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1.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 41(9): 466-473; quiz 474, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001657

RESUMO

It is well-known that there is an opioid crisis in the United States. Prescription opioid analgesics contribute to this crisis; in 2012, dentists ranked second to family care physicians as the top prescribers. The medical and dental literature demonstrates that dental prescribing practices have been excessive, resulting in leftover medication that could then be diverted, misused, or abused. A multimodal analgesic approach is highly valuable in targeting pain along various points on the peripheral and central pain pathways and includes the use of long-acting local anesthetics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, and opioids, the last of which are generally reserved for the most severe pain only. The Dental Impaction Pain Model demonstrates that NSAIDs are the frontline drugs for postoperative dental pain. Opioids have their role in postoperative analgesia but should be reserved for severe breakthrough pain or in situations where NSAIDs may be contraindicated.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estados Unidos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22477, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019439

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a procedure used for management of refractory renal calculi. Oral and parenteral opioids, along with local anesthetic infiltration, neuraxial anesthesia, and paravertebral blocks are the most common methods of managing intra-operative and post-operative pain for these patients. The erector spinae plane block with catheter (ESPC) is a newer interfascial regional anesthetic technique that can be used to manage peri-operative pain in these patients. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Three patients complained of significant flank pain were scheduled for percutaneous nephrolithotomy under general anesthesia in the prone position. DIAGNOSES: Patients were diagnosed with large renal calculi. THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS: Patients received ESPC in the pre-operative holding area at the level of the T7 transverse process. The ESPCS were bolused with a solution of 30 mL 0.25% bupivacaine with 4 mg dexamethasone prior to surgery. Patients also received oral tramadol 50 mg and acetaminophen 1 g as part of the multimodal pain protocol prior to surgery. After the procedure, the patients were bolused with 0.25% bupivacaine or started on an infusion of 0.25% bupivacaine to manage their pain. OUTCOMES: No opioid or other pain medications, other than the local anesthetic solution given in the ESPCs, were used during the intra-operative or post-operative period for management of pain in these patients. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were below 4 for all patients in the post-operative period, and patients did not report any issues with post-operative nausea or vomiting. CONCLUSION: These patients were compared to 3 prior patients who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy without ESPC. The 3 patients without ESPC placement reported increased VAS scores, had increased opioid/pain medication consumption intraoperatively and postoperatively, and had increased incidence of perioperative nausea when compared to our ESPC patients. Our report shows that ESPC, in combination with a multimodal pain protocol, can be a good option for management of patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bupivacaína/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Paraespinais
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22251, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The randomized controlled study aimed to examine the efficacy of preoperative ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane (ESP) block combined with ropivacaine in patients undergoing hepatectomy. METHODS: A total of 60 patients were randomized to ESP block group receiving ropivacaine (Group A) and control group (Group B), n = 30 per group. Visual analog scale (VAS) was recorded in both the groups during rest and movement at the various time intervals. Both the groups were also compared for time to initial anal exhaust, analgesic usage, early postoperative complications and side-effects, walk distance after the operation, time to out-of-bed activity, and duration of hospital stay. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the demographic characteristics. For group A, when compared to group B, VAS scores during rest and movement within post-operative 24 hours were decreased, the time of first anus exhaust and ambulation were earlier, analgesic consumption and the incidence of postoperative nausea, vomiting and headache was reduced, the duration of hospital stay were shorter with longer walk distance. CONCLUSION: ESP block combined with ropivacaine treatment effectively reduced early postoperative pain and improved recovery after hepatectomy.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Hepatectomia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Músculos Paraespinais , Ropivacaina/uso terapêutico , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22113, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effective analgesia during delivery can not only decrease pain, but also have a significant function in ensuring the safety of baby and mother. Sufentanil is generally used opioid with ropivacaine in epidural anesthesia in labor pain management; however it can cause some adverse reaction. Dexmedetomidine is an a2-adrenoceptor agonist with high selectivity. It possesses opioid-sparing and analgesic effects and it is suitable for the long-term and short-term intraoperative sedation. The purpose of this present study is to compare the analgesic effect of ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine against ropivacaine with sufentanyl in epidural labor. METHODS: This is a single center, placebo-controlled randomized trial which will be performed from May 2020 to May 2021. It was authorized via the Institutional Review Committee in the first medical center of Chinese PLA General Hospital (S2018-211-0). One hundred sixty full-term protozoa are included in this work. They are randomly divided into four groups (n = 40 per group): the RD1 group (with the epidural administration of 0.125% ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine of 0.5 µg/mL), and the RD2 group (with the epidural administration of 0.08% ropivacaine + dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg/mL), the RS1 group (with the epidural administration of 0.125% ropivacaine + sufentanil of 0.5 µg/mL), as well as RS2 group (with the epidural administration of 0.08% ropivacaine + sufentanil of 0.5 µg/mL). Clinical outcomes are pain score, a modified Bromage scale, the Ramsay Sedation Scale, and adverse reactions during analgesia. All the needed analyses are implemented through utilizing SPSS for Windows Version 20.0. RESULTS: The first table shows the clinical outcomes between these four groups. CONCLUSION: This current work can provide a primary evidence regarding the clinical outcomes of dexmedetomidine versus sufentanil for labor epidural analgesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5877).


