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1.
Pain Res Manag ; 2021: 8763429, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688385

RESUMO

Background: During the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), allocating intensive care beds to patients needing acute care surgery became a very difficult task. Moreover, since general anesthesia is an aerosol-generating procedure, its use became controversial. This strongly restricted therapeutic strategies. Here, we report a series of undeferrable surgical cases treated with awake surgery under neuraxial anesthesia. Contextual benefits of this approach are deepened. Methods: During the first pandemic surge, thirteen patients (5 men and 8 women) with a mean age of 80 years, needing undelayable surgery due to abdominal emergencies, underwent awake open surgery at our Hospital. Prior to surgery, all patients underwent nasopharyngeal swab tests for COVID-19 diagnosis. In all cases, regional anesthesia (spinal, epidural, or combined spinal-epidural anesthesia) was performed. Intraoperative and postoperative pain intensities have been monitored and regularly assessed. A distinct pathway has been set up to keep patients of uncertain COVID-19 diagnosis separated from all other patients. Postoperative course has been examined. Results: The mean operative time was 87 minutes (minimum 60 minutes; maximum 165 minutes). In one case, conversion to general anesthesia was necessary. Postoperative pain was always well controlled. None of them required postoperative intensive care support. No perioperative major complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥3) occurred. Early readmission after surgery never occurred. All nasopharyngeal swabs resulted negative. Conclusions: In our experience, awake laparotomy under regional anesthesia resulted feasible, safe, painless, and, in specific cases, was the only viable option. This approach allowed prevention of the need of postoperative intensive monitoring during the COVID-19 era. In such a peculiar time, we believe it could become part of an ICU-preserving strategy and could limit viral transmission inside theatres.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Laparotomia/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vigília
2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(2): 395-399, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463598

RESUMO

Purpose: The current pandemic of COVID-19 has made airway procedures like intubation and extubation, potential sources of virus transmission among health care workers. The aim of this work was to study the safety profile of combined ketamine and regional anesthesia in pediatric ocular surgeries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This prospective study included pediatric patients undergoing ocular surgery under general anesthesia from April to October 2020. Children were premedicated with oral midazolam (0.25-0.50 mg/kg) or intramuscular ketamine (7-10 mg/kg), ondensetron (0.1 mg/kg) and atropine (0.02 mg/kg). Anesthesia was achieved with intravenous ketamine (4-5 mg/kg) and local anesthesia (peribulbar block or local infiltration). The patient's vital signs were monitored. Serious complications and postoperative adverse reactions related to anesthesia were documented. Results: A total of 55 children (62 eyes) were operated. Lid tear was the most common surgical procedure performed [n = 18 (32.7%)]. Dose of ketamine needed ranged from 30 to 120 mg (66.67 ± 30.45). No intubation or resuscitation was needed. Four children complained of nausea and two needed an additional dose of intravenous ondansetron due to vomiting in the post-operative period. Incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was not affected by age, duration of surgery or dose of ketamine used (P > 0.05). There was no correlation between increase in pulse and dose of ketamine. Conclusion: Combined ketamine and regional anesthesia is a safe and effective alternative to administer anesthesia in a child during ocular surgeries.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Oftalmopatias/cirurgia , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/métodos , Pandemias , Anestésicos Dissociativos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 1: 53-64, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426656

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, regional anaesthesia and medical education as a whole have undergone a renaissance. Significant changes in our teaching methods and clinical practice have been influenced by improvements in our theoretical understanding as well as by technological innovations. More recently, there has been a focus on using foundational education principles to teach regional anaesthesia, and the evidence on how to best teach and assess trainees is growing. This narrative review will discuss fundamentals and innovations in regional anaesthesia training. We present the fundamentals in regional anaesthesia training, specifically the current state of simulation-based education, deliberate practice and curriculum design based on competency-based progression. Moving into the future, we present the latest innovations in web-based learning, emerging technologies for teaching and assessment and new developments in alternate reality learning systems.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia por Condução/tendências , Anestesiologia/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Anestesiologia/tendências , Competência Clínica , Educação Baseada em Competências , Currículo , Humanos , Treinamento por Simulação
4.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 1: 148-159, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426658

