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1.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 190, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Papua (Indonesia), infants with P. falciparum and/or P. vivax malaria are at risk of severe anaemia and death. We hypothesized that in an area of high malaria transmission, intermittent screening and treatment of infants with malaria (ISTi) will reduce morbidity compared to passive case detection (PCDi). METHODS: We conducted a cluster randomised, open label, superiority trial. A total of 21 clusters of village health posts (VHP) were randomised 1:1 to either IST for infants coinciding with 4 routine immunisation visits or PCDi. Healthy term infants born to consenting mothers enrolled into a maternal malaria cluster randomised trial were included in the study and followed for 12 months. Point of care malaria rapid diagnostic tests were used to detect peripheral parasitaemia at 2, 3, 4 and 9 months old in all infants in ISTi clusters and when symptomatic in PCDi clusters. Infants with detected peripheral parasitaemia were treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. The co-primary outcomes were the incidence rate of clinical malaria in the first year of life and the prevalence of parasitaemia at age 12 months. The incidence rate ratio and prevalence ratio between ISTi and PCDi were estimated using mixed-effects Poisson and log-binomial regression modelling (accounting for clustering at VHP level). RESULTS: Between May 2014 and February 2017, 757 infants were enrolled into the study, 313 into 10 ISTi clusters, and 444 into 11 PCDi clusters. Overall, 132 episodes of parasitaemia were detected, of whom 17 (12.9%) were in symptomatic infants. Over 12 months, the incidence rate (IR) of clinical malaria was 24 [95% CI, 10-50] per 1000 children-years at risk in the ISTi arm and 19 [95% CI, 8,38] per 1000 children-years in the PCDi arm (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 1.77 [95% CI, 0.62-5.01]; p = 0.280). The prevalence of parasitaemia at 12 months was 13% (33/254) in the IST clusters and 15% (57/379) in the PCD clusters (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 0.92 (95% CI, 0.70-1.21), p = 0.55). There was no difference in the risk of anaemia between treatment arms. CONCLUSIONS: In high malaria transmission area outside of Africa, our study suggests that compared to PCDi, ISTi offers no significant benefit in reducing the risk of clinical malaria in infants born to women receiving effective protection from malaria during pregnancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02001428 , registered on 20 Nov 2013.


Assuntos
Anemia , Antimaláricos , Malária Falciparum , Malária Vivax , Malária , Anemia/epidemiologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/diagnóstico , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Vacinação
2.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 626, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation is associated with increased production of interleukin 6 (IL6), which is intensified by radiotherapy (RT) induced inflammatory response. Elevated IL6 levels intensifies RT-induced anemia by upregulating hepcidin causing functional iron deficiency. Cetuximab, an EGFR inhibitor, has been associated with lower rates of anemia for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We hypothesized that concomitant cetuximab could prevent RT-induced anemia. METHODS: We queried our institutional head and neck cancers database for non-metastatic HNSCC cases that received RT with concomitant cetuximab or RT-only between 2006 and 2018. Cetuximab was administered for some high-risk cases medically unfit for platinum agents per multidisciplinary team evaluation. We only included patients who had at least one complete blood count in the 4 months preceding and after RT. We compared the prevalence of anemia (defined as hemoglobin (Hb) below 12 g/dL in females and 13 g/dL in males) and mean Hb levels at baseline and after RT. Improvement of anemia/Hb (resolution of baseline anemia and/or an increase of baseline Hb ≥1 g/dL after RT), and overall survival (OS) in relation to anemia/Hb dynamics were also compared. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients were identified equally distributed between cetuximab-plus-RT and RT-only groups. The cetuximab-plus-RT group had more locally-advanced stage, oropharyngeal and high grade tumors (p < 0.001 for all). Baseline anemia/Hb were similar, however anemia after RT conclusion was higher in the cetuximab-plus-RT vs RT-only (63.5% vs. 44.2%; p = 0.017), with a mean Hb of 11.98 g/dL vs. 12.9 g/dL; p = 0.003, for both respectively. This contributed to significantly worse anemia/Hb improvement for cetuximab-plus-RT (18.8% vs. 37.2%; p = 0.007). This effect was maintained after adjusting for other factors in multivariate analysis. The prevalence of iron, vitamin-B12 and folate deficiencies; and chronic kidney disease, was non-different. Baseline anemia was associated with worse OS (p = 0.0052) for the whole study cohort. Nevertheless, improvement of anemia/Hb was only marginally associated with better OS (p = 0.068). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previous studies, cetuximab was not associated with lower rates of anemia after RT for nonmetastatic HNSCC patients compared to RT-alone. Dedicated prospective studies are needed to elucidate the effect of cetuximab on RT-induced anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Cetuximab/efeitos adversos , Receptores ErbB , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Masculino , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e057235, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors at the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among HIV-infected adults at Debre Markos Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. METHODS: An institution-based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 473 patients' charts enrolled from 2014 to 2018 at Debre Markos Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Patients' chart numbers were selected from the computer using a simple random sampling technique. Data were entered using Epi Info V.7.2.2.6 and analysed with Stata V.14.0. Anaemia prevalence at the time of ART initiation was computed and described using frequency tables. To identify factors for anaemia, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted. Model fitness was checked using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. RESULTS: From 473 patients' charts, 468 charts were included in the analysis, and a total of 164 anaemia cases were recorded. The overall prevalence of anaemia among HIV-infected adults at the time of ART initiation was 35.04% (95% CI: 30.84% to 39.49%). After multivariate analysis, an increased risk of anaemia was seen among males (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.45; 95% CI: 1.51 to 3.98); those not attending formal education (AOR=2.38; 95% CI: 1.12 to 5.05); those who had baseline CD4+ T cell count ≤200 cells/mm3 (AOR=4.67; 95% CI: 2.78 to 7.85); had body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2 (AOR=2.43; 95% CI: 1.42 to 4.16) and had ambulatory/bedridden baseline functional status (AOR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.41 to 5.12). CONCLUSION: The current study showed that a significant proportion of HIV-infected adults developed anaemia at the time of ART initiation. Hence, giving special attention to those who have not attended formal education, were males, had decreased baseline CD4+ T cell count, had lower BMI and patients with ambulatory/bedridden baseline functional status is crucial to reduce the health impact of anaemia. The result will provide insight into the development of new anaemia preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Anemia , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitais Especializados , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 2212624, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685513

