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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 205, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924764

RESUMO

The fossil record of the terminal Ediacaran Period is typified by the iconic index fossil Cloudina and its relatives. These tube-dwellers are presumed to be primitive metazoans, but resolving their phylogenetic identity has remained a point of contention. The root of the problem is a lack of diagnostic features; that is, phylogenetic interpretations have largely centered on the only available source of information-their external tubes. Here, using tomographic analyses of fossils from the Wood Canyon Formation (Nevada, USA), we report evidence of recognizable soft tissues within their external tubes. Although alternative interpretations are plausible, these internal cylindrical structures may be most appropriately interpreted as digestive tracts, which would be, to date, the earliest-known occurrence of such features in the fossil record. If this interpretation is correct, their nature as one-way through-guts not only provides evidence for establishing these fossils as definitive bilaterians but also has implications for the long-debated phylogenetic position of the broader cloudinomorphs.


Assuntos
Abdome/anatomia & histologia , Anelídeos/anatomia & histologia , Cnidários/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Animais , Anelídeos/classificação , Evolução Biológica , Cnidários/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos , Nevada , Filogenia
2.
Zootaxa ; 4577(3): zootaxa.4577.3.7, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715713

RESUMO

Two new Prionospio species-Prionospio solisi sp. nov. and Prionospio nonatoi sp. nov. and a new Laubieriellus species-Laubieriellus decapitata sp. nov. are described from Espírito Santo Basin, Southeast Brazil. For both Prionospio species, branchial pattern differed from the genus diagnosis, which is therefore emended. For Laubieriellus, a new species is described, and attention is drawn to the notch in the ventral crests, a structure that holds taxonomic value.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , Brasil
3.
Zootaxa ; 4577(2): zootaxa.4577.2.2, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715721

RESUMO

Capitellids are burrowing, earthworm-like polychaetes. The taxonomy within the group presents significant difficulties, due in part to their relative simplicity. In this study, a catalogue of the capitellid genus Notomastus M. Sars, 1851, is presented and a new species is described from the Southern Gulf of California: Notomastus mazatlanensis sp. nov. The catalogue provides original names and synonymies for 43 species; type locality and location of type materials; records and remarks on systematics and distribution. Type material of 35 species were examined, 31 from which were photographed to illustrate the catalogue. Notomastus mazatlanensis sp. nov. is established based on the presence of finger-like branchiae emerging from the epithelium near to the notopodia. Branchiae are composed by 3-4 filaments, and the first chaetiger is uniramous. A taxonomic key for species distributed in the Gulf of California is presented. [Species name is register in ZooBank under urn: lsid: zoobank.org: pub:CC8A9E5A-7810-4272-A23C-DCB054E5B4EB].


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Oligoquetos , Poliquetos , Animais , California
4.
Zootaxa ; 4571(4): zootaxa.4571.4.3, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715791

RESUMO

Two of the species of Pectinariidae previously reported from the Brazilian coast are herein described, together with a new species and also new record for the genus Petta Malmgren, 1866 for the southern Atlantic. Amphictene catharinensis (Grube, 1870) was described from material from off Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, but the most recent description for these animals comes from Nilsson (1928); a redescription for A. catharinensis is herein provided. Pectinaria nonatoi n. sp. was informally described as P. (Pectinaria) laelia nomen nudum in an unpublished thesis and a formal description has never been provided, although the species has been reported from several other localities off the Brazilian shoreline, mostly in ecological studies; the species is formally described herein and compared to the most similar congeners. Petta alissoni n. sp. is also described and compared to the most similar congeners and this is the first record for animals of this genus from southern Atlantic. There are also records for Pectinaria gouldii (Verrill, 1874) and P. regalis Verrill, 1901 from off the Brazilian coast, and a doubtful record for Lagis pseudokoreni (Day, 1955), but we did not find any material belonging to those taxa.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Orchidaceae , Poliquetos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil
5.
Zootaxa ; 4571(4): zootaxa.4571.4.7, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715795

