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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22751, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of hysteroscopy for the diagnosis and treatment of uterine and endometrial abnormalities is often associated with postoperative pain. This randomized controlled trial aimed to assess the efficacy of preoperative intravenous (IV) lidocaine in reducing pain after hysteroscopy. METHODS: In total, 138 patients undergoing elective hysteroscopy at the CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam, Korea were randomly assigned to a control group (n = 69) or a lidocaine group (n = 69), which received normal saline or IV lidocaine at 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. The primary outcome was the incidence of postoperative pain. RESULTS: The incidence of pain was significantly lower in the IV lidocaine group than in the control group at the post-anesthesia care unit (27.3% vs 68.2%, P < .001). The visual analog scale (0-10) score (median [interquartile range]) was lower in the IV lidocaine group than in the control group (0 [0-2]) vs 2 [0-4]), P < .001). The use of rescue analgesics and postoperative nausea and vomiting were similar between the 2 groups. This study demonstrated that administering 1.5 mg/kg of preoperative IV lidocaine can be a simple method to reduce incidence of pain after hysteroscopy. CONCLUSION: Preoperative bolus administration of 1.5 mg/kg of IV lidocaine may be used to decrease incidence of pain after hysteroscopy under general anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Histeroscopia , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intravenosas , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Escala Visual Analógica
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22895, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditionally, S1 transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) has been performed using an anteroposterior (AP) fluoroscopic view. In 2007, the oblique "Scotty dog" (OS) approach was introduced as an alternative technique. We compared passage time of the needle into S1 foramen (Tf) between the anteroposterior (AP) and oblique "Scotty dog" (OS) approach during S1 TFESI. METHODS: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, seventy patients scheduled S1 TFESI were randomly allocated into AP or OS groups. In the AP group, a slight cephalad-caudad tilt was used. In the OS group, the C-arm was rotated ipsilateral oblique degrees to view the S1 Scotty dog. Both groups received injection of steroid mixed with local anesthetics. We measured the passage time of the needle into S1 foramen (Tf), primary outcome, and total procedure time (Tt) between the groups. We also recorded presence of intravascular injection, patients-assessed pain relief for one month and complications. RESULTS: The Tf and Tt were shorter in the OS than in the AP group (24.4 ±â€Š24.0 s vs 47. 8 ±â€Š53.2seconds; 93.3 ±â€Š35.0 seconds vs 160.0 ±â€Š98.7 seconds, P < .001, both). Incidence of intravascular injection (AP, 8 [22.8%]; OS, 4 [11.4%], P = .205), pain score, and complication rates were not statistically different between the two groups. In logistic regression analysis, the body mass index (BMI) was a risk factor for longer Tt (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.02-1.58, P = .030). CONCLUSION: The passage time of the needle into S1 foramen was shorter in OS approach and the OS approach reduced the procedure time compared with the AP approach during S1 TFESI. The practitioners should note that procedure time can be prolonged in obese patients.


Assuntos
Fluoroscopia/instrumentação , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Erros Médicos/efeitos adversos , Radiculopatia/terapia , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Injeções Epidurais/efeitos adversos , Região Lombossacral/diagnóstico por imagem , Região Lombossacral/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agulhas/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Distúrbios Somatossensoriais/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
3.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(6): 604-608, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025926

RESUMO

AIM: This study aims to evaluate and compare the efficacy of auto-control syringe (ACS) and insulin syringe (IS) for palatal local anesthesia administration in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a double-blind, randomized, and crossover trial, comprising 80 children requiring palatal anesthesia bilaterally (total 160 injections). Palatal anesthesia on one side was delivered with ACS in one appointment and contralaterally with IS in the second appointment. One-week washout period was given between first and second appointments. Each child acted as his own control. Each injection technique subjective and objective pain scores were measured twice (during needle prick and during actual deposition of local anesthesia). Subjective and objective evaluation of pain was measured with Wong-Baker FACES pain rating scale (WB-FPS) and the face, leg, activity, cry, and consolability scale (FLACC), respectively. After concluding second appointment, child was asked about their preference between both ACS and IS. Statistical evaluation was performed using Chi-square test. RESULTS: Child reported less pain score for needle prick with IS as opposed to ACS (p value = 0.000416). There was no significant difference between dentist-reported pain scores between any group for both needle prick and local anesthesia administration. There is no significant difference between child reported pain score during administration of local anesthesia between two groups. Irrespective of pain scores, most of the children (96.5%) preferred IS. CONCLUSION: For palatal local anesthesia administration in children, both IS and auto-controlled syringe have similar efficacy. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Insulin syringe can serve as an economical alternative to the expensive auto-controlled syringe for palatal injections in children.


