampus during alcohol withdrawal in rats and in human AUD subjects, and suggest that STAT3 could be a therapeutic target for reducing comorbid AUD and depression.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição STAT3 , Transcriptoma , Anedonia , Animais , Etanol , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Ratos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 266, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941762

RESUMO

Adolescence is a period of rapid brain development when psychiatric symptoms often first emerge. Studying adolescents may therefore facilitate the identification of neural alterations early in the course of psychiatric conditions. Here, we sought to utilize new, high-quality brain parcellations and data-driven graph theory approaches to characterize associations between resting-state networks and the severity of depression, anxiety, and anhedonia symptoms-salient features across psychiatric conditions. As reward circuitry matures considerably during adolescence, we examined both Whole Brain and three task-derived reward networks. Subjects were 87 psychotropic-medication-free adolescents (age = 12-20) with diverse psychiatric conditions (n = 68) and healthy controls (n = 19). All completed diagnostic interviews, dimensional clinical assessments, and 3T resting-state fMRI (10 min/2.3 mm/TR = 1 s). Following high-quality Human Connectome Project-style preprocessing, multimodal surface matching (MSMAll) alignment, and parcellation via the Cole-Anticevic Brain-wide Network Partition, weighted graph theoretical metrics (Strength Centrality = CStr; Eigenvector Centrality = CEig; Local Efficiency = ELoc) were estimated within each network. Associations with symptom severity and clinical status were assessed non-parametrically (two-tailed pFWE < 0.05). Across subjects, depression scores correlated with ventral striatum CStr within the Reward Attainment network, while anticipatory anhedonia correlated with CStr and ELoc in the subgenual anterior cingulate, dorsal anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate, and ventral striatum across multiple networks. Group differences and associations with anxiety were not detected. Using detailed functional and clinical measures, we found that adolescent depression and anhedonia involve increased influence and communication efficiency in prefrontal and limbic reward areas. Resting-state network properties thus reflect positive valence system anomalies related to discrete reward sub-systems and processing phases early in the course of illness.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Estriado Ventral , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Anedonia , Ansiedade , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Recompensa , Estriado Ventral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Affect Disord ; 291: 118-125, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is a common symptom of several disorders, but cost-effective treatments that focus on anhedonia specifically have been lacking. Therefore, personalized lifestyle advice has recently been investigated as a suitable means of enhancing pleasure and positive affect (PA) in young adults with anhedonia. This intervention provided individuals with a personalized lifestyle advice which was based on observed individual patterns of lifestyle behaviors and experienced pleasure in daily life. The present study extends this previous work by examining a potential mechanism of treatment success, affective reactivity. METHODS: We explored changes in affective reactivity to events in daily life from pre- to post-intervention in a subclinical sample of young adults with anhedonia (N = 69). Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), participants answered questions on their activities, their pleasure levels, PA and negative affect (NA) before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Multilevel analysis revealed that participants did not experience an altered affective reactivity to positive events after the intervention. The affective reactivity to negative events depended on the level of improvement in mean-PA after the lifestyle advice intervention. LIMITATIONS: The present study used a subclinical sample with the majority of participants being female which limited the generalizability of the findings. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that an altered affective reactivity to negative events is an underlying mechanism of the effectiveness of a personalized lifestyle advice.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Prazer , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Affect Disord ; 290: 308-315, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) over the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) has shown promise in open-label trials of depression. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, sham controlled trial we evaluate iTBS over the DMPFC for anhedonia, avolition, and blunted affect in patients with schizophrenia or depression. Active iTBS was delivered over the DMPFC with 1200 pulses per session, twice daily over ten weekdays at target intensity with an angled figure-of eight coil. Sham condition comprised the magnetically shielded side of the coil and simultaneous transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Primary outcome was change on the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were randomized to active iTBS and 28 to sham. Mean (standard deviation) change in CAINS score from baseline to the day after last treatment was -5.3 (8.1) in active iTBS and -2.1 (7.1) in sham. A linear model showed no significant effect of treatment, accounting for baseline scores p=.088. Sub analyses per diagnostic group showed a significant effect in patients with depression, p=.038, but not in the schizophrenia group, p=.850. However, overall depressive symptoms did not change significantly in patients with depression. There were three serious adverse events, all in the sham group. LIMITATIONS: Possibly too short treatment course and few patients with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: In this first transdiagnostic randomized controlled trial of iTBS over DMPFC for anhedonia, avolition, and blunted affect it can be concluded that it was generally tolerable and safe but only more effective than sham in the subgroup of patients with depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento , Esquizofrenia , Anedonia , Depressão , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Ritmo Teta , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana
13.
Schizophr Res ; 232: 77-84, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044349