RESUMO

The family Flabelligeridae was previously represented in Tunisia by four genera including four species: Bradabyssa villosa (Rathke, 1843), Therochaeta flabellata (M. Sars in G.O. Sars, 1872), Pherusa plumosa (Müller, 1776), and Piromis eruca (Claparède, 1869). In this paper we report a fifth genus, Trophoniella, for the first time in Tunisia. The specimens were collected in Radés Station, Gulf of Tunis (Central Mediterranean) and belong to a new species, namely Trophoniella radesiensis n. sp., which is characterized by having: (1) a very smooth tunic, body covered dorsally, ventrally, and laterally by sediment grains (except in the posterior region), and (2) well-developed parapodia showing short neurohooks from chaetiger 6 to 19 and anchylosed neurohooks from chaetiger 20. Based on the 16S, the new species belongs to a low supported Piromis/Trophoniella clade and shows a 16.1% of genetic distance from Trophoniella hephaistos Jimi Fujiwara, 2016, the single known species of the genus sequenced to date. [Zoobank lsid: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:D7C85C70-87FF-4AF4-8599-A8462B3FB8B1].


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , Tunísia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4571(2): zootaxa.4571.2.8, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715821

RESUMO

In a recently published article (Saglam et al. 2018) the name of a new species of Hirudinea (Annelida, Clitellata) was simultaneously published in three different ways, as Helobdella serendipitious (Saglam et al. 2018: 61, 70, 71, 73), Helobdella serendipitous (ibid.: 63, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74), and as Helobdella serendipidous (ibid.: 75). Acting as first reviser according to Article 24 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999) here we determine serendipitous as the correct spelling of the species epitheton.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Sanguessugas , Animais , Linguagem
7.
Zootaxa ; 4571(1): zootaxa.4571.1.8, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715834

RESUMO

The genus Naineris differs from other genera of the Orbiniidae in that all its species possess a rounded prostomium and one or two achaetous rings. Currently, 21 species of this genus have been described worldwide, five of which are recorded from Brazil. Naineris aurantiaca is the only species originally described from the Brazilian coast and the original description is the only record of this species. The description is short and vague, making identification difficult. From recent samples obtained in the type locality of Florianópolis, Brazil, we were able to study specimens of Naineris aurantiaca and redescribe the species. Diagnostic characters for this species are the presence of pre- and post-branchial papillae, anterior branchiae in thoracic segments considerably smaller than those of the rest of the body, distinct dorsal sensory organ from chaetiger 12 onwards, the chaetal arrangement of the thoracic neuropodia (crenulated capillaries in a lower oblique row, uncini in an upper oblique row, subuluncini in two anterior transverse rows, and acicular spines in a posterior row), interramal papillae only present on abdominal parapodia, and the presence of furcate chaetae in the abdominal notopodia. Here, we designate a neotype for the species and discuss the morphological variations we observed among specimens.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Abdome , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil
8.
Zootaxa ; 4568(2): zootaxa.4568.2.6, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715860

RESUMO

Here we describe two new species in the genus Branchiosyllis Ehlers, 1887 associated with sponges. Branchiosyllis belchiori sp. nov. was found in Todos os Santos Bay, state of Bahia, and in the Fernando de Noronha Island (Northeastern Brazil), and Branchiosyllis gonzaguinhai sp. nov. was found in the Fernando de Noronha Island and Rocas Atoll. We compare the species herein described with their morphologically most similar congeners and provide a synoptic table of the morphological variation among the type-series of the two new species. An identification key for the species of Branchiosyllis recorded in Brazil is also provided.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , Brasil , Ilhas
9.
Zootaxa ; 4567(3): zootaxa.4567.3.2, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715882

RESUMO

The monotypic genera Lycastonereis Rao, 1981 and Ganganereis Misra, 1999, and their respective species L. indica Rao, 1981 and G. sootai Misra, 1999, have unique morphological traits, and are only known from India and nearby countries. Lycastonereis is diagnosed by having three pairs of anterior cirri and biramous parapodia, whereas for Ganganereis the pharynx has partially sclerotized papillae arranged in a semi-continuous row in the maxillary ring, and chaetae include only spinigers throughout the body. The morphology of these species is not adequately understood as shown by their exclusion in phylogenetic analyses, and therefore an additional morphological evaluation is needed. The re-evaluation of the genera is based upon three specimens of L. indica and the original description of G. sootai. It is shown that L. indica has rounded papillae present in both maxillary and oral rings (not restricted to the oral ring), and in all areas except area V, and neuroacicular ligules are bilobed (not the postchaetal lobes). In addition, G. sootai is morphological similar to species of Paraleonnates Khlebovich Wu, 1962, mainly in the arrangement and kind of structures of the pharynx, parapodial morphology, and chaetae; therefore, G. sootai is transferred to Paraleonnates, and Ganganereis is regarded as a junior synonym of Paraleonnates. A key to species of Paraleonnates is included.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , Índia , Fenótipo , Filogenia
10.
Zootaxa ; 4674(2): zootaxa.4674.2.7, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716015