RESUMO

Cancer accounts for millions of deaths globally each year, predominantly due to recurrence and metastatic disease. The majority of patients with primary solid organ cancers require surgery, however, some degree of tumour dissemination related to surgery is inevitable. The surgical stress response and associated immunosuppression, pain, inflammation, tissue hypoxia and angiogenesis have all been implicated in promoting tumour survival, proliferation and recurrence. Regional anaesthesia was hypothesised to reduce the surgical stress response and immunosuppression, minimise the need for volatile anaesthesia and reduce pain and opioid requirements, thus mitigating pro-tumour pathways associated with the peri-operative period and improving long-term oncological outcomes. While some retrospective studies suggested an association between regional anaesthesia and reduced cancer recurrence, the first large randomised controlled trial on the effect of anaesthetic technique on cancer outcome found no significant difference between paravertebral regional anaesthesia and volatile anaesthesia with opioid analgesia in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. Randomised controlled trials on the long-term oncological outcomes of regional anaesthesia in other tumour types are ongoing. The focus on how peri-operative interventions, especially regional anaesthesia, during cancer resection surgery, may enhance short-term recovery and perhaps influence long-term outcome has spawned the global emergence of the subspecialty of onco-anaesthesia. This review aims to discuss the most recent evidence on the use of regional anaesthesia in cancer surgery and the significance of its role in onco-anaesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Assistência Perioperatória
5.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 1: 136-147, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426655

RESUMO

This narrative review discusses recent evidence surrounding the use of regional anaesthesia in the obstetric setting, including intrapartum techniques for labour and operative vaginal delivery, and caesarean delivery. Pudendal nerve blockade, ideally administered by an obstetrician, should be considered for operative vaginal delivery if neuraxial analgesia is contraindicated. Regional techniques are increasingly utilised in clinical practice for caesarean delivery to minimise opioid consumption, reduce pain, improve postpartum recovery and facilitate earlier discharge as part of enhanced recovery protocols. The evidence surrounding transversus abdominis plane and quadratus lumborum blockade supports their use when: long-acting neuraxial opioids cannot be administered due to contraindications; if emergency delivery necessitates general anaesthesia; or as a postoperative rescue technique. Current data suggest quadratus lumborum blockade is no more effective than transversus abdominis plane blockade after caesarean delivery. Transversus abdominis plane blockade, wound catheter insertion and single shot wound infiltration are all effective techniques for reducing postoperative opioid consumption, with transversus abdominis plane blockade favoured, followed by wound catheters and then wound infiltration. Ilio-inguinal and iliohypogastric, erector spinae plane and rectus sheath blockade all require further studies to determine their efficacy for caesarean delivery in the presence or absence of long-acting neuraxial opioids. Future studies are needed to: compare approaches for individual techniques; determine which combinations of techniques and dosing regimens result in optimal analgesic and recovery outcomes following delivery; and elucidate the populations that benefit most from regional anaesthesia in the obstetric setting.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Cesárea/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Gravidez
6.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 1: 74-88, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426659

