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3.
Anesth Analg ; 132(4): 1129-1137, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bupivacaine and ropivacaine are the preferred long-acting local anesthetics for peripheral nerve blocks as they provide prolonged analgesia in the postoperative period. No studies have directly compared the analgesic duration of these commonly used local anesthetics in the setting of low-volume ultrasound-guided interscalene block (US-ISB). This study was designed to determine which local anesthetic and concentration provides superior analgesia (duration and quality) for low-volume US-ISB. METHODS: Sixty eligible patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were randomized (1:1:1) to receive US-ISB (5 mL) with 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, 0.5% ropivacaine, or 1% ropivacaine. All individuals were blinded including study participants, anesthesiologists, surgeons, research personnel, and statistician. All participants received a standardized general anesthetic and multimodal analgesia. The primary outcome was duration of analgesia defined as the time from the end of injection to the time that the patients reported a significant increase in pain (>3 numeric rating scale [NRS]) at the surgical site. RESULTS: The mean duration of analgesia for 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, 0.5% ropivacaine, or 1% ropivacaine was 14.1 ± 7.4, 13.8 ± 4.5, and 15.8 ± 6.3 hours, respectively (analysis of variance [ANOVA], P = .51). There were no observed differences in analgesic duration or other secondary outcomes between the 3 groups with the exception of a difference in cumulative opioid consumption up to 20h00 on the day of surgery in favor of ropivacaine 0.5% over bupivacaine of minimal clinical significance. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of single-injection low-volume US-ISB, we have demonstrated a similar efficacy between equal concentrations of ropivacaine and bupivacaine. In addition, increasing the concentration of ropivacaine from 0.5% to 1% did not prolong the duration of US-ISB.


Assuntos
Agonistas Adrenérgicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Agonistas Adrenérgicos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio do Plexo Braquial/efeitos adversos , Bupivacaína/efeitos adversos , Epinefrina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontário , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/fisiopatologia , Ropivacaina/efeitos adversos , Articulação do Ombro/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 1: 27-39, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426662