Assuntos
Anestesia Dentária , Anestésicos Locais , Insulinas , Seringas , Anestesia Dentária/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Medição da Dor
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22288, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120732

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dexmedetomidine and midazolam have become important approaches for the sedation of dental surgery. However, the comparison of these 2 drugs for the sedation of dental surgery has not been well established. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine versus midazolam for dental surgery. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials are searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the influence of dexmedetomidine versus midazolam on dental surgery are included. Two investigators independently have searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. Meta-analysis is performed using the random-effect model. RESULTS: Five RCTs and 420 patients are included in the meta-analysis. Compared with midazolam intervention for dental surgery, dexmedetomidine intervention has similar lowest SpO2, lowest heart rate and lowest systolic blood pressure, duration of surgery, and total volume of local anesthetic, but is associated with stable and reduced lowest diastolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Similar benefits of dexmedetomidine and midazolam intervention are observed for the sedation of dental surgery in terms of SpO2, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and the volume of local anesthetic, but dexmedetomidine may result in more stable diastolic blood pressure.


Assuntos
Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diástole/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia , Oxigênio/sangue , Sístole/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22739, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: It was recently proposed that a costoclavicular (CC) approach can be used in ultrasound (US)-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block (BPB). In this study, we hypothesized that triple injections in each of the 3 cords in the CC space would result in a greater spread in the 4 major terminal nerves of the brachial plexus than a single injection in the CC space without increasing the local anesthetic (LA) volume. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients who underwent upper extremity surgery randomly received either a single injection (SI group, n = 34) or a triple injection (TI group, n = 34) using the CC approach. Ten milliliters of 2% lidocaine, 10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine, and 5 mL of normal saline were used for BPB in each group (total 25 mL). Sensory-motor blockade of the ipsilateral median, radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneous nerves was assessed by a blinded observer at 5 minutes intervals for 30 minutes immediately after LA administration. RESULTS: Thirty minutes after the block, the blockage rate of all 4 nerves was significantly higher in the TI group than in the SI group (52.9% in the SI group vs 85.3% in the TI group, P = .004). But there was no significant difference in the anesthesia grade between the 2 groups (P = .262). The performance time was similar in the 2 groups (3.0 ±â€Š0.9 minutes in the SI group vs 3.2 ±â€Š1.2 minutes in the TI group, respectively; P = .54). DISCUSSION: The TI of CC approach increased the consistency of US-guided infraclavicular BPB in terms of the rate of blocking all 4 nerves without increasing the procedure time despite administering the same volume of the LA.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/métodos , Antebraço/cirurgia , Mãos/cirurgia , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Clavícula , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções/métodos , Injeções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237783, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017397

RESUMO

A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore the effect of a eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA) on pain reduction during extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL). PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases (updated March 2020) were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of EMLA for patients that underwent ESWL. The search strategy and study selection process were managed according to the PRISMA statement. Six RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the results indicated that EMLA significantly reduced pain compared to the control group (RR = -2.98, 95% CI = -5.82 to -0.13, P = 0.04) with a heterogeneity of I2 = 57% (P = 0.04). Subgroup analysis showed that EMLA did not significantly reduce pain when the patients took an analgesic premedication (RR = -1.46, 95% CI = -5.89 to 2.98, P = 0.52) with a heterogeneity of I2 = 38% (P = 0.52). Conversely, studies without premedication showed a significant pain relief effect (RR = -4.08, 95% CI = -7.36 to -0.65, P = -0.80) with a heterogeneity of I2 = 48% (P = 0.14). Most studies showed there was no difference in the patient's need for analgesics. EMLA was effective for reducing pain during EWSL. However, this analgesic effect was limited and did not reduce the need for analgesics.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Combinados/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Combinação Lidocaína e Prilocaína/administração & dosagem , Litotripsia/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Administração Cutânea , Analgesia/métodos , Anestesia Local/métodos , Humanos , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(6): 760-767, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027077