RESUMO

Regional anaesthesia in children has evolved rapidly in the last decade. Although it previously consisted of primarily neuraxial techniques, the practice now incorporates advanced peripheral nerve blocks, which were only recently described in adults. These novel blocks provide new avenues for providing opioid-sparing analgesia while minimising invasiveness, and perhaps risk, associated with older techniques. At the same time, established methods, such as infant spinal anaesthesia, under-utilised in the last 20 years, are experiencing a revival. The impetus has been the concern regarding the potential long-term neurocognitive effects of general anaesthesia in the young child. These techniques have expanded from single shot spinal anaesthesia to combined spinal/epidural techniques, which can now effectively provide surgical anaesthesia for procedures below the umbilicus for a prolonged period of time, thereby avoiding the need for general anaesthesia. Continuous 2-chloroprocaine infusions, previously only described for intra-operative regional anaesthesia, have gained popularity as a means of providing prolonged postoperative analgesia in epidural and continuous nerve block techniques. The rapid, liver-independent metabolism of 2-chloroprocaine makes it ideal for prolonged local anaesthetic infusions in neonates and small infants, obviating the increased risk of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity that occurs with amide local anaesthetics. Debate continues over certain practices in paediatric regional anaesthesia. While the rarity of complications makes comparative analyses difficult, data from large prospective registries indicate that providing regional anaesthesia to children while under general anaesthesia appears to be at least as safe as in the sedated or awake patient. In addition, the estimated frequency of serious adverse events demonstrates that regional blocks in children under general anaesthesia are no less safe than in awake adults. In infants, the techniques of direct thoracic epidural placement or caudal placement with cephalad threading each have distinct advantages and disadvantages. As the data cannot support the safety of one technique over the other, the site of epidural insertion remains largely a matter of anaesthetist discretion.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Pediatria/métodos , Adolescente , Anestesia por Condução/tendências , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pediatria/tendências
7.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 1: 127-135, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426661

RESUMO

Diabetes is the most common metabolic condition worldwide and about 20% of surgical patients will have this condition. It is a major risk-factor for worse outcomes after surgery including mortality; infective and non-infective complications; and increased length of stay. However, diabetes is a modifiable risk-factor, and programs to improve medical management have the potential to reduce peri-operative complications and the risk of harm. Regional anaesthesia has well-documented benefits in promoting the restoration of function but there are legitimate concerns that the incidence of complications of regional anaesthesia in patients with diabetes is higher. The aim of this review is to explore in detail the various potential advantages and disadvantages of regional anaesthesia in patients with diabetes. This, in turn, will allow practitioners to undertake more informed shared decision-making and potentially modify their anaesthetic technique for patients with diabetes.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus , Complicações do Diabetes , Nefropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
8.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 1: 171-181, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426667

RESUMO

The current fourth industrial revolution is a distinct technological era characterised by the blurring of physics, computing and biology. The driver of change is data, powered by artificial intelligence. The UK National Health Service Topol Report embraced this digital revolution and emphasised the importance of artificial intelligence to the health service. Application of artificial intelligence within regional anaesthesia, however, remains limited. An example of the use of a convoluted neural network applied to visual detection of nerves on ultrasound images is described. New technologies that may impact on regional anaesthesia include robotics and artificial sensing. Robotics in anaesthesia falls into three categories. The first, used commonly, is pharmaceutical, typified by target-controlled anaesthesia using electroencephalography within a feedback loop. Other types include mechanical robots that provide precision and dexterity better than humans, and cognitive robots that act as decision support systems. It is likely that the latter technology will expand considerably over the next decades and provide an autopilot for anaesthesia. Technical robotics will focus on the development of accurate sensors for training that incorporate visual and motion metrics. These will be incorporated into augmented reality and visual reality environments that will provide training at home or the office on life-like simulators. Real-time feedback will be offered that stimulates and rewards performance. In discussing the scope, applications, limitations and barriers to adoption of these technologies, we aimed to stimulate discussion towards a framework for the optimal application of current and emerging technologies in regional anaesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Inteligência Artificial , Robótica
9.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 1: 8-17, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426669

RESUMO

Effective prevention of chronic postoperative pain is an important clinical goal, informed by a growing body of studies. Peri-operative regional anaesthesia remains one of the most important tools in the multimodal analgesic toolbox, blocking injury-induced activation and sensitisation of both the peripheral and central nervous system. We review the definition and taxonomy of chronic postoperative pain, its mechanistic basis and the most recent evidence for the preventative potential of multimodal analgesia, with a special focus on regional anaesthesia. While regional anaesthesia targets several important aspects of the mechanistic pathway leading to chronic postoperative pain, evidence for its efficacy is still mixed, possibly owing to the heterogeneity of risk profiles within the surgical patient, but also to variation in techniques and medications reported in the literature.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Dor Crônica/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 1: 65-73, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426665