Assuntos
Analgesia Obstétrica/métodos , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Dexmedetomidina/uso terapêutico , Ropivacaina/uso terapêutico , Sufentanil/uso terapêutico , Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Ropivacaina/efeitos adversos , Sufentanil/administração & dosagem , Sufentanil/efeitos adversos
5.
Pain Physician ; 23(4S): S319-S350, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the late 1940s, corticosteroids have been a mainstay class of agents in multiple interventional techniques and intra-articular injections. Exogenous glucocorticoids are structurally and pharmacologically similar to the endogenous hormones. As such, multiple actions of corticosteroids are exhibited, including those of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Epidural injections, with or without steroids, have been extensively used throughout the world. There are reports of epidural injections starting in 1901, with steroids being added to the local anesthetic since 1952, when steroids were administered into the sacral foramen. PURPOSE: Due to the extensive side effects of steroids in various injections, some have proposed limiting their use in epidurals and intraarticular injections. With the COVID-19 pandemic, the multiple side effects of the steroids have elevated the level of concern and recommendations have been made to utilize local anesthetic alone or the lowest dose of steroids. Fashioned from common expressions of the day, the term "steroid distancing" began to be used and proposed for intraarticular injections of the knee. Consequently, we sought to evaluate the evidence and feasibility of steroid distancing in interventional pain management. METHODS: This focused review of local anesthetics and steroids utilized in interventional pain management for epidural injections, peripheral nerve blocks, and intraarticular injections by multiple database searches. This is a focused narrative review and not a systematic review. Consequently, evidence synthesis was not performed traditionally, but was based on an overview of the available evidence. RESULTS: No significant difference was identified based on whether steroids are added to local anesthetic or not for epidural as well as facet joint injections. However, there was not enough evidence to compare these two groups for peripheral intraarticular injections. LIMITATIONS: The present review is limited by the paucity of literature with bupivacaine alone or bupivacaine with steroids local anesthetic alone or with steroids of intraarticular injections of knee, hip, shoulder and other joints, and intraarticular facet joint injections. CONCLUSION: This review shows an overall lack of significant difference between lidocaine alone and lidocaine with steroids in epidural injections. However, available evidence is limited for bupivacaine alone or with steroids. Evidence is also not available comparing local anesthetic alone with steroids for facet joint or peripheral joint intraarticular injections. Thus, it is concluded that local anesthetic with lidocaine may be utilized for epidural injections, with appropriate patient selection and steroids reserved for non-responsive patients with local anesthetic and with significant radiculitis.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Injeções Intra-Articulares/métodos
6.
J Perioper Pract ; 30(9): 277-282, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869726

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has changed the approach to operating on breast cancer for the benefit of patients, staff and the general population. One approach involves the switch from operating under general to local anaesthetic. We assess whether diluational local anaesthetic is as effective as the current standard approach. METHODS: Postoperative pain was recorded in prospective, consecutive patients undergoing wide local excision under dilutional local anaesthetic (concentration < 1mg/ml). Pain scores were documented at 0, 30 and 60 minutes and compared to a control group consisting of combined general with local anaesthetic. RESULTS: Pain significantly increased in the control group during the postoperative recovery. This was not seen in the dilutional local anaesthetic group that was non-inferior to the standard approach at 0, 30 and 60 minutes. CONCLUSION: Dilutional local anaesthetic provides a safe and effective alternative approach to operating on breast cancer patients whilst avoiding risky general anaesthetic in a COVID-19 pandemic environment.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21866, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846840