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite peripheral nerve blockade offering analgesic benefits and improving patient satisfaction, it has not been well adopted in ambulatory anesthesia. In this review, we aim to summarize the evidence underlying peripheral nerve blockade, local anesthetic adjuncts, continuous peripheral nerve blockade and novel analgesic modalities, with the objective to provide recommendations on postoperative analgesia optimization after peripheral nerve blockade in an ambulatory setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Barriers to the widespread use of peripheral nerve blockade in ambulatory anesthesia could include lack of education and training, and increased anesthetic induction time. Strategies that have demonstrated promise to increase duration of action and attenuate rebound pain phenomenon after peripheral nerve blockade include multimodal analgesia, local anesthetic adjuncts and continuous infusion of local anesthetic. Dexamethasone has been demonstrated to be the most effective local anesthetic adjunct. Continuous peripheral nerve blockade is a reasonable alternative but at the expense of additional costs and logistical reorganization. There is currently insufficient data to promote the ambulatory use of liposomal bupivacaine, cryoanalgesia and percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation. SUMMARY: Educational programs and parallel processing may promote peripheral nerve blockade in an ambulatory setting, improving the patient experience in the postoperative period. Intravenous dexamethasone should be considered wherever appropriate as part of a multimodal analgesic strategy to optimize postoperative pain control.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestesia por Condução , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1183-1187, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913154

RESUMO

Aims: This study compared the analgesic effect of apical peri-prostatic block with that of intra-rectal xylocaine gel for trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-PBx) in Nigeria. Methods: This is a prospective randomized comparative study carried out over one year in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Edo State, Nigeria. The participants were randomized into two groups; Group A had 10 mls of intra-rectal xylocaine gel instillation while Group B had apical infiltration of 10 mls of 1% xylocaine all before TRUS-PBx. Result: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean pain score during and one hour after TRUS-PBx between Group A and Group B of the study population respectively (p < 0.0001). Those that had intra-rectal xylocaine gel (Group A) had more pain during and after biopsy. There was no difference in the mean pain score during probe insertion between the two groups (p = 0.952). Conclusion: This study demonstrated the superiority of apical peri-prostatic nerve block over intra rectal xylocaine gel instillation during TRUS-PBx with respect to its anesthetic efficacy. Therefore, centers providing TRUS-PBx in Nigeria should consider apical peri-prostatic nerve block as their mode of anesthesia for the procedure due to its efficacy and high safety profile.


Assuntos
Biópsia por Agulha/métodos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor/prevenção & controle , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Administração Retal , Idoso , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Biópsia por Agulha/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/inervação , Reto/patologia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22113, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effective analgesia during delivery can not only decrease pain, but also have a significant function in ensuring the safety of baby and mother. Sufentanil is generally used opioid with ropivacaine in epidural anesthesia in labor pain management; however it can cause some adverse reaction. Dexmedetomidine is an a2-adrenoceptor agonist with high selectivity. It possesses opioid-sparing and analgesic effects and it is suitable for the long-term and short-term intraoperative sedation. The purpose of this present study is to compare the analgesic effect of ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine against ropivacaine with sufentanyl in epidural labor. METHODS: This is a single center, placebo-controlled randomized trial which will be performed from May 2020 to May 2021. It was authorized via the Institutional Review Committee in the first medical center of Chinese PLA General Hospital (S2018-211-0). One hundred sixty full-term protozoa are included in this work. They are randomly divided into four groups (n = 40 per group): the RD1 group (with the epidural administration of 0.125% ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine of 0.5 µg/mL), and the RD2 group (with the epidural administration of 0.08% ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg/mL), the RS1 group (with the epidural administration of 0.125% ropivacaine + sufentanil of 0.5 µg/mL), as well as RS2 group (with the epidural administration of 0.08% ropivacaine + sufentanil of 0.5 µg/mL). Clinical outcomes are pain score, a modified Bromage scale, the Ramsay Sedation Scale, and adverse reactions during analgesia. All the needed analyses are implemented through utilizing SPSS for Windows Version 20.0. RESULTS: The first table shows the clinical outcomes between these four groups. CONCLUSION: This current work can provide a primary evidence regarding the clinical outcomes of dexmedetomidine versus sufentanil for labor epidural analgesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5877).