RESUMO

A new species of the Marphysa sanguinea group, M. iloiloensis n. sp. (Annelida: Eunicida: Eunicidae), is described from the Marine Annelids Hatchery of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, Aquaculture Department (SEAFDEC- AQD), Iloilo Province, Philippines. It represents the first record of this group in the Philippines. The new species is most similar morphologically to M. hongkongensa Wang, Zhang Qiu, 2018, but can be distinguished from it by having fewer branchial filaments, a pair of faint eyes (absent in M. hongkongensa), and in slight differences in jaw morphology and chaetation. The embryos of the new species develop inside a jelly cocoon attached to the entrance of the adult burrow; this is the first time that egg-containing cocoons have been found in any species of the sanguinea-group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) revealed that Marphysa iloiloensis n. sp. is genetically distinct from all other analysed Marphysa species and forms a sister group to M. hongkongensa. A revised identification key to members of the sanguinea-group in Southeast Asia is provided.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , Genes Mitocondriais , Filipinas , Filogenia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4671(3): zootaxa.4671.3.2, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716041

RESUMO

The formerly monotypic taxon, Hyalopale bispinosa Perkins 1985 (Chrysopetalinae), is comprised of a cryptic species complex from predominantly tropical embayments and island reefs of the Western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. Hyalopale species are of meiofaunal size (length: 1-2.8mm), but considered non-interstitial, with the majority of species inhabiting a singular habitat of shallow littoral zones among algae and epifauna overlying sediments in rubble. Hyalopale adults exhibit notochaetal fans characterized by the presence of lateral and midline notochaetal spines. Species of Hyalopale can be distinguished by the shape of glass-like notochaetal paleae and the number of densely stacked ribs. Hyalopale bispinosa forms a western and eastern Atlantic species complex, comprising the type species, Hyalopale bispinosa s.s., a comparatively larger form with the highest number of notochaetal paleael ribs from Florida, and Hyalopale cf. bispinosa, from the western and eastern Mediterranean, a smaller form with a similar notochaetal morphology to the latter. Unfortunately, no molecular sequence data is available for Hyalopale bispinosa s.s. Five new species are described, with molecular sequence data provided for three: Hyalopale leslieae sp. nov., a small form with a comparatively low number of paleal ribs, found from the Florida Keys to Belize, Caribbean Sea, H. zerofskii sp. nov. from southern California and Mexico, eastern Pacific and H. sapphiriglancyorum sp. nov., a distinctive species with the lowest number of paleael ribs, from Raja Ampat, Indonesia and the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, western Pacific. Two other species are described from morphology alone: H. angeliensis sp. nov. from Dampier, Western Australia and Seychelle Islands, eastern Indian Ocean and H. furfuricula sp. nov. from the Red Sea and Mozambique, western Indian Ocean, possessing a unique paleal brow shape. While well supported as a clade, support for relationships within Hyalopale is low. Hyalopale cf. bispinosa (Mediterranean) was recovered as sister group to the remaining Hyalopale, with H. leslieae sp. nov. as sister to the Hyalopale Pacific clade, comprising H. zerofskii sp. nov. (eastern Pacific) and H. sapphiriglancyorum sp. nov. (western Pacific). Within Chrysopetalinae, Hyalopale and Paleanotus formed a clade that was the sister group to the other paleate chrysopetalids under maximum likelihood, though Paleanotus grouped with the other paleate forms under maximum parsimony. The adult morphology of Hyalopale species is compared with that exhibited in the larvae of Paleanotus species; based on these results, including possession of a shared notochaetal character, Hyalopale is considered to contain paedomorphic taxa.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Animais , Região do Caribe , Oceano Índico , Ilhas , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4614(2): zootaxa.4614.2.3, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716379