RESUMO

With the widespread use of ultrasound for localising nerves during peripheral nerve blockade, the value of electrical nerve stimulation of evoked motor responses has been questioned. Studies continue to show that, compared with nerve stimulation, ultrasound guidance alone leads to: significantly improved block success; decreased need for rescue analgesia; decreased procedural pain; and lower rates of vascular puncture. Nerve stimulation combined with ultrasound does also not appear to improve block success rates, apart from those blocks where the nerves are challenging to view, such as the obturator nerve. The role of nerve stimulation has changed in the last 15 years from a technique to locate nerves to that of an adjunct to ultrasound. Nerve stimulation can serve as a monitor against needle-nerve contact and may be useful in avoiding nerves that are in the needle trajectory during specific ultrasound guided techniques. Nerve stimulation is also a useful adjunct in teaching novices ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia, especially when the position and or appearance of nerves may be variable. In this review, the changing role of nerve stimulation in contemporary regional anaesthetic practice is presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos
11.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 1: 100-109, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426668

RESUMO

Moderate-to-severe postoperative pain persists for longer than the duration of single-shot peripheral nerve blocks and hence continues to be a problem even with the routine use of regional anaesthesia techniques. The administration of local anaesthetic adjuncts, defined as the concomitant intravenous or perineural injection of one or more pharmacological agents, is an attractive and technically simple strategy to potentially extend the benefits of peripheral nerve blockade beyond the conventional maximum of 8-14 hours. Historical local anaesthetic adjuncts include perineural adrenaline that has been demonstrated to increase the mean duration of analgesia by as little as just over 1 hour. Of the novel local anaesthetic adjuncts, dexmedetomidine and dexamethasone have best demonstrated the capacity to considerably improve the duration of blocks. Perineural dexmedetomidine and dexamethasone increase the mean duration of analgesia by up to 6 hour and 8 hour, respectively, when combined with long-acting local anaesthetics. The evidence for the safety of these local anaesthetic adjuncts continues to accumulate, although the findings of a neurotoxic effect with perineural dexmedetomidine during in-vitro studies are conflicting. Neither perineural dexmedetomidine nor dexamethasone fulfils all the criteria of the ideal local anaesthetic adjunct. Dexmedetomidine is limited by side-effects such as bradycardia, hypotension and sedation, and dexamethasone slightly increases glycaemia. In view of the concerns related to localised nerve and muscle injury and the lack of consistent evidence for the superiority of the perineural vs. systemic route of administration, we recommend the off-label use of systemic dexamethasone as a local anaesthetic adjunct in a dose of 0.1-0.2 mg.kg-1 for all patients undergoing surgery associated with significant postoperative pain.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestésicos Locais , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Sedação Consciente , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Nervos Periféricos
12.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(1): 48-53, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315640

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The world's population is ageing. Although regional anaesthesia is well established, it seems there is limited evidence to support its use over general anaesthesia in the elderly. This review aims to examine recent publications of regional anaesthesia in relation to this specific patient subgroup. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a paucity of evidence specifically relating to regional anaesthesia in the elderly patient. Studies tend to be small, retrospective and can combine assessment of multiple surgical and anaesthetic techniques in single studies. Surgical stimulus and the associated stress response are linked with an increased risk of morbidity in elderly patients. Regional anaesthesia is associated with reduced morbidity, improved pain scores, improved patient satisfaction and reduced resource allocation. Regional anaesthesia can potentially offset some of the surgical stress response and should be considered as part of a multimodal and, where possible, the primary approach to anaesthesia and analgesia in the elderly patient. SUMMARY: Undoubtedly, peripheral nerve blocks improve analgesia and reduce opioid consumption and their associated side effects. This is beneficial in the perioperative care of elderly patients who may have less physiologic reserve to withstand these side effects. Future large prospective trials are required to evaluate the duration of action and safety profile of local anaesthetic agents and adjunct agents in the older patient.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso , Idoso/fisiologia , Anestesia por Condução/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Humanos
13.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(5): 674-684, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826622