Assuntos
Analgesia Obstétrica/métodos , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Ropivacaina/uso terapêutico , Sufentanil/uso terapêutico , Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Ropivacaina/efeitos adversos , Sufentanil/administração & dosagem , Sufentanil/efeitos adversos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21684, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871884

RESUMO

Ultrasound-guided interscalene block (US-ISB) and nerve stimulator-guided interscalene block (NS-ISB) have both been commonly used for anesthesia in shoulder arthroscopic surgery.This study aims to compare which method provides surgical block as a sole anesthesia. In this retrospective study, 1158 patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair surgery under ISB between October 2002 and March 2018 were classified into either the US-ISB or NS-ISB anesthesia groups. Demographic and anesthetic characteristics and intraoperative medications were analyzed after propensity score matching and compared between the 2 groups.There was a 0.5% rate of conversion to general anesthesia in the US-ISB group and a 6.7% rate in the NS-ISB group (P < .001). The volume of local anesthetics used for ISB was 29.7 ±â€Š8.9 mL in the US-ISB group versus 38.1 ±â€Š4.8 mL in the NS-ISB group (P < .001). The intraoperative use of analgesics and sedatives such as fentanyl, midazolam and propofol in combination was significantly lowered in the US-ISB group (P < .001).US-ISB is a more effective and safer approach for providing intense block to NS-ISB because it can decrease the incidence of conversion to general anesthesia and reduce the use of analgesics and sedatives during arthroscopic shoulder surgery.


Assuntos
Artroscopia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21670, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an established and successful surgical procedure which is the major treatment for degenerative knee joint diseases. A novel technique to address posterior knee joint pain is the infiltration of local anesthetic between the interspace between the popliteal artery and capsule of the knee (IPACK). The goal of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of adding IPACK to adductor canal block (ACB) after TKA. METHODS: This was a prospectively randomized trial that investigated the effectiveness and safety of the IPACK after TKA. Approval from Clinical Studies Ethical Committee in Qilu Hospital of Shandong University was obtained. The inclusion criteria were adult patients undergoing primary unilateral TKA and American Society of Anesthesiologists grade 1 or 2 with normal cognitive function. The patients were randomized to 1 of 2 treatment options: ACB-alone group and ACB + IPACK group. The primary outcome was the total morphine consumption during postoperative 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain score, time to first and total dosage of rescue morphine in postoperative 48 hours, early and late postoperative period (from postoperative day 0-3 months follow-up) performance-based test (Timed-Up and Go test, and quadriceps strength). Postoperative nausea and vomiting, length of hospital stay, patient satisfaction, and other adverse events were also evaluated. RESULTS: It was hypothesized that when combined with a control group, the IPACK block would result in a lower morphine consumption and pain score after TKA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5765).


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Artéria Poplítea , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21881, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain control after total knee arthroplasty has shown many advances; however, the optimal method remains controversial. The purpose of this present study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the addition of local infiltration analgesia to adductor canal block for pain control after primary total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled research was conducted from January 2018 to June 2019. All the patients and their family members signed the informed consent forms, and this work was authorized via the ethics committee of Jinxiang Hospital Affiliated to Jining Medical College (JXHP0024578). Inclusion criteria were 55 years old or older, who possess the physical status I-III of American Society of Anesthesiologists, and the body mass index in the range of 18 to 30 kg/m. Exclusion criteria were regional and/or neuroaxial anesthesia contraindications, the history of drug allergy involved in the research, neuropathic pain, as well as the chronic pain requiring opioid therapy. Seventy-two patients were divided into 2 groups randomly. Study group (n = 36) received both adductor canal block and local infiltration analgesia. Control group (n = 36) received adductor canal block alone. Primary outcome included postoperative pain score (visual analog scale 0 to 10 cm, in which 0 represents no pain and 10 represents the most severe imaginable pain). The measures of secondary outcome included the knee range of motion, opioid consumption, the hospital stay length as well as the postoperative complications (for instance, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, and the wound infection). All the analyses were conducted through utilizing the SPSS for Windows Version 20.0. RESULTS: The results will be shown in .(Table is included in full-text article.) CONCLUSION:: The study will provide more evidence on the combination use of adductor canal block and local infiltration analgesia in the treatment of pain after the total knee arthroplasty. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5832).