RESUMO

Despite advances in clinical practice, local anaesthetic systemic toxicity continues to occur with the therapeutic use of local anaesthesia. Patterns of presentation have evolved over recent years due in part to the increasing use of ultrasound which has been demonstrated to reduce risk. Onset of toxicity is increasingly delayed, a greater proportion of clinical reports are secondary to fascial plane blocks, and cases are increasing where non-anaesthetist providers are involved. The evolving clinical context presents a challenge for diagnosis and requires education of all physicians, nurses and allied health professionals about these changing patterns and risks. This review discusses: mechanisms; prevention; diagnosis; and treatment of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity. The local anaesthetic and dose used, site of injection and block conduct and technique are all important determinants of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity, as are various patient factors. Risk mitigation is discussed including the care of at-risk groups, such as: those at the extremes of age; patients with cardiac, hepatic and specific metabolic diseases; and those who are pregnant. Advances in the changing clinical landscape with novel applications and settings for the use of local anaesthesia are also described. Finally, we signpost future directions to potentially improve the management of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity. The utility of local anaesthetics remains unquestionable in clinical practice, and thus maximising the safe and appropriate use of these drugs should translate to improvements in patient care.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/toxicidade , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Intraoperatórias/terapia , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Segurança do Paciente
6.
Anesth Analg ; 132(2): 556-565, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nerve damage can occur after peripheral nerve block (PNB). Ultrasound guidance does not eliminate the risk of intraneural injection or nerve injury. Combining nerve stimulation and injection pressure (IP) monitoring with ultrasound guidance has been suggested to optimize needle tip location in PNB. In this prospective observational study, we hypothesized that measured pairs of IP and minimum intensity of stimulation (MIS) might differentiate successive needle tip locations established by high-resolution ultrasound during PNB. METHODS: For this exploratory study, 240 observations for 40 ultrasound-guided PNBs were studied in 28 patients scheduled for orthopedic surgery. During the progression of the needle to the nerve observed by ultrasonography, the IP was measured continuously using a computerized pressure-sensing device with a low flow rate of solution. Stimulation thresholds and electrical impedance were obtained by an impedance analyzer coupled to the nerve stimulator at 6 successive needle positions. The median (quartile) or mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) was reported. A mixed model analysis was used, and the sample was also explored using a classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm. RESULTS: Specific combinations of IP and MIS were measured for subcutaneous, epimysium contact, intramuscular, nerve contact (231 mm Hg [203-259 mm Hg] and 1.70 mA [1.38-2.02 mA]), intraneural location (188 mm Hg [152-224 mm Hg] and 0.58 mA [0.46-0.70 mA]), and subparaneural location (47 mm Hg [41-53 mm Hg] and 1.35 mA [1.09-1.61 mA]). The CART algorithm shows that the optimal subparaneural needle tip position might be defined by the lowest pressure (<81.3 mm Hg) and MIS (<1.5 mA) cutoffs. CONCLUSIONS: Our exploratory study evaluated concepts to generate hypotheses. The combinations of IP and MIS might help the physician during a PNB procedure. A low IP and low MIS might confirm a subparaneural location, and a high IP and a low MIS might be an alert for the intraneural location of the needle tip.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso , Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agulhas , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Pressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Transdutores de Pressão
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22113, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effective analgesia during delivery can not only decrease pain, but also have a significant function in ensuring the safety of baby and mother. Sufentanil is generally used opioid with ropivacaine in epidural anesthesia in labor pain management; however it can cause some adverse reaction. Dexmedetomidine is an a2-adrenoceptor agonist with high selectivity. It possesses opioid-sparing and analgesic effects and it is suitable for the long-term and short-term intraoperative sedation. The purpose of this present study is to compare the analgesic effect of ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine against ropivacaine with sufentanyl in epidural labor. METHODS: This is a single center, placebo-controlled randomized trial which will be performed from May 2020 to May 2021. It was authorized via the Institutional Review Committee in the first medical center of Chinese PLA General Hospital (S2018-211-0). One hundred sixty full-term protozoa are included in this work. They are randomly divided into four groups (n = 40 per group): the RD1 group (with the epidural administration of 0.125% ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine of 0.5 µg/mL), and the RD2 group (with the epidural administration of 0.08% ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg/mL), the RS1 group (with the epidural administration of 0.125% ropivacaine + sufentanil of 0.5 µg/mL), as well as RS2 group (with the epidural administration of 0.08% ropivacaine + sufentanil of 0.5 µg/mL). Clinical outcomes are pain score, a modified Bromage scale, the Ramsay Sedation Scale, and adverse reactions during analgesia. All the needed analyses are implemented through utilizing SPSS for Windows Version 20.0. RESULTS: The first table shows the clinical outcomes between these four groups. CONCLUSION: This current work can provide a primary evidence regarding the clinical outcomes of dexmedetomidine versus sufentanil for labor epidural analgesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5877).