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Effective and safe regional anaesthesia and pain medicine procedures require clinicians to learn and master complex theoretical knowledge and motor skills. This review aims to summarize articles relevant to education and training in these skill sets in the previous 2 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Twenty-two articles were identified, investigating nine out of the 13 top-ranked research topics in education and training in regional anaesthesia. Research topics addressed by these articles included prerotation simulation, deliberate practice combined with formative assessment tools, validation of assessment tools, three-dimensional-printed models, and knowledge translation from simulation to clinical practice. Emerging concepts investigated for their applications in regional anaesthesia included eye-tracking as a surrogate metric when evaluating proficiency, and elastography aiding visual salience to distinguish appropriate perineural and inappropriate intraneural injections. SUMMARY: Research into education and training in regional anaesthesia covered multiple and diverse topics. Methodological limitations were noted in several articles, reflecting the difficulties in designing and conducting medical education studies. Nonetheless, the evidence-base continues to mature and innovations provide exciting future possibilities.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/normas , Anestesiologia/educação , Educação Médica , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/normas , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesiologia/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Humanos , Dor
14.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7950, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759892

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to review the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, the clinical-epidemiological aspects of COVID-19, and the implications anesthesiologists when performing aerosol-generating procedures. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science databases was performed until April 9, 2020, using the words: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Forty-eight articles with information on the management of the patient in the perioperative period or the intensive care unit when suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. In general, the postponement of elective surgeries for no more than 6 to 8 weeks, depending on the clinical condition of the patients is recommended. In the case of urgent or emergency surgeries, we review the use of personal protection gear, as well as the recommended strategies for carrying out the procedure.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/normas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Aerossóis , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Anestesiologia/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Intubação Intratraqueal/normas , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos
16.
Rev Bras Anestesiol ; 70(2): 159-164, 2020.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600800

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, many questions have come up regarding safe anesthesia management of patients with the disease. Regional anesthesia, whether peripheral nerve or neuraxial, is a safe alternative for managing patients with COVID-19, by choosing modalities that mitigate pulmonary function involvement. Adopting regional anesthesia mitigates adverse effects in the postoperative period and provides safety to pati ents and teams, as long as there is compliance with individual protection and interpersonal transmission care measures. Respecting contra-indications and judicial use of safety techniques and norms are essential. The present manuscript aims to review the evidence available on regional anesthesia for patients with COVID-19 and offer practical recommendations for safe and efficient performance.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Local/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Anestesia por Condução/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Local/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Período Pós-Operatório
17.
Pain Physician ; 23(4): E335-E342, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More patients with cardiac implantable electrical devices (CIEDs) are presenting to spine and pain practices for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures for chronic pain. Although the potential for electromagnetic interference (EMI) affecting CIED function is known with RFA procedures, available guidelines do not specifically address CIED management for percutaneous RFA for zygapophyseal (z-joint) joint pain, and thus physician practice may vary. OBJECTIVES: To better understand current practices of physicians who perform RFA for chronic z-joint pain with respect to management of CIEDs. Perioperative CIED management guidelines are also reviewed to specifically address risk mitigation strategies for potential EMI created by ambulatory percutaneous spine RFA procedures. STUDY DESIGN: Web-based provider survey and narrative review. SETTING: Multispecialty pain clinic, academic medical center. METHODS: A web-based survey was created using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap). A survey link was provided via e-mail to active members of the Spine Intervention Society (SIS), American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, as well as distributed freely to community Pain Physicians and any receptive academic departments of PM&R or Anesthesiology. The narrative review summarizes pertinent case series, review articles, a SIS recommendation statement, and multi-specialty peri-operative guidelines as they relate specifically to spine RFA procedures. RESULTS: A total of 197 clinicians participated in the survey from diverse clinical backgrounds, including anesthesiology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, radiology, neurosurgery, and neurology, with 81% reporting fellowship training. Survey responses indicate wide variability in provider management of CIEDs before, during, and after RFA for z-joint pain. Respondents indicated they would like more specific guidelines to aid in management and decision-making around CIEDs and spine RFA procedures. Literature review yielded several practice guidelines related to perioperative management of CIEDs, but no specific guideline for percutaneous spine RFA procedures. However, combining the risk mitigation strategies provided in these guidelines, with interventional pain physician clinical experience allows for reasonable management recommendations to aid in decision-making. LIMITATIONS: Although this manuscript can serve as a review of CIEDs and aid in management decisions in patients with CIEDs, it is not a clinical practice guideline. CONCLUSIONS: Practice patterns vary regarding CIED management in ambulatory spine RFA procedures. CIED presence is not a contraindication for spine RFA but does increase the complexity of a spine RFA procedure and necessitates some added precautions. KEY WORDS: Radiofrequency ablation, neurotomy, cardiac implantable electrical device, zygapophyseal joint, spondylosis, neck pain, low back pain, chronic pain.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/normas , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/normas , Médicos/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia por Condução/normas , Anestesiologia/métodos , Anestesiologia/normas , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Dor Crônica/cirurgia , Humanos , Articulação Zigapofisária/cirurgia
18.
Rev. esp. anestesiol. reanim ; 67(6): 343-346, jun.-jul. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-6591