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho , Bloqueio Nervoso , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Articulação do Joelho , Tempo de Internação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Escala Visual Analógica
13.
Pain Physician ; 23(4S): S239-S270, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews have been conducted to summarize the evidence for administration of local anesthetic (lidocaine) alone or with steroids, with discordant opinions, more in favor of equal effect with local anesthetic alone or with steroids. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of lidocaine alone and lidocaine with steroids in managing spinal pain to assess superiority or equivalency. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of RCTs assessing the effectiveness of lidocaine alone compared with addition of steroids to lidocaine in managing spinal pain secondary to multiple causes (disc herniation, radiculitis, discogenic pain, spinal stenosis, and post-surgery syndrome). METHODS: This systematic review was performed utilizing Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) for literature search, Cochrane review criteria, and Interventional Pain Management Techniques-Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment (IPM-QRB) to assess the methodologic quality assessment and qualitative analysis utilizing best evidence synthesis principles, and quantitative analysis utilizing conventional and single-arm meta-analysis. PubMed, Cochrane Library, US National Guideline Clearinghouse, Google Scholar, and prior systematic reviews and reference lists were utilized in the literature search from 1966 through December 2019. The evidence was summarized utilizing principles of best evidence synthesis on a scale of 1 to 5. OUTCOME MEASURES: A hard endpoint for the primary outcome was defined as the proportion of patients with 50% pain relief and improvement in function. Secondary outcome measures, or soft endpoints, were pain relief and/or improvement in function. Effectiveness was determined as short-term if it was less than 6 months. Improvement that lasted longer than 6 months, was defined as long-term. RESULTS: Based on search criteria, 15 manuscripts were identified and considered for inclusion for qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis with conventional meta-analysis, and single-arm meta-analysis. The results showed Level II, moderate evidence, for short-term and long-term improvement in pain and function with the application of epidural injections with local anesthetic with or without steroid in managing spinal pain of multiple origins. LIMITATIONS: Despite 15 RCTs, evidence may still be considered as less than optimal and further studies are recommended. CONCLUSION: Overall, the present meta-analysis shows moderate (Level II) evidence for epidural injections with lidocaine with or without steroids in managing spinal pain secondary to disc herniation, spinal stenosis, discogenic pain, and post-surgery syndrome based on relevant, high-quality RCTs. Results were similar for lidocaine, with or without steroids.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(10): 1354-1358, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993329