RESUMO

Introduction: Anemia is indeed a significant risk factor for children's health as it affects growth retardation and has severe short and prolonged effects that follow in morbidity and death. Notwithstanding such ways to tackle anemia, the prevalence remains high in India and poses a severe public health concern. Objectives: The primary focus of this study was to find the prevalence and to determine the factors associated with the anemia of children under five years of age in India. Problem Statement. The increasing prevalence of childhood anemia and the life-threatening consequences for millions of children in India are a major concern. Knowing the relevant associated factors with childhood anemia is essential to reduce the frequency and severity level. Study design. For analysis purposes, this study utilized a cross-sectional study design. Methodology. Using the Indian Demographic and Health Survey 2015-16 data, we used chi-squared and gamma tests to find the association. Then, we utilized multinomial logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression to find the better model and the influencing factors of anemia in India. Results: In our study, we have found that children with highly educated mothers were 36.7% less likely (OR = 0.633, P ≤ 0.001, 95% CI: 0.608, 0.658) to be higher anemic than the children with not educated mother. Children with moderate and severe anemic mothers were 163.3% (OR = 2.633, P ≤ 0.001, 95% CI: 2.565, 7.704) more likely to be higher anemic than the children with not anemic mother. Not stunting children were 21.9% (OR = 0.781, P ≤ 0.001, 95% CI: 0 .764, 0.797) less likely to be higher anemic than the stunting children. Children aged 36-59 months were 73.9% (OR = 0.361, P ≤ 0.001, 95% CI: 0.353, 0.369) less likely to be higher anemic than the children aged 6-24 months. Again, the ACI value revealed that ordinal logistic regression was a better-fitted model for these data. Conclusion: and contribution. The variables such as stunting, underweight, wasting, child age, size of the child, and source of drinking water were the most critical indicators for child anemia in India. In summary, our study result indicated the major socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with childhood anemia in India, which can help the policymaker to take quick decision to reduce the severity level.


Assuntos
Anemia , Anemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos do Crescimento/complicações , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 228, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the lungs. Variation in whole blood cell lines is caused by the progression and severity of asthma. Common hematological abnormalities encountered during asthma include eosinophilia, neutrophilia, leukocytosis, and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The main aim of this study was to assess the selected hematological abnormalities and their associated factors among asthmatic patients in Northwest Ethiopia from March to May 2021. METHODOLOGY: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 320 asthmatic patients in Northwest Ethiopia. A simple random sampling technique was employed to select study participants. A pre-tested structured questionnaire and a checklist were used to collect data. Blood samples were collected from asthmatic patients for complete blood count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate determination. Hematological profiles were analyzed by Unicel DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter, Ireland). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was determined by using the Westergren method. The data were entered into EpiData version 3.0.4 and analyzed with a statistical package for social science version 20 software. The bi-variable and multi-variable binary logistic regression models were used to assess the factors associated with hematological abnormalities. A p value of less than 0.05 in the multivariable logistic regression analysis was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of neutrophilia, eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, and basophilia was 35.3%, 20%, 11.9%, 10.3%, and 4.1%, respectively. Neutrophilia was associated with a lack of physical activity (AOR = 3.25; 95% CI 1.43-7.37) and a history of taking non-asthmatic drugs within the previous three months (AOR = 2.63; 95% CI 1.22-5.65). Being admitted to the emergency department (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI 0.11-5.67) was found to be associated with eosinophilia. In addition, being admitted to the emergency department (AOR = 5.44; 95%CI: 2.6-11.3) was associated with thrombocytopenia. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated the predominant prevalence of neutrophilia, followed by eosinophilia, among asthma patients. Therefore, hematological abnormalities should be taken into account for proper monitoring and management of asthmatic patients.