Assuntos
Analgesia Obstétrica/métodos , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Ropivacaina/uso terapêutico , Sufentanil/uso terapêutico , Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Ropivacaina/efeitos adversos , Sufentanil/administração & dosagem , Sufentanil/efeitos adversos
9.
Surgery ; 168(5): 915-920, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most severe pain occurs within the first 72 hours after an operation, and current local anesthetics have a limited duration of action. HTX-011 is a dual-acting, local anesthetic containing bupivacaine, and low-dose meloxicam in an extended-release polymer. In a prior phase 3 inguinal herniorrhaphy study, HTX-011 alone provided superior pain relief for 72 hours and significantly decreased opioid use compared with saline placebo and bupivacaine hydrochloride. This open-label study assessed the safety, efficacy, and opioid-sparing properties of HTX-011 as the foundation of a scheduled, nonopioid, multimodal analgesia regimen in patients undergoing open inguinal herniorrhaphy. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2 sequential cohorts. All patients received a single, intraoperative dose of HTX-011 prior to wound closure, followed by a scheduled postoperative regimen of oral ibuprofen and acetaminophen for 72 hours. Patients in cohort 2 also received a single intraoperative dose of ketorolac. Opioid analgesics were available by request only. RESULTS: More than 90% of patients remained opioid-free through 72 hours postoperatively, and 83% of patients remained opioid-free through day 28 (last study visit). Pain was well controlled, and mean intensity of the pain never increased higher than the mild range during the first 72 hours. Ketorolac did not demonstrate any additional benefit. HTX-011 with this multimodal analgesia regimen was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: HTX-011 when used as the foundation of a nonopioid, multimodal analgesia regimen, provided effective and well-tolerated analgesia without the need for opioids in the majority of patients recovering from an open inguinal herniorrhaphy.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Herniorrafia , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(5): 779-801, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite common use, the benefit of adding steroids to local anaesthetics (SLA) for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) injections is uncertain. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of English-language RCTs to assess the benefit and safety of adding steroids to local anaesthetics (LA) for CNCP. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases from inception to May 2019. Trial selection and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Outcomes were guided by the Initiative in Methods, Measurements, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) statement with pain improvement as the primary outcome and pooled using random effects model and reported as relative risks (RR) or mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Among 5097 abstracts, 73 trials were eligible. Although SLA increased the rate of success (42 trials, 3592 patients; RR=1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.25; number needed to treat [NNT], 13), the effect size decreased by nearly 50% (NNT, 22) with the removal of two intrathecal injection studies. The differences in pain scores with SLA were not clinically meaningful (54 trials, 4416 patients, MD=0.44 units; 95% CI, 0.24-0.65). No differences were observed in other outcomes or adverse events. No subgroup effects were detected based on clinical categories. Meta-regression showed no significant association with steroid dose or length of follow-up and pain relief. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of cortico steroids to local anaesthetic has only small benefits and a potential for harm. Injection of local anaesthetic alone could be therapeutic, beyond being diagnostic. A shared decision based on patient preferences should be considered. If used, one must avoid high doses and series of steroid injections. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO #: CRD42015020614.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 937-944, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606635