RESUMO

Petta Malmgren, 1866 is a small and poorly known genus of the annelid family Pectinariidae Quatrefages, 1866. Prior to this study, the genus comprised four species P. pusilla Malmgren, 1866 (type locality Gullmarsfjord, west coast of Sweden), P. assimilis McIntosh, 1885 (type locality between Prince Edward and Kerguelen Island, southern Indian Ocean), P. pellucida (Ehlers, 1887) (type locality Santarem Channel between Cay Sal Bank and Bahamas, Caribbean Sea) and P. tenuis Caullery, 1944 (type locality Sulu, Philippines, tropical Pacific Ocean), the two last ones were known only from the original description. We revised the genus by re-examining the types and providing updated illustrated re-descriptions of its species, except for P. assimilis of which the type material has been lost. Commonly used morphological characters of the genus are expanded to also include new ones such as the presence of pair of lateral ear-shaped lobes adjacent to dorsal base of cephalic veil, pair of ventral lappets on segment 1, pair of dorso-lateral pads on segment 5, large basal hump on branchiae, and a rounded anterior peg with a blunt tip and a longitudinal row of two major teeth on uncini. The type species P. pusilla is recognised as having four lappets on the anterior margins of cephalic veil and a large lower lip posterior to buccal cavity. Two species P. investigatoris n. sp. and P. williamsonae n. sp. are described from deep water off the coast of southeastern Australia and represent the first records of this genus in Australian waters. A phylogenetic position of one new species was assessed in the framework of a phylogeny based on a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (mtCOI). An updated taxonomic key to Pectinariidae genera and all species of Petta is given.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Austrália , Bahamas , Região do Caribe , Oceano Índico , Ilhas , Oceano Pacífico , Filipinas , Filogenia , Suécia , Índias Ocidentais
13.
Zootaxa ; 4661(2): zootaxa.4661.2.7, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716713

RESUMO

Two new species of the new genus Decimodrilus gen. n. are described in this paper from oak forests of South Korea using a combination of classical morphology and DNA-based molecular taxonomy. A characteristic trait of the new genus is the occurrence of the intestinal diverticula in segments IX-X. The main morphological features of the new genus are: 4-5(6) straight chaetae per bundle, origin of dorsal vessel in clitellar region, anteseptale of nephridia consisting of funnel only, coelomocytes only mucocytes, oesophageal appendages absent, spermathecae united proximally and connected jointly with the oesophagus. Decimodrilus diverticulatus sp. n. has spermathecae with two diverticula-like protrusions and two globular sperm masses. D. globulatus sp. n. has spermathecae with two or three sperm rolls. Molecular taxonomic analysis based on a concatenated phylogenetic tree supports the status of the new genus and that of the two new species.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Oligoquetos , Animais , Florestas , Fenótipo , Filogenia , República da Coreia
14.
Zootaxa ; 4658(2): zootaxa.4658.2.4, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716744

RESUMO

The terrestrial leech Haemopis septagon Sawyer Shelley, 1976, is indigenous to the Great Dismal Swamp and environs of northeastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia, USA. Ever since its discovery in 1895 at Lake Drummond in the Dismal Swamp, this elusive species has been recognized as taxonomically aberrant. For example, it is the only jawed leech in the United States with seven annuli between gonopores, and the only one with sixteen complete (5-annulate) segments, both highly conserved characters in the Hirudinidae.                The discovery of two populations of H. septagon in the Albemarle Peninsula in the Outer Banks region of North Carolina afforded an opportunity to investigate the taxonomy and biology of this inadequately characterized species. Its description in this study is the first comprehensive account of the external and internal anatomy of this species since its incomplete original description in 1976. This study is also an opportunity to correct errors in the incomplete original description, and to elucidate morphological and developmental variability of taxonomic significance. Evidence is presented for the first time of a possible aquatic or semi-aquatic form of H. septagon.                These Albemarle individuals were compared to the holotype from Durham County, NC, specimens from southeastern Virginia and a terrestrial leech recently reported from southern New Jersey. All of these fall within the variability demonstrated in this study for the Albemarle populations, and are accordingly recognized as the same species, H. septagon.  Consequentially, Haemopis ottorum Wirchansky Shain, 2010, is recognized as a junior synonym of Haemopis septagon.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Sanguessugas , Animais , North Carolina , Estados Unidos , Virginia , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Zootaxa ; 4652(3): zootaxa.4652.3.4, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716856