Assuntos
Anemia , Asma , Trombocitopenia , Anemia/epidemiologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leucocitose
6.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 206, 2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative hemoglobin drop after noncardiac surgery is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). However, opinion on the tolerable difference in postoperative hemoglobin drop in patients with different preoperative hemoglobin levels does not reach a consensus. This study aimed to identify hemoglobin drop thresholds for AKI after noncardiac surgery stratified by preoperative hemoglobin levels. METHOD: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study for elective noncardiac surgery from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2018. The endpoint was the occurrence of AKI 7 days postoperatively in the hospital. The generalized additive model described the non-linear relationship between hemoglobin drop and AKI occurrence. The minimum P-value approach identified cut-off points of hemoglobin drop within postoperative 7 days for patients with or without preoperative anemia. Stratified by preoperative anemia, hemoglobin drop's odds ratio as continuous, quintile and dichotomous variables by various cut-off points for postoperative AKI were calculated in multivariate logistic regression models before and after propensity score weighting (PSW). RESULTS: Of the 35,631 surgery, 5.9% (2105 cases) suffered postoperative AKI. Non-linearity was found between hemoglobin drop and postoperative AKI occurrence. The thresholds and corresponding odds ratio of perioperative hemoglobin drop for patients with and without preoperative anemia were 18 g/L (1.38 (95%CI 1.14 -1.62), P < .001; after PSW: 1.42 (95%CI 1.17 -1.74), P < .001) and 43 g/L (1.81 (95%CI 1.35-2.27), P < .001; after PSW: 2.88 (95%CI 1.85-4.50), P < .001) respectively. Overall thresholds and corresponding odds ratio were 43 g/L (1.82 (95%CI 1.42-2.21)), P < .001; after PSW: 3.29 (95%CI 2.00-5.40), P < .001). Sensitivity analysis showed similar results. Heterogeneity subgroup analysis showed that intraoperatively female patients undergoing intraperitoneal surgery without colloid infusion seemed to be more vulnerable to higher hemoglobin drop. Further analysis showed a possible linear relationship between preoperative hemoglobin and perioperative hemoglobin drop thresholds. Additionally, this study found that the creatinine level changed simultaneously with hemoglobin level within five postoperative days. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity of hemoglobin drop endurability exists after noncardiac non-kidney surgery. More care and earlier intervention should be put on patients with preoperative anemia.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Anemia , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 333, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood stunting and anemia are on the increase in many resource-constrained settings, without a counter increase in proper feeding practices such as exclusive breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of stunting, anemia and exclusive breastfeeding across African countries. METHODS: Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from 39 African countries was analyzed. Data from under 5 children were analyzed. Forest plot was used to determine inequalities in the prevalence of the outcome variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of stunting was highest in Burundi (56%), Madagascar (50%) and Niger (44%). In addition, Burkina Faso (88%), Mali (82%), Cote d'Ivoire and Guinea (75% each) and Niger (73%) had the highest prevalence of anemia. Furthermore, Burundi (83%), Rwanda (81%) and Zambia (70%) had the highest exclusive breastfeeding. We found statistical significant difference in the prevalence of stunting, anemia and exclusive breastfeeding (p < 0.001). Higher prevalence of stunting and anemia were estimated among the male, rural residents, those having mothers with low education and from poor household wealth. CONCLUSION: Concerted efforts are required to improve childhood health, survival and proper feeding practice. Reduced stunting and anemia could be achieved through sustained socioeconomic improvement that is shared in equity and equality among the population. Interventions aimed at increasing food availability can also aid in the reduction of hunger, particularly in impoverished communities.


Assuntos
Anemia , Aleitamento Materno , Anemia/epidemiologia , Burkina Faso , Criança , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 867888, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719616