RESUMO

Social behaviour requires the brain to efficiently integrate multiple social processes, but it is not clear what neural substrates underlie general social behaviour. While psychosis patients and individuals with subclinical symptoms are characterized by social dysfunction, the neural mechanisms underlying social dysfunctions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders remains unclear. We first constructed a general social brain network (SBN) using resting-state functional connectivity (FC) with regions of interest based on the automatic meta-analysis results from NeuroSynth. We then examined the general SBN and its relationship with social network (SN) characteristics in 30 individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and 33 individuals with social anhedonia (SA). We found that patients with SCZ exhibited deficits in their SN, while SA individuals did not. SCZ patients showed decreased segregation and functional connectivity in their SBN, while SA individuals showed a reversed pattern with increased segregation and functional connectivity of their SBN. Sparse canonical correlation analysis showed that both SCZ patients and SA individuals exhibited reduced correlation between SBN and SN characteristics compared with their corresponding healthy control groups. These preliminary findings suggest that both SCZ and SA participants exhibit abnormality in segregation and functional connectivity within the general SBN and reduced correlation with SN characteristics. These findings could guide the development of non-pharmacological interventions for social dysfunction in SCZ spectrum disorders.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Anedonia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Social
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3166, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039978

RESUMO

Stress is a significant risk factor for the development of major depressive disorder (MDD), yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Preclinically, adaptive and maladaptive stress-induced changes in glutamatergic function have been observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Here, we examine stress-induced changes in human mPFC glutamate using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in two healthy control samples and a third sample of unmedicated participants with MDD who completed the Maastricht acute stress task, and one sample of healthy control participants who completed a no-stress control manipulation. In healthy controls, we find that the magnitude of mPFC glutamate response to the acute stressor decreases as individual levels of perceived stress increase. This adaptative glutamate response is absent in individuals with MDD and is associated with pessimistic expectations during a 1-month follow-up period. Together, this work shows evidence for glutamatergic adaptation to stress that is significantly disrupted in MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Pessimismo/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Anedonia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 313: 111298, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent efforts to classify subtypes of major depressive disorder marked by different psychophysiological indicators have identified blunted reward-related brain activation in gambling tasks as a characteristic linked specifically to depressed participants with impaired mood reactivity. METHODS: The current study compared individuals diagnosed with current depressive disorder (n = 26) with healthy controls (n = 24) regarding brain responses to gain and loss trials in an fMRI version of the "Doors" choice-feedback task. Study aims were to examine reward-related brain activation in relation to depression, depressive subtypes, and course of depression. RESULTS: Across the sample, participants showed a significant response to gain versus loss in left and right ventral striatum as well as medial and left lateral prefrontal cortex. Relative to controls, participants with current depression were characterized by blunted reactivity in left ventral striatum. Furthermore, activation in the left ventral striatum differentiated subgroups of depression with and without impaired mood reactivity. Finally, left striatal hypoactivation to reward predicted remission when controlling for current depressive symptomatology, albeit at a trend level. CONCLUSIONS: Blunted reward-related activation in the left ventral striatum might be useful as a marker for depression subtype and may have the potential to predict future course of depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Estriado Ventral , Anedonia , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recompensa , Estriado Ventral/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Brain ; 144(5): 1551-1564, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843983

RESUMO

Much of human behaviour is motivated by the drive to experience pleasure. The capacity to envisage pleasurable outcomes and to engage in goal-directed behaviour to secure these outcomes depends upon the integrity of frontostriatal circuits in the brain. Anhedonia refers to the diminished ability to experience, and to pursue, pleasurable outcomes, and represents a prominent motivational disturbance in neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite increasing evidence of motivational disturbances in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), no study to date has explored the hedonic experience in these syndromes. Here, we present the first study to document the prevalence and neural correlates of anhedonia in FTD in comparison with Alzheimer's disease, and its potential overlap with related motivational symptoms including apathy and depression. A total of 172 participants were recruited, including 87 FTD, 34 Alzheimer's disease, and 51 healthy older control participants. Within the FTD group, 55 cases were diagnosed with clinically probable behavioural variant FTD, 24 presented with semantic dementia, and eight cases had progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA). Premorbid and current anhedonia was measured using the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale, while apathy was assessed using the Dimensional Apathy Scale, and depression was indexed via the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis was used to examine associations between grey matter atrophy and levels of anhedonia, apathy, and depression in patients. Relative to controls, behavioural variant FTD and semantic dementia, but not PNFA or Alzheimer's disease, patients showed clinically significant anhedonia, representing a clear departure from pre-morbid levels. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that anhedonia was associated with atrophy in an extended frontostriatal network including orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal, paracingulate and insular cortices, as well as the putamen. Although correlated on the behavioural level, the neural correlates of anhedonia were largely dissociable from that of apathy, with only a small region of overlap detected in the right orbitofrontal cortices whilst no overlapping regions were found between anhedonia and depression. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate profound anhedonia in FTD syndromes, reflecting atrophy of predominantly frontostriatal brain regions specialized for hedonic tone. Our findings point to the importance of considering anhedonia as a primary presenting feature of behavioural variant FTD and semantic dementia, with distinct neural drivers to that of apathy or depression. Future studies will be essential to address the impact of anhedonia on everyday activities, and to inform the development of targeted interventions to improve quality of life in patients and their families.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Encéfalo/patologia , Demência Frontotemporal/patologia , Idoso , Atrofia/patologia , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
17.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 46(9): 1650-1657, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833400