RESUMO

A new galeommatid bivalve, Montacutona sigalionidcola sp. nov., is described from an intertidal flat in the southern end of the Kii Peninsula, Honshu Island, Japan. Unlike other members of the genus, this species is a commensal with the burrowing scale worm Pelogenia zeylanica (Willey) (Annelida: Sigalionidae) that lives in fine sand sediments. Specimens were always found attached to the dorsal surface of the anterior end of the host body. This species has a ligament lithodesma between diverging hinge teeth, which is characteristic of Montacutona Yamamoto Habe. However, it is morphologically distinguished from the other members of this genus in having elongate-oval shells with small gape at the posteroventral margin and lacking an outer demibranch. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the four-gene combined dataset (18S + 28S + H3 + COI) indicated that this species is monophyletic with Montacutona, Nipponomontacuta Yamamoto Habe and Koreamya Lützen, Hong Yamashita, which are commensals with sea anemones or Lingula brachiopods. This result suggests that host shifting across different phyla occurred at least twice in this clade.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Bivalves , Poliquetos , Animais , Japão , Filogenia
16.
Zootaxa ; 4652(3): zootaxa.4652.3.10, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716862

RESUMO

Two new species of nereidids, Dendronereis chipolini n. sp. and Neanthes hsinchuensis n. sp., collected from brackish aquaculture ponds near coasts of southern Taiwan and fouling community on docks of the Hsinchu fishing port in northwestern Taiwan, respectively, are described in the present study. Dendronereis chipolini n. sp. differs from its congeners by a combination of number and morphology of branchiae, morphology of neuropodia and form of neuropodial homogomph spinigers. Neanthes hsinchuensis n. sp. can be distinguished from congeners reported from East and Southeast Asia by a combination of numbers of conical paragnaths, morphology of notopodia, the absent/present of prechaetal lobe and forms of neuropodial chaetae. A key to Dendronereis species of the world is included, together with a table of morphological characters of Neanthes species reported from East and Southeast Asia, which have no conical paragnaths on Area V of the pharynx.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , Taiwan
17.
Zootaxa ; 4651(2): zootaxa.4651.2.2, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716908

RESUMO

In this paper, we report 10 species of Syllidae, collected in the Socotra Archipelago (Indian Ocean). They belong to eight different genera in four subfamilies namely, Syllinae: Haplosyllis Langerhans, 1879, Megasyllis San Martín, Hutchings Aguado, 2008, Opisthosyllis Langerhans, 1879, Trypanosyllis Claparède, 1864; Eusyllinae: Eusyllis Malmgren, 1867, Odontosyllis Claparède, 1863; Exogoninae: Salvatoria McIntosh, 1885; and Autolytinae: Myrianida Milne Edwards, 1845. Trypanosyllis mercedesae n. sp., is here formally described and distinguished from congeners. Trypanosyllis richardi Gravier, 1900 is re-described, adding important taxonomic information to the original description, based on specimens collected from Djibouti (Gulf of Aden). We provide new insight into the reproduction of Megasyllis heterosetosa (Hartmann-Schröder, 1991) with the description of a specimen with an attached female dicerous stolon, full of oocytes. Odontosyllis polycera (Schmarda, 1861) is described because it is newly recorded for the Indian Ocean. We also provide some remarks about Myrianida pachycera (Augener, 1913), collected with a chain of stolons.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , Feminino , Oceano Índico , Iêmen
18.
Zootaxa ; 4604(1): zootaxa.4604.1.9, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717208

RESUMO

The capitellid genus Leiocapitella is characterized by the possession of anterior 12-16 chaetigers exclusively with capillaries and the following 1-2 transitional chaetigers with notopodial capillaries and neuropodial hooded hooks. A new species was obtained from the continental shelf of the East China Sea, and is identified herein as Leiocapitella fujianensis. The new species differs from the other four described species by the number and location of transitional chaetigers, the dentition of abdominal hooks, and the methyl green stain on thorax. A key to all Leiocapitella species is provided in this paper.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , China
19.
Zootaxa ; 4637(1): zootaxa.4637.1.1, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712490