RESUMO

Background: Anemia is a significant public health issue, accounting for 20-40% of maternal deaths. Despite the government's commitment and the interventions of various stakeholders, the magnitude and major risk factors of anemia remain unabated. Though there are few documented studies on anemia among pregnant women in eastern Ethiopia in general, in the study area in particular, some of the variables such as helminthics and history of caesarian section in relation to anemia need to be studied. As a result, the purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in University Hospital in eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 456 clients who were attending antenatal care in Hiwot Fana specialized university hospital from 01 to 30 June 2021. Systematic sampling was used to select the study participants. A pretested and structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and sample collection were used to collect the data. The data were coded, double-entered to Epi data version 3.1, cleaned, and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to present frequency distributions. Variables with p-value < 0.25 during bivariate analysis were entered into the multivariate logistic regression models to control for all possible confounders to identify the factors associated with a magnitude of anemia. Odds ratio along with 95% CI were estimated to measure the strength of the association. The level of statistical significance was declared at a p-value of < 0.05. Result: A total of 456 participants were interviewed, with a response rate of 96.9%. The magnitude of anemia among pregnant women was 112 [(25.3%) 95%CI: (21.5-29.2%)], of which, 27 (6.10%), 36 (8.13%), and 49 (11.08%) had mild, moderate, and severe anemia, respectively. Birth interval < 2 years [AOR: 3.24, (95% CI: (1.88, 4.32)], number of children ≥2 [AOR: 2.54, (95% CI: (1.12, 4.64)], monthly income < 1,000 birr [AOR: 2.89, (95% CI: (1.31, 5.58)], third trimester pregnancy [AOR: 2.89, (95% CI: 4.86, 12.62)], and abnormal menstrual history [AOR: 2.28, (95% CI: (1.69, 5.24)] were the factors significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion: Anemia among pregnant women was relatively high compared to previous studies. Birth intervals, number of children, history of menstrual disorder, monthly income, and trimester of pregnancy were all significantly associated with anemia in pregnant women.


Assuntos
Anemia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Anemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes
9.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e36, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720169

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to determine nutritional anaemia using haemoglobin levels of female nursing undergraduates studying at Farasan Island with the purpose to intervene at a point, before the potential problems become serious later in life. In total, 130 apparently healthy, female students of Department of Nursing were recruited by a random sampling method to collect information on socio-demographic, lifestyle and anthropogenic characteristics, and dietary habits including breakfast skipping. Haemoglobin content was estimated using Sahli's Haemoglobinometer and observations were interpreted as per WHO's criteria for anaemia. Body mass index (BMI) was recorded using a digital weighing machine. Correlation between haemoglobin concentration, breakfast skipping and body mass index of study participants was assessed by Pearson's correlation. Data analyses were done using Origin software. Overall, 51⋅6 % (n = 67) students were all together anaemic with 28⋅5 % (n = 37) had mild anaemia, 15⋅4 % (n = 20) moderate and 7⋅69 % (n = 10) had severe anaemia. Of these, 20⋅8 % (n = 27) were underweight, 63⋅8 % (n = 83) normal weight and 15⋅4 % (n = 20) were above normal weight (over weight and obese). The Hb content showed a positive correlation with the BMI and exhibited an increasing trend with increase in the BMI among study participants (P < 0⋅05). Questionnaire analyses revealed that the majority (96⋅9 %, n = 126) of students were taking junk food as bulk of their meal. A strong negative correlation was recorded between Hb contents and breakfast skipping tendencies (r = -0⋅987, P < 0⋅05). Findings of the present study are of high significance for public health professionals and educators to prioritise actions that could motivate these future nurses to adapt healthy lifestyles to strategically combat nutritional anaemia.


Assuntos
Anemia , Desjejum , Anemia/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Estudantes
10.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268654, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617296

RESUMO

In Africa, children aged 5 to 15 years (school age) comprises more than 50% (>339 million) of the under 19 years population, and are highly burdened by malaria and anaemia that impair cognitive development. For the prospects of improving health in African citizens, understanding malaria and its relation to anaemia in school-aged children, it is crucial to inform targeted interventions for malaria control and accelerate elimination efforts as part of improved school health policy. We conducted a study to determine the risk factors for asymptomatic malaria and their association to anaemia. We explored the prevalence of antimalarial drug resistance as well as the association of asymptomatic malaria infection and anaemia on cognitive and psychomotor functions in school-aged children living in high endemic areas. This study was a comprehensive baseline survey, within the scope of a randomised, controlled trial on the effectiveness and safety of antimalarial drugs in preventing malaria and its related morbidity in schoolchildren. We enrolled 1,587 schoolchildren from 7 primary schools located in Muheza, north-eastern Tanzania. Finger-pricked blood samples were collected for estimation of malaria parasitaemia using a microscope, haemoglobin concentration using a haemoglobinometer, and markers of drug resistance processed from dried blood spots (DBS). Psychomotor and Cognitive functions were assessed using a '20 metre Shuttle run' and a test of everyday attention for children (TEA-Ch), respectively. The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia, anaemia and stunting was 26.4%, 49.8%, and 21.0%, respectively with marked variation across schools. In multivariate models, asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia attributed to 61% of anaemia with a respective population attribution fraction of 16%. Stunting, not sleeping under a bednet and illiterate parent or guardian were other factors attributing to 7%, 9%, and 5% of anaemia in the study population, respectively. Factors such as age group (10-15 years), not sleeping under a bednet, low socioeconomic status, parents' or guardians' with a low level of education, children overcrowding in a household, and fewer rooms in a household were significantly attributed to higher malaria infection. There was no significant association between malaria infection or anaemia and performance on tests of cognitive function (sustained attention) or psychomotor function (VO2 max). However, a history of malaria in the past one month was significantly associated with decreased cognitive scores (aOR = -4.1, 95% CI -7.7-0.6, p = 0.02). Furthermore, stunted children had significantly lower VO2max scores (aOR = -1.9, 95% CI -3.0-0.8, p = 0.001). Regarding the antimalarial drug resistance markers, the most prevalent Pfmdr1 86-184-1034-1042-1246 haplotypes were the NFSND in 47% (n = 88) and the NYSND in 52% (n = 98). The wild type Pfcrt haplotypes (codons 72-76, CVMNK) were found in 99.1% (n = 219) of the samples. Malaria, stunting and parents' or guardians' illiteracy were the key attributable factors for anaemia in schoolchildren. Given malaria infection in schoolchildren is mostly asymptomatic; an addition of interventional programmes such as intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in schoolchildren (IPTsc) would probably act as a potential solution while calling for an improvement in the current tools such as bednet use, school food programme, and community-based (customised) health education with an emphasis on nutrition and malaria control.