RESUMO

Background: Pectoral nerve block type I (PECS I Block) and type II (PECS II Block) with ropivacaine are relatively new analgesic methods for breast-cancer surgery. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of different concentrations of ropivacaine given in the same volume for the PECS II Block in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Patients and Methods: One hundred and twenty women undergoing elective MRM who met inclusion criteria were divided randomly into four groups of 30: control group without PECS II Block and R0.2%, R0.3%, and R0.4% groups, who received general anesthesia plus the PECS II Block with ropivacaine at 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.4%, respectively, in a volume of 40 mL. Results: The postoperative numerical rating scale (NRS) pain score at rest and active was significantly higher in the control group than that in the three ropivacaine groups (P<0.05 for all), and the postoperative NRS score in the R0.3% group and R0.4% group at 12, 24, and 48 h postoperatively were significantly lower than that in the R0.2% group (P<0.05 for all); there was no significant difference between the R0.3% group and R0.4% group. The time when pain was first felt after MRM, the total number of complaints during 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after MRM, and the total analgesic requirement (tramadol consumption) during the first 24 h postoperatively in the R0.3% group and R0.4% group were significantly lower than those in the control group and R0.2% group (P<0.05 for all); there was no significant difference between the R0.3% group and R0.4% group. Conclusion: A dose of 0.3% ropivacaine was the optimal concentration for a PECS II Block for patients undergoing MRM because it provided efficacious analgesia during and >48 h after MRM. Increasing the ropivacaine concentration did not improve the analgesia of the PECS II Block significantly.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Nervos Torácicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia Radical Modificada/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/dietoterapia , Período Pós-Operatório , Ropivacaina/efeitos adversos
12.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(4): 560-579, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous epidural infusion (CEI) is commonly used for labour analgesia, but concerns over potential motor block, second-stage labour complications, and ineffective analgesia in late labour have prompted examining intermittent epidural bolus (IEB) as an alternative. However, evidence comparing these modalities is conflicting. The meta-analysis evaluates the analgesic efficacy of CEI vs IEB. METHODS: Databases were searched for trials comparing CEI to IEB for labour analgesia. The two co-primary outcomes were risk of breakthrough pain and difference in area under the curve (AUC) for pain scores during the first 4 h post-epidural initiation. Local anaesthetic consumption, maternal outcomes (i.e. delivery mode, labour duration, and maternal satisfaction), and side-effects of epidural analgesia were also evaluated. Results were pooled using random-effects modelling. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to evaluate evidence reliability. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies (3133 patients) were analysed. Compared with CEI, IEB decreased risk of breakthrough pain by 38% (risk ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}] of 0.62 [0.48, 0.81]; P=0.0004; I2=47%; 1164 patients) and reduced AUC of pain during the 4 h interval by 32.9% (mean difference [95% CI] of -16.7 mm h-1 [-18.9, -14.4]; P<0.0001; 1638 patients). Intermittent epidural bolus enhanced maternal satisfaction, shortened labour duration, decreased motor block, and reduced local anaesthetic consumption. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant for epidural side-effects or mode of delivery. The TSA indicated adequate power for reliable inferences. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent epidural bolus provides improved labour pain control during the first 4 h after epidural initiation with less breakthrough pain. Moderate- to high-quality evidence of intermittent epidural bolus superiority support its use as a safe and effective continuous epidural infusion alternative for labour analgesia.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Analgesia Obstétrica/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto , Satisfação do Paciente , Gravidez
13.
Pain Physician ; 23(4): 413-422, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine and appreciate characteristics of malpractice lawsuits brought against interventional pain specialists. OBJECTIVES: To examine and appreciate characteristics of malpractice lawsuits brought against interventional pain specialists. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Jury verdicts and settlement reports of state and federal malpractice cases involving interventional pain practitioners from January 1, 1988, to January 1, 2018 were gathered from the Westlaw online legal database. METHODS: Jury verdicts and settlement reports of state and federal malpractice cases involving interventional pain practitioners from January 1, 1988, to January 1, 2018 were gathered from the Westlaw online legal database. Data collected for each case included year, state, patient age, patient gender, defendant specialty, legal outcome, award amount, alleged cause of malpractice, and factors in plaintiff's decision to file. After elimination of duplicates and applying inclusion/exclusion criteria to our initial search yielding over 1,500 cases, a total of 82 cases were included in this study. RESULTS: A total of 57.3% of cases resulted in a jury verdict in favor of the defendant, whereas 41.5% favored the plaintiff. When comparing cases that were performed in the operating room to cases performed outside the operating room, we found the jury verdicts to favor the plaintiff 83.3% of the time for operating room procedures (P = 0.003). In other words, interventional pain practitioners were more likely to be found at fault for complications from procedures performed in the operating room. To eliminate confounders, a logistical regression was performed and confirmed operating room procedures were an independent predictor of a verdict awarded to the plaintiff (P = 0.008). The median amount awarded to the plaintiff for all cases was $333,000, and the single highest award amount was $36,636,288. The median payout for operating room procedures was $450,000 (P = 0.010), which was significantly different from the median payout for nonoperating room procedures. Procedure categorization demonstrated a statistically significant difference in jury verdicts (P = 0.01411) and procedural error was the leading reason for pursuing litigation, followed by lack of informed consent and unnecessary procedure performed. LIMITATIONS: There is more than one database that captures medicolegal claims brought against practitioners. Westlaw, which has been previously utilized by other studies, is only one of them and the extent to which overlap exists in unclear. For each, data input are not necessarily consistent and data capture are not complete. As a result, there could exist a skew toward more severe complications and the details of individual cases likely vary. During data extraction, we found that all details of the procedure were not always included. For example, not all cases specified the type of injectate utilized for epidural injection (i.e., local anesthetic, steroid, mixture, and others) or route of injection (i.e., transforaminal vs. interlaminar). Moreover, as previously mentioned, cases that are settled out of court or finalized prior to trial are not necessarily reported by the Westlaw database, and therefore were not always included in our data search. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, interventional pain medicine physicians were favored by jury verdicts for malpractice claims. However, when filtering by procedure or setting, jury verdicts favored the plaintiff in some cases. KEY WORDS: Interventional pain, medical, malpractice, anesthesiology.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Federal , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Manejo da Dor/normas , Dor/epidemiologia , Governo Estadual , Adulto , Anestesiologia/métodos , Anestesiologia/normas , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Injeções Epidurais/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(7): e007425, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electrophysiological procedures such as epicardial ventricular tachycardia ablation and Lariat left atrial appendage ligation that involve the epicardial space are typically associated with significant postoperative pain due to mechanical irritation and associated inflammation. There is an unmet need for an effective pain management strategy in this group of patients. We studied how this impacts patient comfort and duration of hospitalization and other associated comorbidities related to pericardial access. METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective study including 104 patients who underwent epicardial ventricular tachycardia ablation and Lariat left atrial appendage exclusion. We compared 53 patients who received postprocedural intrapericardial liposomal bupivacaine (LB)+oral colchicine (LB group) and 51 patients who received colchicine alone (non-LB group) between January 2015 and March 2018. RESULTS: LB was associated with significant lowering of median pain scale at 6 hours (1.0 [0-2.0] versus 8.0 [6.0-8.0], P<0.001), 12 hours (1.0 [1.0-2.0] versus 6.0 [5.0-6.0], P<0.001), and up to 48 hours postprocedure. Incidence of acute severe pericarditis delayed pericardial effusion and gastrointestinal adverse effects were similar in both groups. Median length of stay was significantly lower in LB group (2.0 versus 3.0; adjusted linear coefficient -1 [CI -1.3 to -0.6], P<0.001). Subgroup analysis demonstrated similar favorable outcomes in both Lariat and epicardial ventricular tachycardia ablation groups. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of intrapericardial postprocedural LB to oral colchicine in patients undergoing epicardial access during ventricular tachycardia ablation or Lariat procedure is associated with significantly decreased numeric pain score up to 48 hours compared with colchicine alone. It is also associated with significantly shorter length of hospital stay without an increase in the risk of adverse events.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Ablação por Cateter , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Pericárdio/cirurgia , Taquicardia Ventricular/cirurgia , Idoso , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Apêndice Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Bupivacaína/efeitos adversos , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Colchicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Ligadura , Lipossomos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Pericárdio/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20298, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481399