RESUMO

AIMS: In the UK, fasciectomy for Dupuytren's contracture is generally performed under general or regional anaesthetic, with an arm tourniquet and in a hospital setting. We have changed our practice to use local anaesthetic with adrenaline, no arm tourniquet, and perform the surgery in a community setting. We present the outcome of a consecutive series of 30 patients. METHODS: Prospective data were collected for 30 patients undergoing open fasciectomy on 36 digits (six having two digits affected), over a one-year period and under the care of two surgeons. In total, 10 ml to 20 ml volume of 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline was used. A standard postoperative rehabilitation regime was used. Preoperative health scores, goniometer measurements of metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) contractures, and Unité Rheumatologique des Affections de la Main (URAM) scores were measured pre- and postoperatively at six and 12 weeks. RESULTS: The mean preoperative contractures were 35.3° (0° to 90°) at the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ), 32.5° (0° to 90°) at proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) (a combined deformity of 67.8°). The mean correction was 33.6° (0° to 90°) for the MCPJ and 18.2° (0° to 70°) for the PIPJ leading to a combined correction of 51.8°. There was a complete deformity correction in 21 fingers (59.5%) and partial correction in 14 digits (37.8%) with no correction in one finger. The mean residual deformities for the partial/uncorrected group were MCP 4.2° (0° to 30°), and PIP 26.1° (0° to 85°). For those achieving a full correction the mean preoperative contracture was less particularly at the PIP joint (15.45° (0° to 60°) vs 55.33° (0° to 90°)). Mean preoperative URAM scores were higher in the fully corrected group (17.4 (4 to 31) vs 14.0 (0 to 28)), but lower at three months post-surgery (0.5 (0 to 3) vs 4.40 (0 to 18)), with both groups showing improvements. Infections occurred in two patients (three digits) and both were successfully treated with oral antibiotics. No other complications were noted. The estimated cost of a fasciectomy under local anaesthetic in the community was £184.82 per patient. The estimated hospital theatre costs for a fasciectomy was £1,146.62 under general anaesthetic (GA), and £1,085.30 under an axillary block. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a fasciectomy performed under local anaesthetic with adrenaline and without an arm tourniquet and in a community setting is safe, and results in favourable outcomes regarding the degree of correction of contracture achieved, functional scores, and short-term complications. Local anaesthetic fasciectomy in a community setting achieves a saving of £961.80 for a GA and £900.48 for an axillary block per case. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(10):1354-1358.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/economia , Anestesia Local/métodos , Contratura de Dupuytren/cirurgia , Fasciotomia/economia , Fasciotomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Custos e Análise de Custo , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido
15.
Surgery ; 168(5): 915-920, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most severe pain occurs within the first 72 hours after an operation, and current local anesthetics have a limited duration of action. HTX-011 is a dual-acting, local anesthetic containing bupivacaine, and low-dose meloxicam in an extended-release polymer. In a prior phase 3 inguinal herniorrhaphy study, HTX-011 alone provided superior pain relief for 72 hours and significantly decreased opioid use compared with saline placebo and bupivacaine hydrochloride. This open-label study assessed the safety, efficacy, and opioid-sparing properties of HTX-011 as the foundation of a scheduled, nonopioid, multimodal analgesia regimen in patients undergoing open inguinal herniorrhaphy. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2 sequential cohorts. All patients received a single, intraoperative dose of HTX-011 prior to wound closure, followed by a scheduled postoperative regimen of oral ibuprofen and acetaminophen for 72 hours. Patients in cohort 2 also received a single intraoperative dose of ketorolac. Opioid analgesics were available by request only. RESULTS: More than 90% of patients remained opioid-free through 72 hours postoperatively, and 83% of patients remained opioid-free through day 28 (last study visit). Pain was well controlled, and mean intensity of the pain never increased higher than the mild range during the first 72 hours. Ketorolac did not demonstrate any additional benefit. HTX-011 with this multimodal analgesia regimen was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: HTX-011 when used as the foundation of a nonopioid, multimodal analgesia regimen, provided effective and well-tolerated analgesia without the need for opioids in the majority of patients recovering from an open inguinal herniorrhaphy.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21435, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756154

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The population of obese individuals is increasing worldwide, and as a result, the number of mothers with super morbid obesity undergoing cesarean sections is also increasing. However, little is known about which anesthetic technique is appropriate for cesarean sections of super morbidly obese parturients. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 35-year-old woman with body mass index 61.3 kg/m at a gestational age of 37 weeks. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was super morbidly obese parturient. INTERVENTIONS: Spinal anesthesia was performed. A spinal needle was inserted into the L4-5 interspinous space in the sitting position. After confirmation of cerebrospinal fluid, 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 9 mg and fentanyl 20 µg were injected into the subarachnoid space. OUTCOMES: After the administration of spinal anesthetics, the nerve block to the T8 dermatome level was confirmed, surgery was performed, and the fetus was delivered. The patient's vital signs were stable until the end of the operation. CONCLUSION: There is no established strategy for selecting a method of anesthesia in patients with morbid obesity (body mass index 40 kg/m or more). For this reason and considering the amount of bupivacaine used for spinal anesthesia, we wanted to share our experience with spinal anesthesia for cesarean section in a super morbidly obese parturients.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Raquianestesia/instrumentação , Cesárea/métodos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Anestesia Obstétrica/tendências , Raquianestesia/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Agulhas , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente/normas , Gravidez
17.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(5): 704-709, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826626