Assuntos
Anemia , Antimaláricos , Malária , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Assintomáticas , Criança , Cognição , Transtornos do Crescimento/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malária/complicações , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e051921, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the association between high-risk fertility behaviour and childhood anaemia in sub-Saharan Africa . DESIGN: An analytical study was conducted using cross-sectional data from mothers with children under age 5 (n=64 512) from 28 sub-Saharan African countries. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted to examine the association between high-risk fertility behaviour and childhood anaemia. The results were presented using adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). SETTING: Twenty-eight sub-Saharan African countries. OUTCOME MEASURE: Childhood anaemia. RESULTS: The percentage of children with anaemia in the 28 countries was 66.7%. We found that age more than 34 at delivery and short birth interval had significant associations with childhood anaemia. Children of mothers whose most recent delivery occurred after 34 years were less likely to be anaemic compared with those whose most recent delivery occurred before age 34 (aOR=0.89; 95% CI 0.83 to 0.95). We found that children born to mothers with short birth intervals were more likely to be anaemic, compared with those with long birth intervals (aOR=1.08; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16). CONCLUSIONS: We, therefore, draw the attention of policy makers and programme implementers to invest in policies and programmes aimed at combating childhood anaemia in sub-Saharan Africa to focus on the population at risk, that is, women whose most recent delivery occurred at younger ages and those with short birth intervals. Encouraging contraceptive use and creating awareness about the importance of birth spacing among reproductive-age women would be more helpful.


Assuntos
Anemia , Mães , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Anemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(5): 1859-1871, 2022 May.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594481

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is a toxic substance, and fish consumption is one of the main sources of exposure for the population. This article aims to evaluate the association between exposure to Hg and anemia among children and adolescents from six riverside communities in the Brazilian Amazon. Secondary data analysis from cross-sectional studies, including 1,318 individuals, divided into two groups according to gold mining exposure (group A under the influence, and group B without it). Multivariate analysis methods were performed to assess the association between exposure to Hg (hair Hg) and anemia, stratifying by groups. Three hundred and forty-eight anemia cases were observed (27.1%), with 206 from group B and 142 out of group A. There was a difference in the median of Hg levels between groups (A = 12.8µg/g and B = 4.3µg/g, p = 0.01). An association was observed between hair Hg levels ≥ 6.0µg/g and anemia (OR = 1.38; 95%CI = 1.02-1.87), a fact that was magnified for group A, when stratification was performed (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.28-3.90). This study showed high Hg levels, especially in group A and this substance might be a possible risk factor for anemia. Also, geographical areas seemed to modify this effect, pointing to the influence of other factors, which should be better evaluated.


O mercúrio (Hg) é uma substância tóxica, sendo o consumo de pescados uma das principais fontes de exposição da população. Este artigo visa avaliar a associação entre anemia e exposição ao Hg na população infanto-juvenil de seis comunidades ribeirinhas da Amazônia Brasileira. Realizou-se a análise secundária de dados de estudos seccionais, incluindo 1.318 indivíduos, divididos em dois grupos segundo a influência do garimpo (grupo A sob influência, e grupo B sem influência). Métodos de análise multivariada foram realizados para verificar a associação entre variável de exposição (Hg no cabelo) e anemia, estratificando pelos grupos. Foram observados 348 casos de anemia (27,1%), sendo 206 entre o grupo B e 142 no grupo A. Houve diferença na mediana dos níveis de Hg entre os grupos (A = 12,8µg/g e B = 4,3µg/g, p = 0,01). Foi observada associação entre Hg no cabelo ≥ 6,0µg/g e anemia (OR = 1,38; IC95% = 1,02-1,87), fato que foi magnificado para o grupo A quando realizada estratificação (OR = 2,23; IC95% = 1,28-3,90). O estudo mostrou elevados níveis de Hg, principalmente no grupo A, e que essa substância pode ser um possível fator de risco para anemia. Além disso, as áreas geográficas pareceram modificar esse efeito, apontando para influência de outros fatores, fato que deve ser melhor avaliado.