RESUMO

Continuous epidural analgesia (CEA) using local anesthetics is frequently used to control herpes zoster pain and prevent postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). However, few studies have been conducted to determine the efficacy of epidural drugs administered as CEA to manage PHN. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of CEA with ropivacaine alone or with ropivacaine and fentanyl for controlling pain caused by PHN.We reviewed the medical records of 71 patients. We studied 2 groups: epidural ropivacaine (ER; CEA with ropivacaine alone; n = 44) and epidural ropivacaine and fentanyl (Epidural ropivacaine and fentanyl (ERF); CEA with ropivacaine and fentanyl; n = 27). To evaluate pain, a numeric rating scale (NRS) was evaluated at 6 time points: immediately before the procedure (baseline NRS score); 1 hour after the procedure; 14 days after the procedure; and 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure. Complication rates were recorded during CEA. We also investigated whether additional invasive procedures were needed due to insufficient pain control during the 6-month follow-up period.After adjusting for confounding variables, there were no significant differences in the NRS scores between the 2 groups at any time point. The adjusted odds ratio for additional invasive procedures within 6 months after CEA was 1.03-times higher in the ERF group than in the ER group, but this difference was not statistically significant (95% confidence interval: 0.33-3.23, P = .96). Rates of complication (dysuria, vomiting, nausea, itching sensation, and hypotension) during CEA were higher in the ERF group than in the ER group. However, the differences were not statistically significant.There was no difference in the management of pain in patients with PHN between the groups. Epidural administration of fentanyl with ropivacaine did not improve pain management when compared to ropivacaine alone. Although not statistically significant, the incidence of complications during CEA was higher in the opioid combination group.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/tratamento farmacológico , Ropivacaina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Intravenosos/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Ropivacaina/efeitos adversos
16.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(3): 311-315, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324660