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Premature ejaculation (PE) affects 8% to 30% of adult men worldwide. Recently, the incidence of PE is on the rise. A series of prior studies suggested that the incidence of PE is related to various biological factors as low testosterone, low serum vitamin D, diabetes, lower urinary tract symptoms, and other psychological factors. At present, the major treatments include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors antidepressants (dapoxetine, paroxetine), topical anesthetics, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, circumcision, and selective dorsal neurotomy (SDN). The previous study found that SDN is effective for PE. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The electronic databases of MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Clinicaltrials. org, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), Wan fang Database, China Biology Medicine Database (CBM), VIP Science Technology Periodical Database, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry will be retrieved. All the randomized controlled trials of selective dorsal penile neurotomy for patients with PE will be included. The outcome includes intravaginal ejaculation latency time and Chinese Index of Sexual Function for Premature Ejaculation-5. We will conduct this study strictly according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. RESULTS: The present study is a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis without results, and data analysis will be carried out after the protocol. We will share our findings on June 30th of 2021. CONCLUSION: SDN can effectively prolong IELT, but its efficacy has not been assessed scientifically and systematically. To address this limitation, this study will inspect the efficacy and safety of the SDN treatment in patients with PE. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required in this protocol. We will collect and analyze data based on published studies, and since there are no patients involved in this study, individual privacy will not be under concerns. The results of this review will be disseminated to peer-reviewed journals or submit to related conferences. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202070084.


Assuntos
Pênis/inervação , Ejaculação Precoce/terapia , Nervo Pudendo/cirurgia , Adulto , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Benzilaminas/uso terapêutico , Circuncisão Masculina/métodos , Ejaculação/fisiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Naftalenos/uso terapêutico , Paroxetina/uso terapêutico , Pênis/fisiopatologia , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Ejaculação Precoce/epidemiologia , Ejaculação Precoce/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico
9.
Georgian Med News ; (303): 58-63, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841182

RESUMO

The aim of research - to assess the feasibility and effectiveness, of the intraosseous method of anesthesia, with the Quick Sleeper injection system on the toothless area of ​​the alveolar bone during dental implantation. Clinical and physiological studies were conducted to study the features of performing intraosseous anesthesia on the site of alveolar bone adentia in the absence of the usual anatomical topographic landmarks. New computer technologies, as well as modern methods of patient examination and observation were used. The results of the analysis confirmed the advantages of intraosseous anesthesia compared with alternative methods of local anesthesia during dental implantation. The advantages of the intraosseous method of anesthesia are characterized, the features of conducting, the anatomical guidelines have been indicated for an effective intraosseous anesthesia in the area of ​​the alveolar bone adentia, during dental implantation.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Infusões Intraósseas , Anestesia Local , Implantação Dentária , Humanos , Injeções
11.
Pain Res Manag ; 2020: 4298509, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509046