RESUMO

Abyssal polychaetes are usually difficult to be identified because they are small, their body patterns differ from their shallow water relatives, their delicate bodies are often damaged during sampling and sieving, and their taxonomy is in need of revision. Members of the family Fauveliopsidae Hartman, 1971 are widespread in deep ocean basins and they follow the above statements. In this contribution, we present a revision of all available type and non-type material for the family. Our objective is to provide keys to identify genera and species, as well as standardized diagnoses, and illustrations for most species, excluding those described since 2011, or where type material was not available. One genus, Riseriopsis n. gen., is proposed and four species are newly described. The Fauveliopsidae now includes 24 species in three genera: Fauveliopsis McIntosh, 1922 (13 species), Laubieriopsis Petersen, 2000 (8 species), and Riseriopsis n. gen. (3 species). Fauveliopsis includes species usually living inside gastropod or scaphopod shells or foraminiferan tubes, Laubieriopsis and Riseriopsis include species commonly regarded as free living, although some species of the latter have very long bodies and have been found inside soft tubes. Fauveliopsis includes: F. adriatica Katzmann Laubier, 1974, F. armata Fauchald Hancock, 1981, F. brattegardi Fauchald, 1972a, F. brevipodus Hartman, 1971, F. challengeriae McIntosh, 1922, F. glabra (Hartman in Hartman Barnard, 1960), F. jameoaquensis Núñez in Núñez, Ocaña Brito, 1997, F. levensteinae n. sp., F. magalhaesi n. sp., F. magna Fauchald Hancock, 1981, F. olgae Hartmann-Schröder, 1983, F. rugosa Fauchald, 1972b, and F. scabra Hartman Fauchald, 1971. Laubieriopsis includes: L. arenicola (Riser, 1987), L. blakei n. sp., L. brevis (Hartman, 1965), L. cabiochi (Amoureux, 1982), L. fauchaldi (Katzmann Laubier, 1974) n. comb., L. hartmanae (Levenstein, 1970) reinst., L. norvegica Zhadan Atroshchenko, 2012, and L. petersenae Magalhães, Bailey-Brock Rizzo, 2014. Riseriopsis includes: R. arabica (Hartman, 1976) n. comb., R. confusa (Thiel, Purschke Böggemann, 2011) n. comb., and R. santosae n. sp. Keywords. Deep-sea species, taxonomy, genital papillae, genera, species  Introduction The family-group name Fauveliopsidae was established by Hartman (1971) and derived from Fauveliopsis McIntosh, 1922. The genus-group name was dedicated to Pierre Fauvel, famous French polychaetologist, and the type species, F. challengeriae McIntosh, 1922, was described based on specimens collected during the HMS Challenger expedition. The phylogenetic affinities of fauveliopsids are unsettled in part due to the fact that only a few species have been included in past analyses; after the analysis of morphological and molecular characters (Zrzavý et al. 2009, figure 6), Fauveliopsidae groups with Cossuridae and Paraonidae, as a sister group to what has been regarded as Cirratuliformia (Cirratulidae, Acrocirridae, Flabelligeridae).            This family includes benthic species that are rarely abundant, and they tend to prefer silty bottoms. Most species have been described from deep-sea locations including trenchs (Menzies George 1967); however, a few shallow water species were described from the Canary Islands (5 m), New Zealand (20 m), and the Adriatic Sea (60 m). Members of the family are free living or find shelter in tubes of cemented silt grains (Blake Petersen 2000, Petersen 2000); they can also be found inside scaphopod, or gastropod mollusk shells, or inside tubular foraminiferans (Bathysiphon Sars, 1872). It should be noted, however, that typical Bathysiphon tests include sponge spicules, and that Psammosiphonella Avnimelech, 1952 was proposed for those agglutinated foraminiferans whose tests do not include sponge spicules; this latter genus has been regarded as distinct (Rögl 1995; Kaminski 2004; Kaminski et al. 2009). This is relevant because at least in some cases, as we show below, fauveliopsid tubes have a complex organization, such that other interpretations might be involved. Another interesting issue is that Malecki (1973) regarded these foraminiferan tests (Bathysiphon and Psammosiphonella) as polychaete tubes, because they lack the characteristic basal embryonic chamber, proloculus, which define foraminiferans. This idea was not followed and the above genera are still regarded as foraminiferans (Kaminski 2004).            Fauveliopsid bodies are subcylindrical, wider medially, or club-shaped; in the latter, the anterior region is the narrower one. Parapodia are displaced dorsally with notopodia being clearly dorsolateral, whereas neuropodia are lateral and chaetae are directed anteriorly, usually along anterior region, and it is related to free living species. The combination of a usually posterior wider region and the parapodial disposition, together with the presence of some anal papillae has made it difficult to assess body polarity and for some descriptions the body ends were incorrectly characterized (Laubier 1972:698; Hartman 1976:236, Fig. 12a). There are four morphological traits of typical polychaete body patterns that can explain this difficulty: 1) anterior region is wider than the rest of the body; 2) segments are less clear cut anteriorly; 3) chaetal bundles are displaced to the anterior border of each chaetiger, being displaced to the median region and eventually towards the posterior region in median to posterior chaetigers; and 4) chaetae are directed anteriorly in a few anterior chaetigers, and towards the posterior region in the rest of the body.            