Assuntos
Anemia , Mercúrio , Adolescente , Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Anemia/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Peixes , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Mineração
13.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221086919, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510934

RESUMO

Anaemia during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Despite its wide scope and adverse effects including increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, and long-term adverse effects on the newborn, appropriate interventions using upstream approaches to public health have largely not been implemented. This study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of anaemia among pregnant women in four health facilities in the Kwabre East Municipality. A cross-sectional survey with a two-stage sampling technique was conducted on 220 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at the selected health facilities. Interview-based structured questionnaires were used. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors. The prevalence of anaemia was 11.4%. Few women (25) were anaemic and morphologically, 14 (56%) had normocytic normochromic anaemia and 9 (36%) had microcytic hypochromic anaemia. Iron deficiency was reported in 19 (8.6%) pregnant women. Independent predictors of anaemia were iron sulphate intake (AOR [95% CI] = 3.16 [1.15, 7.37], ANC follow-up during pregnancy (AOR [95% CI] = 3.07 [1.59, 7.99], household size of ≥5 (AOR [95% CI] = 3.58 [1.75, 9.52], folic acid intake (AOR [95% CI] = 5.29 [2.65, 12.39] and the period in pregnancy AOR [95% CI] = ≥36 weeks 3.2 (1.3-4.5). Though anaemia prevalence has been low in urban areas as previously reported, collaborated healthcare measures that aim at eradicating the menace are encouraged. Maternal healthcare interventions including the administration of folic acid, regular iron sulphate intake and intensive education on early ANC are recommended.


Assuntos
Anemia , Gestantes , Anemia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ferro , Gravidez , Prevalência , Sulfatos
14.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 14(1): e1-e9, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Anaemia is a global health problem affecting about a third of the world's population. In pregnancy, it is a public health concern with consequences for mothers and infants, including maternal death and infant mortality. In low-income countries (LICs), 25% indirect maternal mortality and 30% neonatal deaths are due to anaemia in pregnancy. AIM:  This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risks associated with anaemia amongst pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) in three health facilities in Eswatini. SETTING:  This study was conducted in three health facilities in Eswatini, namely Mankayane, Raleigh Fitkin Memorial (RFM) and Mbabane Hospital. METHODS:  This cross-sectional study used non-probability sampling in three hospitals of Eswatini, to select 550 pregnant women, aged 15-49 years. Data were collected from January to March 2021, using face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS:  A total of 550 pregnant women were included in the study. Anaemia prevalence amongst pregnant women was 43.1% with mild, moderate and severe cases of 21.3%; 21.1% and 0.7%, respectively. Prevalence was high amongst women aged 15-19 years (53.3%). Factors associated with anaemia included living in urban areas (odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-2.72), having anaemia 6 months before pregnancy (OR: 4.64; CI: 1.15-18.71), and gestational age at first ANC: third trimester (OR = 10.42; CI: 4.27-25.4) and second trimester (OR: 1.62; CI: 1.02-2.60). CONCLUSION:  Anaemia remains prevalent amongst pregnant women in Eswatini. A comprehensive anaemia prevention programme would be justified and could lower the country's burden of anaemia.