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate ultrasound-guided inactivation of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) combined with abdominal muscle fascia stripping by liquid knife in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) complicated with abdominal myofascial pain syndrome (AMPS). Methods: From January 2015 to July 2018, non-head-and-neck PHN patients in the Pain Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, were treated with routine oral drugs and weekly paraspinal nerve block for two weeks. Patients with 2 < VAS (visual analogue scale) score < 6 were subjects of the study. They were assigned into control group 1 (C1, n = 33) including those with PHN and without myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and control group 2 (C2, n = 33) including those with PHN complicated with MPS and observation group 1 (PL, n = 33) including those with PHN complicated with limb myofascial pain syndrome (LMPS) and observation group 2 (PA, n = 33) including those with PHN complicated with AMPS. All groups received zero-grade treatment: routine oral drugs and weekly paraspinal nerve block. PL and PA groups were also treated step by step once a week: primary ultrasound-guided inactivation of MTrPs with dry needling, secondary ultrasound-guided inactivation of MTrPs with dry and wet needling, and tertiary ultrasound-guided dry and wet needling combined with muscle fascia stripping by liquid knife. At one week after primary treatment, patients with a VAS score > 2 proceeded to secondary treatment. If the VAS score was <2, the treatment was maintained, and so on, until the end of the four treatment cycles. Pain assessment was performed by specialized nurses at one week after each treatment, including VAS score, McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ) score, pressure pain sensory threshold (PPST), and pressure pain tolerance threshold (PPTT). VAS score was used as the main index and VAS <2 indicated effective treatment. At 3 months after treatment, outpatient and/or telephone follow-up was performed. The recurrence rate was observed and VAS > 2 was regarded as recurrence. Results: At one week after primary treatment, the effective rate was 66.7% in PL group, significantly higher than that in PA group (15.2%, P < 0.05). At one week after secondary treatment, the effective rate was 100% and 37.5% in PL and PA groups, respectively, with significant difference between the groups (P < 0.05). The effective rate increased to 90.6% in PA group at one week after tertiary treatment. At one week after the end of treatment cycles, the scores of VAS and MPQ were significantly lower in C1, PL, and PA groups than in C2 group (P < 0.05), while PPST and PPTT were significantly higher than in C2 group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between C1 group and PL group (P > 0.05). At follow-up at 3 months after treatment, the recurrence rate was low in each group, with no significant difference between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: About 57% of PHN patients with mild to moderate pain are complicated with MPS, and ultrasound-guided inactivation of MTrPs with dry and wet needling can effectively treat PHN patients complicated with LMPS. However, patients with PHN complicated with AMPS need to be treated with ultrasound-guided MTrPs inactivation combined with muscle fascia stripping by liquid knife as soon as possible.


Assuntos
Agulhamento Seco/métodos , Síndromes da Dor Miofascial/etiologia , Síndromes da Dor Miofascial/terapia , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/terapia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Adulto , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Fáscia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Ropivacaina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Pontos-Gatilho
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20298, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481399

RESUMO

Continuous epidural analgesia (CEA) using local anesthetics is frequently used to control herpes zoster pain and prevent postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). However, few studies have been conducted to determine the efficacy of epidural drugs administered as CEA to manage PHN. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of CEA with ropivacaine alone or with ropivacaine and fentanyl for controlling pain caused by PHN.We reviewed the medical records of 71 patients. We studied 2 groups: epidural ropivacaine (ER; CEA with ropivacaine alone; n = 44) and epidural ropivacaine and fentanyl (Epidural ropivacaine and fentanyl (ERF); CEA with ropivacaine and fentanyl; n = 27). To evaluate pain, a numeric rating scale (NRS) was evaluated at 6 time points: immediately before the procedure (baseline NRS score); 1 hour after the procedure; 14 days after the procedure; and 1, 3, and 6 months after the procedure. Complication rates were recorded during CEA. We also investigated whether additional invasive procedures were needed due to insufficient pain control during the 6-month follow-up period.After adjusting for confounding variables, there were no significant differences in the NRS scores between the 2 groups at any time point. The adjusted odds ratio for additional invasive procedures within 6 months after CEA was 1.03-times higher in the ERF group than in the ER group, but this difference was not statistically significant (95% confidence interval: 0.33-3.23, P = .96). Rates of complication (dysuria, vomiting, nausea, itching sensation, and hypotension) during CEA were higher in the ERF group than in the ER group. However, the differences were not statistically significant.There was no difference in the management of pain in patients with PHN between the groups. Epidural administration of fentanyl with ropivacaine did not improve pain management when compared to ropivacaine alone. Although not statistically significant, the incidence of complications during CEA was higher in the opioid combination group.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/tratamento farmacológico , Ropivacaina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Intravenosos/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Ropivacaina/efeitos adversos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(25): e20680, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569199