Surprisingly, these patterns are reversed among fauveliopsids because many have evolved to live within tubes, bending their bodies obliquely or ventrally, and by directing their chaetal bundles anteriorly (originally noticed by McIntosh 1922:6). These modifications could provide better anchoring for chaetae and parapodia. Inside gastropod shells, there are different conditions for what lies dorsally or ventrally; this might have selected for body modifications. For example, parapodia become dorsally displaced and this would enlarge ventral and lateral surface areas to be in close contact with the shell.            Katzmann Laubier (1974:10, Fig. 3C) showed that in some fauveliopsids the narrower region is exposed through the shell aperture. Blake Petersen (2000) clarified the body end confusion, standardized concepts about morphological features, and redescribed some species. However, earlier descriptions deserve re-evaluation because of a potential confusion of body ends. Riser (1987) provided some histological details and indicated that stomach contents consisted of foraminiferans and silt, whereas Purschke (1997) made SEM illustrations of nuchal organs.            Hartman (1971:1411) proposed Fauveliopsidae to include four genera that she regarded as flabelligerid-like: Bruunilla Hartman, 1971, Fauveliopsis, Flabelligella Hartman, 1965, and Flota Hartman, 1967. In a subsequent publication, Hartman (1974:199, 235) apparently changed her perspective and transferred Fauveliopsis to the Flabelligeridae; however, in a posthumous publication (Hartman 1978:175) she used the family as originally proposed.            The composition of the Fauveliopsidae has been modified over the years, with Orensanz (1974) transferring Flabelligella to Acrocirridae, Pettibone (1979) indicating that Bruunilla belongs in Polynoidae, and Buzhinskaja (1996) proposing an independent family for Flota. For the latter genus group name, Salazar-Vallejo Zhadan (2007) regarded it as a junior synonym of Buskiella McIntosh, 1885. The family was thus restricted to Fauveliopsis but it now also includes Laubieriopsis Petersen, 2000 and Riseriopsis n. gen.            Three major publications have addressed identification problems in Fauveliopsis. Katzmann Laubier (1974) prepared a key to species based upon the number of chaetigers, integument features and type of chaetae throughout body. Amoureux (1982) compiled the known species and pointed out their number of chaetigers. Hartmann-Schröder (1983) had a different approach and relied more on chaetal patterns than on number of chaetigers.            Because body ends were confused in some of the original descriptions, the species deserve reinterpretation. In order to standardize the morphological features, the diagnoses below combine these approaches and additional observations based upon specimens with some remarks about the match between previous descriptions and these standardized diagnoses, as made elsewhere for tropical American species (Salazar-Vallejo 2009).            In this contribution, we have dealt with all material available of fauveliopsid genera and species. We propose a new genus, Riseriopsis n. gen., to include two species of Fauveliopsis provided with long, posteriorly swollen bodies, with long segments along median region, and two known species are newly combined. Further, four species are newly described, and another one, Laubieriopsis hartmanae (Levenstein, 1970), is redescribed and reinstated.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , Feminino , Nova Zelândia , Filogenia , Espanha
20.
Zootaxa ; 4629(2): zootaxa.4629.2.1, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712518

RESUMO

Abyssal polychaetes of the family Cirratulidae were collected as part of reconnaissance and benthic impact experimental surveys at Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone manganese nodule sites in 1984 and 1993-1994. All specimens were collected from the 4500-4900 m depth range. Twelve species of Cirratulidae were identified, of which 11 are new to science. Aphelochaeta abyssalis n. sp., A. clarionensis n. sp., A. clippertonensis n. sp., A. spargosis n. sp., A. tanyperistomia n. sp., A. wilsoni n. sp., Caulleriella bathytata n. sp., Chaetozone akaina n. sp., C. grasslei n. sp., C. truebloodi n. sp. and Tharyx hessleri n. sp. Most of these species are small deposit-feeding threadlike worms that reside in the upper 5 cm of the sediment and represent a unique assemblage of abyssal taxa.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Poliquetos , Animais , Oceano Pacífico
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