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to identify the potential of peripheral nerve blocks established over the last years for perioperative pain management in breast surgery. These new blocks will be discussed with respect to their clinical effect and necessity. RECENT FINDINGS: After case reports and cadaver studies for the Pecs block and its variations sufficient clinical data from randomized controlled trial (RCT) and meta-analyses exist now. The modified Pecs block or Pecs II leads to a reduction of postoperative 24-h opioid consumption. The recently invented Erector spine block addresses the intercostal nerves. The benefits in analgesia of this approach were tested in few RCTs and showed superiority to the control group in terms of requested postoperative morphine. Most studies showed low intraoperative opioid doses and no study more than low to moderate postoperative pain scores. SUMMARY: Taking the pain levels after breast surgery into account, the request of additional nerve blocks has to be pondered against the potential risks and resource requirement. To reduce or avoid intraoperative or postoperative opioids, an ultrasound-guided Pecs II block proves to be the best option for perioperative pain relief.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Mama/cirurgia , Mastectomia/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Nervos Periféricos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervos Torácicos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestesia Local/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 88, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infiltration of the surgical site with local anesthetics combined with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may play an important role in improving perioperative pain control. This prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial aimed to evaluate intraoperative isoflurane requirements, postoperative analgesia, and adverse events of infiltration of the surgical site with ropivacaine alone and combined with meloxicam in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Forty-five cats premedicated with acepromazine/meperidine and anesthetized with propofol/isoflurane were randomly distributed into three treatments (n = 15 per group): physiological saline (group S), ropivacaine alone (1 mg/kg, group R) or combined with meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, group RM) infiltrated at the surgical site (incision line, ovarian pedicles and uterus). End-tidal isoflurane concentration (FE'ISO), recorded at specific time points during surgery, was adjusted to inhibit autonomic responses to surgical stimulation. Pain was assessed using an Interactive Visual Analog Scale (IVAS), UNESP-Botucatu Multidimensional Composite Pain Scale (MCPS), and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) up to 24 h post-extubation. Rescue analgesia was provided with intramuscular morphine (0.1 mg/kg) when MCPS was ≥6. RESULTS: Area under the curve (AUC) of FE'ISO was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in the RM (17.8 ± 3.1) compared to S (23.1 ± 2.2) and R groups (22.8 ± 1.1). Hypertension (systolic arterial pressure > 160 mmHg) coinciding with surgical manipulation was observed only in cats treated with S and R (4/15 cats, P = 0.08). The number of cats receiving rescue analgesia (4 cats in the S group and 1 cat in the R and RM groups) did not differ among groups (P = 0.17). The AUC of IVAS, MCPS and MNT did not differ among groups (P = 0.56, 0.64, and 0.18, respectively). Significantly lower IVAS pain scores were recorded at 1 h in the RM compared to the R and S groups (P = 0.021-0.018). There were no significant adverse effects during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Local infiltration with RM decreased intraoperative isoflurane requirements and resulted in some evidence of improved analgesia during the early postoperative period. Neither R nor RM infiltration appeared to result in long term analgesia in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.