Assuntos
Anemia , Gestantes , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Essuatíni/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
15.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268129, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is a disorder by which the body's red blood cells are inadequate to fulfill The physiological needs of the body. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines anemia as having a hemoglobin (Hb) level of less than 120 g/l for nonpregnant women and 110 g/l for pregnant women. It has serious implications for human health as well as negative social and economic consequences like decreased workforce, impaired learning, and stunted child development. As these women are highly vulnerable to different micro and macro-nutritive deficiency associated with rapid physical, mental and psychological development, particular attention should be given to a young woman (15-24). Therefore this study assesses the magnitude and determinants of anemia among young women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis based on the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) data conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. We pooled the most recent DHS surveys done in 31 sub-Sahara Africa and a total weighted sample of 88, 832 young women (15-24 years) were included. At bivariable analysis, variables with a p-value of ≤0.2 were selected for multivariable analysis, and at the multivariable analysis variables with a p-value of ≤0.05 were considered as a significant factor associated with anemia among young women (15-24 years). RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of anemia among young women (15-24) in sub-Sahara Africa was 42.17% [95%CI: 41.85, 42.50]. Young women of aged 20-24 years [AOR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.89-0.95], women from rich household [AOR = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.80-0.87], young women with primary [AOR = 0.7, 95%CI: 0.67-0.72], secondary [AOR = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.69-0.75] and higher educational status [AOR = 0.58, 95%CI: 0.53-0.64], married women [AOR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.08-1.17], divorced/separated/widowed women [AOR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.08-1.25], women who use modern contraceptive [AOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.62-0.67], young women who ever had terminated pregnancy [AOR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.14-1.29], overweight young woman [AOR = 0.79, 95%CI: 0.76-0.82] and young women from female-headed household [AOR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.91-0.97] were the individual-level factors that significantly associated with anemia of young women. Meanwhile, being a rural dweller [AOR = 0.82, 95%CI: 0.79-0.85] and high community educational level [AOR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.70-0.97] were the community level determinant of anemia. Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Median Odds Ratio (MOR) and Percentage change in variance (PCV) were done for the assessment of the random effect model of the multilevel analysis. The ICC value in the null model was 0.05, which indicates that 5% of the variation in anemia among young women in sub-Saharan Africa was attributed to community-level factors. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia among young women in this study was higher compared with reports from the previous studies. Divorced/separated/widowed women, married women and women with ever terminated pregnancy, young women with primary, secondary and higher educational achievement, being rural dwellers, young women aged 20-24 years, being from rich households and women who used modern contraceptives were factors that significantly associated with anemia among young women. Therefore, particular attention should be given to those higher-risk women including, young women with a history of a terminated pregnancy, those from rural areas and young women aged 15-19 years to reduce the burden of anemia among these young women as the continuity of the future generation depends on the health of young women.


Assuntos
Anemia , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Anemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Análise Multinível , Gravidez
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627766

RESUMO

Anemia and dyslipidemia often occurs in premenopausal women. This study investigated the association between dietary patterns and anemia among dyslipidemic women in Taiwan. This study recruited 22,631 dyslipidemic women aged 20-45 years between 2001 and 2015. The dietary assessment was collected by a validated food frequency questionnaire. The biochemical data including blood lipids, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were retrieved from the database. Women with a combined high plant diet (HP) and low animal diet (LA) were associated with a lower prevalence of obesity (11.7%), central obesity (16.0%), high total cholesterol (16.4%), and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.9%), and had lower hemoglobin (12.9 ± 1.4 g/dL), hematocrit (38.8 ± 3.6%), and CRP levels (20.6 ± 31.4 nmol/L). The low plant diet (LP) + high animal diet (HA) pattern was negatively associated with moderate to severe anemia (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.64-0.92, p = 0.004) compared to the low plant diet (LP) + low animal diet (LA) pattern. However, the HP + LA pattern was positively correlated with moderate to severe anemia (OR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.43, p = 0.015). In conclusion, a low plant and high animal diet plays a role in preventing anemia development among dyslipidemic women.


Assuntos
Anemia , Dislipidemias , Anemia/epidemiologia , Animais , Colesterol , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Obesidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
17.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 20(Suppl 3): 39-44, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The association between vitamin D deficiency and anemia is known. Vitamin D deficiency and anemia are common in kidney transplant recipients. We examined the relationship between vitamin D levels and anemia in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively the data of 75 pediatric kidney transplant recipients (0-18 years of age). Patients were evaluated in 3 groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (<20, 20-30, and >30 ng/mL) in the first year posttransplant: group 1 was the vitamin D deficiency group, group 2 was the vitamin D insufficiency group, and group 3 was normal vitamin D level group, respectively. Groups were compared in terms of anemia parameters, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels, as well as infection, rejection, and graft loss status. All patients included in the study were grouped as those with anemia and without anemia, and the 2 groups were compared in terms of vitamin D levels, serum parathyroid hormone values, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and infection, rejection, and graft loss status. RESULTS: There were 41 patients (54.7%) in group 1, 24 patients (32%) in group 2, and 10 patients (13%) in group 3. There were 65 patients (86.7%) with vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. When groups were compared, the hematocrit level was found to be lower in groups 1 and 2 (P < .05) and ferritin level was found to be lower in group 1 (P < .05). Anemia was present in 20 patients (26.6%): 61% of patients with anemia had vitamin D deficiency and 33% had vitamin D insufficiency (P > .05). In total, 94% of patients with anemia had vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is common in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Vitamin D levels should be measured, especially in all kidney transplant recipients with persistent anemia. Thus, risk factors associated anemia can be reduced by treating the deficiency/insufficiency.