RESUMO

La creación de un acceso arteriovenoso es obligatorio en pacientes con enfermedad renal terminal para tratamiento con hemodiálisis. Habitualmente implica disección a nivel axilar o en la parte superior de brazo, y la anestesia general es usada predominantemente debido a que la inervación axilar es compleja. Evitar la anestesia general podría ser beneficioso en estos pacientes de riesgo. Presentamos dos casos en los que se empleó el bloqueo serrato-intercostal/BRILMA, junto con bloqueo supraclavicular ecoguiado y analgesia multimodal para cirugía de acceso arteriovenoso axilar o de brazo proximal. La combinación de técnicas de anestesia regional mediante bloqueo supraclavicular y serrato-intercostal/BRILMA en cirugía de fístula arteriovenosa fue exitosa y debe ser considerada por el anestesiólogo con el fin de evitar la anestesia general


Arteriovenous access creation is mandatory in patients with end stage renal disease for hemodialysis treatment. It frequently involves upper arm or axillary dissection and general anesthesia is predominantly used as axillary compartment innervation is complex. Avoiding general anesthesia may be beneficial in these risk patients. We present two cases where serratus-intercostal plane block (SIPB/BRILMA) was used, along with ultrasound guided supraclavicular block and multimodal analgesia for proximal arm and axillary AV access surgery. Regional anesthesia combination of supraclavicular and serratus-intercostal/BRILMA block in arteriovenous fistula surgery was successful and should be considered by anesthesiologist in order to avoid general anesthesia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Nervos Intercostais/efeitos dos fármacos , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica/métodos , Dispositivos de Acesso Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos
19.
Medwave ; 20(6)31-07-2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119716

RESUMO

El objetivo de este artículo es revisar las características del SARS-CoV-2, los aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de COVID-19 y las implicaciones que tienen para los anestesiólogos al realizar procedimientos generadores de aerosoles. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus, SciELO y Web of Science hasta el 9 de abril de 2020, utilizando las palabras: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Se incluyeron 48 artículos con información sobre el manejo del paciente en el perioperatorio o en la unidad de cuidados intensivos ante la sospecha o confirmación de infección por SARS-CoV-2. En general, se recomienda el aplazamiento de las cirugías electivas por no más de seis a ocho semanas, de acuerdo a las condiciones clínicas de los pacientes. En el caso de cirugías de urgencia o emergencia, se revisan tópicos del sistema de protección personal así como las estrategias recomendadas para la realización de los procedimientos.


The purpose of this article is to review the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, the clinical-epidemiological aspects of COVID-19, and the implications anesthesiologists when performing aerosol-generating procedures. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science databases was performed until April 9, 2020, using the words: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Forty-eight articles with information on the management of the patient in the perioperative period or the intensive care unit when suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. In general, the postponement of elective surgeries for no more than 6 to 8 weeks, depending on the clinical condition of the patients is recommended. In the case of urgent or emergency surgeries, we review the use of personal protection gear, as well as the recommended strategies for carrying out the procedure.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Anestesiologia/normas , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Aerossóis , Pandemias , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Intubação Intratraqueal/normas , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Anestesiologia/organização & administração , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos
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