Assuntos
Gatos/cirurgia , Histerectomia/veterinária , Meloxicam/farmacologia , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Ropivacaina/farmacologia , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Meloxicam/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Ropivacaina/efeitos adversos
18.
Anesth Prog ; 67(1): 9-15, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191506

RESUMO

To compare the effectiveness of a combination of 10% lidocaine, 10% prilocaine, and 4% tetracaine versus 20% benzocaine for use as a topical anesthetic agent prior to dental injections. A double-blind randomized prospective clinical trial was conducted with 26 participants receiving a topical anesthetic of 20% benzocaine (control) and 26 participants receiving a compound topical anesthetic mixture of 10% lidocaine, 10% prilocaine, and 4% tetracaine (experimental) prior to a maxillary infiltration injection. The procedure was conducted by 1 operator with the Wand® injection system. Pain was assessed directly with visual analog scale (VAS) scores and indirectly by measuring changes in heart rate at 4 different time points. Complications associated with the application of the topical anesthetics were also assessed. The experimental group had a significantly higher mean VAS score of 19.5 ± 19.7 mm versus 14.2 ± 14.6 mm for the control group (p < .001). No significant differences in heart rate at any of the 4 measured time points compared with baseline were noted for either group. The experimental group had a significantly higher incidence of complications, including tissue sloughing, when compared with the control group (p < .001). Participants in the control group reported significantly lower VAS scores than those in the experimental group. Both types of topical anesthetic showed similar impacts on alterations to heart rate. No benefits were seen with the use of 10% lidocaine, 10% prilocaine, and 4% tetracaine as a topical anesthetic prior to a maxillary infiltration of local anesthetic when compared with 20% benzocaine.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais , Benzocaína , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Benzocaína/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Lidocaína/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor , Projetos Piloto , Prilocaína/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Rev. esp. anestesiol. reanim ; 67(2): 108-111, feb. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197461

RESUMO

El objetivo es presentar un estudio descriptivo relacionado con un caso de de mioclonía espinal (ME) sin precedentes conocidos, tras una anestesia subaracnoidea. Los ME son espasmos no generalizados repentinos, breves e involuntarios que pueden ser un efecto adverso de la administración de fármacos a través de las vías neuroaxiales. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 67 años, ASA II, propuesta para cirugía de reemplazo de cadera, con exámenes preoperatorios normales en la que 7 minutos después de la anestesia subaracnoidea con 10 mg de bupivacaína al 0,5% no se observó bloqueo motor, y la paciente se quejó de dolor insoportable en las piernas y en el perineo, asociando con movimientos mioclónicos bilaterales, asimétricos y arrítmicos en las extremidades inferiores. El dolor se resolvió tras 48 horas de anestesia general y perfusión de rocuronio, entre otras medidas terapéuticas. Tras el diagnóstico diferencial, la bupivacaína intratecal parece ser la causa más probable de ME, con respecto a la ausencia de trastornos neurológicos y electrolíticos, traumatismo directo de la médula espinal, intercambio de fármacos y examen perioperatorio normal, imágenes y pruebas de laboratorio. Es obligatorio revisar siempre las historias anestésicas de los pacientes y reconocer, tratar y reportar complicaciones anestésicas raras


The goal is to present a descriptive study related an unprecedent case of spinal myoclonus (SM) following subarachnoid anesthesia (SA). SM are sudden, brief, involuntary non-generalized spasms that can be an adverse effect of drug administration via neuraxial routes. Female, 67y, ASA II, proposed for hip replacement surgery, with normal preoperative exams. 7min after SA with 10mg of bupivacaine 0,5%, no motor blockade observed, and patient complained of unbearable pain in legs and perineum and bilateral, asymmetrical and arrhythmic myoclonic movements in the lower limbs. The latter solved after 48h of general anesthesia and rocuronium perfusion, amongst other therapeutics. Accordingly, intrathecal bupivacaine appears to be the SM most likely cause, regarding the absence of neurologic and electrolyte disorders, spinal cord direct trauma, drug exchange and normal perioperative examination, imaging and laboratory testing.It is mandatory to always take the patients' anaesthetic histories and recognize, treat and report rare anaesthetic complications


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Bupivacaína/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Injeções Espinhais/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril , Mioclonia/induzido quimicamente
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