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Herpes zoster (HZ) involving sacral dermatome is very rare, which can sometimes cause voiding dysfunction. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 52-year-old man presented with acute pain and voiding dysfunction, following HZ in his right sacral dermatomes. DIAGNOSES: Twenty two days before presentation HZ occurred and 9 days after the onset of the HZ, he had trouble with starting urination and weak urine stream which was managed with tamsulosin 0.4 mg orally once a day and intermittent urinary catheterization. He was treated with 150 mg of pregabalin 2 times a day, tramadol 50 mg 2 times, and acetaminophen 600 mg 2 times a day. However, his pain intensity was 5 on the numerical analogue scale (NRS) from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). INTERVENTIONS: Fluoroscopy guided caudal block was performed with a mixture of 0.5% lidocaine 10 mL and triamcinolone 40 mg. OUTCOMES: One day after the procedure, the pain decreased to 1 on the NRS score. In addition, voiding difficulty greatly improved. Three days after the intervention, the patient reported complete resolution of pain and voiding dysfunction. He currently remains symptom free at a 3-month follow-up. LESSONS: A caudal block with steroid can be an effective option for treatment of acute voiding dysfunction and pain following sacral HZ.


Assuntos
Anestesia Caudal/métodos , Herpes Zoster/complicações , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Sacro/virologia , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/virologia , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Fluoroscopia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Tansulosina/uso terapêutico , Triancinolona/uso terapêutico , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/terapia , Cateterismo Urinário , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapêutico
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357174

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to investigate the current clinical practice of ultrasound (US)-guided stellate ganglion block (SGB) using a bi-national survey of Korea and Japan, and to clarify the anatomical relation of the cervical sympathetic trunk with the prevertebral fascia at the level of cervical vertebrae. The current clinical practice of US-guided SGB in Korea and Japan was investigated using an Internet survey, which received 206 (10.2%) replies from Korea and 97 (8.8%) replies from Japan. The survey questionnaire addressed the actual clinical practice for US-guided SGB, including where the tip of the injection needle is placed. Additionally, 16 half necks of 8 embalmed cadavers were used in an anatomical study. An in-plane needle approach technique and administering 5 ml of local anesthetic were preferred in both countries. However, the type of local anesthetic differed, being lidocaine in Korea and mepivacaine in Japan. The final position of the needle tip also clearly differed in an US image, being predominantly positioned above the prevertebral fascia in Korea (39.3%) and under the prevertebral fascia in Japan (59.8%). In all of the anatomic dissections, the cervical sympathetic trunk was over the prevertebral fascia at the level of the sixth vertebra and under the prevertebral fascia at the level of the seventh vertebra. These results are expected to improve the knowledge on the current clinical practice and to suggest future studies.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Gânglio Estrelado , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Cadáver , Dissecação , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Japão , Masculino , República da Coreia , Gânglio Estrelado/anatomia & histologia
16.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 129(10): 949-963, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform an evidence-based systematic review evaluating perioperative analgesia, including opioid alternatives, used for patients undergoing thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search from 1997 to January 2018 of Pubmed, Cochrane, and EmBase libraries was performed for studies reporting analgesic administration following thyroid or parathyroid surgery. This systematic review was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and given a Jadad score to assess for risk of bias. Outcomes gathered included postoperative pain scores, time to rescue analgesia, rescue analgesic consumption, and adverse events. RESULTS: Thirty-eight randomized controlled trials met inclusion criteria. The GRADE criteria determined the overall evidence to be moderate-high. Studies utilizing NSAIDs reported reduced requirements for rescue analgesics. Acetaminophen studies presented with conflicting data on effectiveness. Gabapentinoid studies demonstrated lower pain scores and an increased time to rescue analgesic. Local anesthetics were effective at decreasing Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) pain scores while also reducing rescue analgesic consumption. Ketamine was shown to increased postoperative nausea and vomiting. NSAIDs and local anesthetic studies had an aggregate grade of evidence A, while all others had grade B evidence. CONCLUSION: There is significant evidence supporting the use of NSAIDs and local anesthetics in the perioperative period for pain management for thyroid and parathyroid surgeries. Acetaminophen, gabapentinoid and ketamine have some supporting evidence and may serve as adequate alternatives. Further multi-institutional RCTs are warranted to delineate optimal analgesic regimens. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Paratireoidectomia , Tireoidectomia , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor , Assistência Perioperatória , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/epidemiologia , Pregabalina/uso terapêutico
17.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 191, 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Notalgia paresthetica (NP) is a sensory neuropathy characterized by localized pruritus and pain, presenting with or without a well-circumscribed hyperpigmented patch in the upper back. Abnormal sensations, such as burning, numbness, and paresthesia are often present in patients with NP. In this study, we clinically and radiologically analyzed patients with NP. The literature contains studies describing lidocaine treatments involving intravenous and topical applications for NP. We also investigated the effect of intradermal lidocaine injection on patients with NP. METHODS: A total of 80 patients (45 patients with NP and 35 suffering from dorsalgia without NP) were included in the study. The age, gender and body mass index (BMI) of the patients, and the characteristics of their symptoms were recorded. The severity of pain and pruritus was assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine were performed. In this study, we intradermally administered lidocaine diluted with saline into the upper back over three sessions. 1 cc 2% lidocaine was diluted with 5 cc 0.9% saline, and a total of 6 cc lidocaine mixture was obtained. The injection was performed locally at 1-cm intervals around the hyperpigmented patch and segmentally along the C2-T6 spinous processes. These patients were called for a follow-up at the second and fourth weeks and third month. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, BMI, VAS-pain score, and duration of symptoms (p > 0.05 for all). Forty-six cervical and/or thoracic degenerative changes or herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) were detected in patients with NP. There was a significantly higher number of HNP at the C6-7 segment and cervical degenerative changes in the NP group (p < 0.05). The VAS-pain and VAS-pruritus scores were significantly decreased at all follow-up sessions, and improvement was sustained by lidocaine up to the third month. CONCLUSION: Cervical degenerative changes and HNP of the C6-7 segment seem to be contributing factors for NP. Local lidocaine can be effective for pain relief and pruritus in NP.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Parestesia/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpigmentação/complicações , Hiperpigmentação/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperpigmentação/patologia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/epidemiologia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parestesia/complicações , Parestesia/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/patologia , Prurido/complicações , Prurido/patologia
18.
Pain Res Manag ; 2020: 1035182, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256907