Assuntos
Anemia , Transplante de Rim , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adolescente , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplantados , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8197, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581388

RESUMO

In adolescents, anaemia has been linked to affecting physical disorders, growth, and mental retardation and also increases reproductive morbidities among adolescent girls during their womanhood. It is believed that with increasing age, females are more prone to anaemia than their male counterparts. Unfortunately, the anaemia intervention program, such as the National Nutrition Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme, primarily targets infants, young children, pregnant and lactation women, and not adolescents. Therefore, this study tries to fill this gap and study the prevalence of anaemia and the associated factors among adolescent boys and girls residing in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, India. Secondary data analysis was performed on cross-sectional survey data from the Understanding the Lives of Adolescents and Young Adults survey. The sample size was 20,594 adolescents aged 10-19 years in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, India. The outcome variable was anaemia, and the explanatory variables were age, education, working status, media exposure, marital status, received IFA and deworming tablets, BMI status, stunting status, wealth index, caste, religion, residence, and States. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were used to find the preliminary results. Multinomial regression analysis was carried out to provide the adjusted estimates. Overall, anaemia was more prevalent among adolescent girls than adolescent boys (20% vs. 8.7%). Moderate/severe anaemia was 0.24 and 0.49 times less likely among adolescent boys and girls, respectively, who had 10 and above years of schooling than adolescents with no schooling (p < 0.01). Rural adolescent boys were 1.49 times (p < 0.05) more likely to suffer from moderate/severe anaemia than urban counterparts. The odds for moderate/severe anaemia among adolescent boys were relatively higher among late adolescents, with no mass-media exposure, stunted, and rural adolescents. Similarly, odds for moderate/severe anaemia among adolescent girls were higher among late adolescents and adolescents without schooling and mass-media exposure. Prevalence of anaemia was higher among adolescent girls than in boys. Lower education status, rural residence, late adolescence, no exposure to mass media, and stunting were the predictors of moderate/severe anaemia among adolescents. Anaemia among adolescents must be addressed through effective public health policy targeting adolescents residing in rural areas. There is a need to disseminate information about anaemia-related programs, such as National Iron Plus Initiative (NIPI), through mass media, and subsequently, the public health system may be prepared to tailor the needs of adolescent boys and girls.


Assuntos
Anemia , Transtornos do Crescimento , Adolescente , Anemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565899

RESUMO

Metabolic surgery (MS) is one of the most effective therapies for treating obesity. Due to the lack of multicenter cohort research on nutritional evaluations after surgery in Chinese patients, we explored the changes in nutritional status following MS in Chinese patients. This was a retrospective study of patients (n = 903) who underwent sleeve gastrectomy (SG) (n = 640) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (n = 263) for obesity at five different hospitals in China between 17 February 2011, and 20 December 2019. Major nutrients were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Hb levels decreased, and anemia prevalence increased at 12 months after MS in the premenopausal female group. Moreover, patients with preoperative anemia had an increased risk of postoperative anemia. The ferritin levels (p < 0.001) decreased and iron deficiency increased (p < 0.001) at 12 months after MS among premenopausal females. No significant changes in folate deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency were found throughout the study. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck, lumbar spine, and total hip significantly decreased from baseline to 12 months after MS; however, no new patients developed osteopenia or osteoporosis after MS. Based on 12 months of follow-up, premenopausal females presented a high incidence of anemia after MS. Although we found no differences in osteopenia and osteoporosis prevalence after MS, the BMD did decrease significantly, which suggests that nutrient supplements and long-term follow-up are especially necessary postoperation.


Assuntos
Anemia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Osteoporose , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Derivação Gástrica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Osteoporose/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Matern Child Health J ; 26(7): 1473-1487, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is one of the most critical health conditions affecting people worldwide. The disease is silent, with a slow progression and a few physical symptoms. Anemia during pregnancy carries the risk of premature birth, low birth weight, and fetus malformations and can impose additional costs on society and families. Therefore, the aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women worldwide. METHODS: In this work, we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies that have examined the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women globally. The Google Scholar, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, Medline (PubMed), and Web of Science (WoS) databases were searched for articles published between 1991 and 2021. The search keywords were anemia, pregnancy, prevalence, and meta-analysis. In order to analyze the eligible studies, the stochastic effects model was used, and the heterogeneity of the studies was examined using the I2 index. Data analysis was performed within the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (Version 2). RESULTS: The search resulted in 338 deduplicated studies, of which 52 studies with a total sample size of 1,244,747 people were included in this review. According to the results of the meta-analysis, the overall prevalence of anemia in pregnant women is 36.8% (95% confidence interval: 31.5-42.4%). The highest prevalence of anemia is mild at 70.8 (95% CI 58.1-81) and highest in the third trimester of pregnancy with the prevalence of 48.8 (95% CI 38.7-58.9), while the highest prevalence of anemia in pregnant women was in Africa with the prevalence of 41.7 (95% CI 32.3-49.4). CONCLUSION: The results of this study show a high prevalence of anemia among pregnant women worldwide, and the highest of this prevalence is mild anemia. The prevalence of anemia in the third trimester was higher than in the first and second trimesters. Anemia in pregnant women in developing countries is significantly higher than in developed countries due to pregnancy's economic, sociological, and health factors.


Assuntos
Anemia , Complicações na Gravidez , Anemia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Gestantes , Prevalência
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