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Single injection interscalene block (ISB) provides effective analgesia for shoulder surgery. However, the duration of these is limited. This review summarizes the effectiveness of three potential means of extending the duration of analgesia: perineural infusion of local anesthetic agents, addition of adjuvant drugs to local anesthetics in single-injection nerve block, and utilization of liposomal bupivacaine in the surgical field or in the block itself. RECENT FINDINGS: Perineural infusion of local anesthetics with interscalene catheters provides superior pain relief with reduction of postoperative opioids. Both dexmedetomidine and dexamethasone effectively extend the duration of single injection ISB. Liposomal bupivacaine holds promise when injected perineurally in ISB, either as a sole agent or when mixed with standard bupivacaine. SUMMARY: Interscalene catheters, adjunctive drugs added to local anesthetics in single-injection interscalene brachial plexus blocks, or liposomal bupivacaine may be used to effectively prolong the duration of analgesia for shoulder surgery patients.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/métodos , Plexo Braquial , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória
19.
Anesthesiology ; 133(4): 801-811, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early ambulation after total hip arthroplasty predicts early discharge. Spinal anesthesia is preferred by many practices but can delay ambulation, especially with bupivacaine. Mepivacaine, an intermediate-acting local anesthetic, could enable earlier ambulation than bupivacaine. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that patients who received mepivacaine would ambulate earlier than those who received hyperbaric or isobaric bupivacaine for primary total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I to III patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty. The patients were randomized 1:1:1 to 52.5 mg of mepivacaine, 11.25 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine, or 12.5 mg of isobaric bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia. The primary outcome was ambulation between 3 and 3.5 h. Secondary outcomes included return of motor and sensory function, postoperative pain, opioid consumption, transient neurologic symptoms, urinary retention, intraoperative hypotension, intraoperative muscle tension, same-day discharge, length of stay, and 30-day readmissions. RESULTS: Of 154 patients, 50 received mepivacaine, 53 received hyperbaric bupivacaine, and 51 received isobaric bupivacaine. Patient characteristics were similar among groups. For ambulation at 3 to 3.5 h, 35 of 50 (70.0%) of patients met this endpoint in the mepivacaine group, followed by 20 of 53 (37.7%) in the hyperbaric bupivacaine group, and 9 of 51 (17.6%) in the isobaric bupivacaine group (P < 0.001). Return of motor function occurred earlier with mepivacaine. Pain and opioid consumption were higher for mepivacaine patients in the early postoperative period only. For ambulatory status, 23 of 50 (46.0%) of mepivacaine, 13 of 53 (24.5%) of hyperbaric bupivacaine, and 11 of 51 (21.5%) of isobaric bupivacaine patients had same-day discharge (P = 0.014). Length of stay was shortest in mepivacaine patients. There were no differences in transient neurologic symptoms, urinary retention, hypotension, muscle tension, or dizziness. CONCLUSIONS: Mepivacaine patients ambulated earlier and were more likely to be discharged the same day than both hyperbaric bupivacaine and isobaric bupivacaine patients. Mepivacaine could be beneficial for outpatient total hip arthroplasty candidates if spinal is the preferred anesthesia type.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Deambulação Precoce/métodos , Mepivacaína/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Idoso , Raquianestesia/tendências , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/tendências , Deambulação Precoce/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/tendências
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20968, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The possibility of local infiltration analgesia (LIA) replacing interscalene blockade (ISB) as an integral component of a multimodal clinical pathway for total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) needs to be further investigated. We thus further designed a randomized controlled study to compare LIA with ISB in the treatment of TSA. METHODS: This blinded and randomised study was performed after approval of the institutional review board in the first affiliated hospital of Jinan University. The included patients were all aged over 18 years and underwent shoulder arthroplasty because of osteoarthritis of the shoulder. Subjects were randomized into 2 groups as follows: LIA or ISB. The primary outcome of this noninferiority study is opioid consumption within the first 24 hours following surgery. Secondary outcomes included pain scores, length of hospital stay, complication, and satisfaction score. P value < .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: For the present trial, we hypothesized that there would be no difference in pain score levels and opioid medication use throughout admission. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5640).


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Ombro , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Lipossomos
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