RESUMO

Methods: Eighty-eight patients undergoing THA were randomized to receive 0.33% ropivacaine (Group QLB, n = 44) or saline (Group Con, n = 44) for QL3 block. Spinal anesthesia was then performed. Pain intensity was assessed using the visual analog scale (0: no pain to 10: worst possible pain). The primary outcome was pain scores recorded at rest at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h and on standing and walking at 24, 36, and 48 h postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were analgesic consumption, side effects, the 10-meter walking speed on day 6, and patient satisfaction after surgery. Results: Postoperative pain intensity was significantly lower in Group QLB compared to Group Con at rest after 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h (p < 0.001) and during mobilization after 24, 36, and 48 h (p < 0.001). Morphine use was significantly lower in Group QLB compared to Group Con during 0-24 h (16.0 ± 7.1 vs. 34.1 ± 7.1 mg, p < 0.001) and during 24-48 h (13.0 ± 4.0 vs. 17.4 ± 4.6 mg, p < 0.001) postoperatively. The 10-meter walking speed was higher in Group QLB compared to Group Con, both at comfortable (0.79 ± 0.13 vs. 0.70 ± 0.14 m/s, p=0.012) and at maximum speeds (1.18 ± 0.26 vs. 1.06 ± 0.22 m/s, p < 0.001). Incidences of nausea (7.3% vs. 31%, p=0.006), vomiting (7.3% vs. 26.2%, p = 0.022), and urinary retention (9.8% vs. 28.6%, p=0.030) were lower in Group QLB than in Group Con. Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided QL3 block is an effective pain management technique after THA.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Ropivacaina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(17): e19898, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332666

RESUMO

Lidocaine, as the only local anesthetic approved for intravenous administration in the clinic, can relieve neuropathic pain, hyperalgesia, and complex regional pain syndrome. Intravenous injection of lidocaine during surgery is considered as an effective strategy to control postoperative pain, but the mechanism of its analgesic effect has not been fully elucidated. This paper intends to review recent studies on the mechanism of the analgesic effect of lidocaine. To the end, we conducted an electronic search of the PubMed database. The search period was from 5 years before June 2019. Lidocaine was used as the search term. A total of 659 documents were obtained, we included 17 articles. These articles combined with the 34 articles found by hand searching made up the 51 articles that were ultimately included. We reviewed the analgesic mechanism of lidocaine in the central nervous system.


Assuntos
Lidocaína/farmacocinética , Administração Intravenosa/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/farmacocinética , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Canais Iônicos de Abertura Ativada por Ligante/efeitos dos fármacos
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