RESUMO

Dimensional models of anxiety and depression highlight common and distinct symptom clusters that are thought to reflect disruptions in underlying functional processes. The current study investigated how functioning of threat neurocircuitry relates to symptom dimensions of anxiety and depression. Participants were aged 18-19 years (n = 229, 158 female) and were selected to ensure a range of scores on symptom measures. Symptom dimensions of "General Distress" (common to anxiety disorders and depression), "Fears" (more specific to anxiety disorders), and "Anhedonia-apprehension" (more specific to depression) were evaluated. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm. Multilevel modeling analyses estimated relationships between symptom dimensions and activation in threat neural circuitry. Exploratory whole brain analyses were also conducted. Threat-related neural activity was not associated with General Distress or Fears. Anhedonia-apprehension was associated with activation of bilateral amygdala, anterior insula and dACC during late extinction. We found no evidence to support an association between symptom dimensions of General Distress or Fears with threat circuitry activation in a large sample of young adults. We did, however, find that the symptom dimension of Anhedonia-apprehension was significantly associated with threat-related neural activation during fear extinction. This effect requires replication in future work but may reflect anhedonic impairments in learning when contingencies are altered, possibly linked to the rewarding relief of an unexpectedly absent threat.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Extinção Psicológica , Mapeamento Encefálico , Condicionamento Clássico , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(8): 732-738, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865502

RESUMO

Predictive coding has played a transformative role in the study of psychosis, casting delusions and hallucinations as statistical inference in a system with abnormal precision. However, the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as affective blunting, avolition, and asociality, remain poorly understood. We propose a computational framework for emotional expression based on active inference-namely that affective behaviours such as smiling are driven by predictions about the social consequences of smiling. Similarly to how delusions and hallucinations can be explained by predictive uncertainty in sensory circuits, negative symptoms naturally arise from uncertainty in social prediction circuits. This perspective draws on computational principles to explain blunted facial expressiveness and apathy-anhedonia in schizophrenia. Its phenomenological consequences also shed light on the content of paranoid delusions and indistinctness of self-other boundaries. Close links are highlighted between social prediction, facial affect mirroring, and the fledgling study of interoception. Advances in automated analysis of facial expressions and acoustic speech patterns will allow empirical testing of these computational models of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Anedonia/fisiologia , Apatia/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Simulação por Computador , Delusões , Expressão Facial , Alucinações , Humanos , Interocepção , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
19.
Appetite ; 164: 105259, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857546

RESUMO

The current epidemic of COVID-19 has gained attention and highlighted the need for a better understanding of the population's mental health. Diet has been identified as an environmental determinant of mental health. In this regard, it has been suggested that the consumption of palatable foods represents a strategy to mitigate negative emotions, such as anxiety. This study aimed to evaluate the association between symptoms of anxiety and/or anhedonia to food consumption patterns during the period of COVID-19 quarantine in Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional study with non-randomized sampling via an online survey. A total of 1725 responses were collected. Each person self-answered the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale for anhedonia, the Food Intake Questionnaire, and questions regarding type and duration of lockdown, as well as body weight and food serving variation. Significant correlations were observed between fried food consumption and self-reported body weight. The subjects who consumed fried food three times a week, had higher weight (63.5%) (χ2 = 48.5 and p < 0.001). Those who ate one and two or more pastries on a week had 1.41 and 1.49, respectively higher odds of reporting increased body weight. We found a relationship anxiety level and sugar-sweetened beverages level (χ2 = 25.5; p 0.013), fast food intake (χ2 = 63.4; p < 0.001), and pastry consumption (χ2 = 37.7; p < 0.001). In conclusion, it is important to monitor the evolution of these findings since they could represent a risk of increased health problems in the future post-lockdown period.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , Anedonia , Ansiedade , Chile/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Brain Behav Immun ; 95: 238-244, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD) and often associated with poor prognosis. The main objective of the present study was to explore the relationship between complement factor H (CFH), inflammatory cytokines and anhedonia in drug-naïve MDD patients. METHODS: A total of 215 participants (61 MDD patients with anhedonia, 78 MDD patients without anhedonia, and 76 control subjects) were included. Severity of depression and levels of anhedonia were evaluated by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 (HAMD-17) and SHAPS (Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale). Plasma levels of CFH, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured. RESULTS: The plasma levels of CFH, IL-10 and TNF-α were higher in drug-naïve MDD patients than control subjects. Compared to MDD patients without anhedonia, patients with anhedonia showed higher levels of CFH and IL-6. The stepwise regression analysis revealed that IL-10, TNF-α, as well as IL-10 × TNF-α were associated with depressive symptoms measured by HAMD-17 in drug-naïve MDD patients, while only CFH levels were identified as a mediator factor for the severity of anhedonia in the patients. CONCLUSION: MDD patients with anhedonia showed different inflammatory characteristics compared to patients without anhedonia. Our results provide novel evidence suggesting that increased plasma CFH levels may be a potential biomarker of anhedonia of subtyping MDD.


Assuntos
Anedonia , Fator H do Complemento/análise , Citocinas/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Humanos
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