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1.
Anaesthesia ; 75 Suppl 1: e101-e110, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903582

RESUMO

Regional anaesthesia has undergone several exciting advances in the past few decades. Ultrasound-guided techniques of peripheral nerve blockade have become the gold standard thanks to the associated improvements in efficacy, ease of performance and safety. This has increased the accessibility and utilisation of regional anaesthesia in the anaesthesia community at large and is timely given the mounting evidence for its potential benefits on various patient-centred outcomes, including major morbidity, cancer recurrence and persistent postoperative pain. Ultrasound guidance has also paved the way for refinement of the technical performance of existing blocks concerning simplicity and safety, as well as the development of new regional anaesthesia techniques. In particular, the emergence of fascial plane blocks has further broadened the application of regional anaesthesia in the management of painful conditions of the thorax and abdomen. The preliminary results of investigations into these fascial plane blocks are promising but require further research to establish their true value and role in clinical care. One of the challenges that remains is how best to prolong regional anaesthesia to maximise its benefits while avoiding undue harm. There is ongoing research into optimising continuous catheter techniques and their management, intravenous and perineural pharmacological adjuncts, and sustained-release local anaesthetic molecules. Finally, there is a growing appreciation for the critical role that regional anaesthesia can play in an overall multimodal anaesthetic strategy. This is especially pertinent given the current focus on eliminating unnecessary peri-operative opioid administration.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Humanos
3.
Anaesthesia ; 75(1): 80-88, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506921

RESUMO

Visibility of the needle tip is difficult to maintain during ultrasound-guided nerve block. A new needle has been developed that incorporates a piezo element 2-2.3 mm from the tip, activated by ultrasound. The electrical signal manifests as a coloured circle surrounding the needle tip, and allows real-time tracking. We hypothesised that novice regional anaesthetists would perform nerve block better with the tracker turned on rather than off. Our primary objective was to evaluate the new needle by measuring the performance of novice anaesthetists conducting simulated sciatic block on the soft embalmed Thiel cadaver. Training consisted of a lecture, scanning in volunteers and practice on cadavers. Testing entailed scanning the sciatic nerve of a cadaver and conducting 20 in-plane sciatic blocks in the mid-to-upper thigh region. Subjects were randomised equally, in groups of five, according to the sequence: tracker on/off/on/off; or tracker off/on/off/on. Video recordings were assessed by six raters for steps performed correctly and errors committed. Eight subjects were recruited and 160 videos were analysed. Using the tracking needle, five correct steps improved and one error reduced. The benefits included: better identification of the needle tip before advancing the needle, OR (95%CI) 3.4 (1.6-7.7; p < 0.001); better alignment of the needle to the transducer, 3.1 (1.3-8.7; p = 0.009); and better visibility of the needle tip 3.0 (1.4-7.3; p = 0.005). In conclusion, use of the tracker needle improved the sciatic block performance of novices on the soft embalmed cadaver.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/instrumentação , Agulhas , Bloqueio Nervoso/instrumentação , Nervo Isquiático , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Cadáver , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18356, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is accompanied by moderate to severe postoperative pain. Multimodal analgesia, such as femoral nerve block, periarticular infiltration analgesia (PIA), and patient-controlled intravenous analgesia, have been used for postoperative analgesia. Recently, randomized controlled trials have compared the efficacy of the adductor canal block (ACB) and the PIA in patients undergoing TKA. However, there is no definite answer as to the efficacy and safety of the ACB compared with the PIA. METHOD: Randomized controlled trials about relevant studies were searched from PubMed (1996 to May 2019), Embase (1980 to May 2019), and Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, May 2019). Five studies which compared the ACB with the PIA methods were included in our meta-analysis. RESULTS: Five studies containing 413 patients met the inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences between the ACB and the PIA group in visual analog scale (VAS) score at rest (P = .14) and movement (P = .18), quadriceps muscle strength (P = .95), complications (P = .78), length of stay (LOS) (P = .54), and time up and go (TUG) test (P = .09), While patients in the ACB group had less equivalent morphine consumption (P < .05) compared with the PIA group. CONCLUSIONS: Our pooled data indicated the ACB group reduced the equivalent morphine consumption compared with the PIA group, with no statistically significant differences in the VAS score, quadriceps muscle strength, TUG test, complications, and LOS.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Coxa da Perna , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 24(4): 469-476, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690188

RESUMO

Background: To compare outcomes of atraumatic hand surgeries using the WALANT technique versus intravenous regional anesthesia or local anesthesia with tourniquet. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to October 2018. All randomized or quasi-randomized trials and cohort studies comparing WALANT procedure versus local anesthesia or intravenous regional anesthesia with tourniquet among atraumatic hand surgeries were included. Methodological quality and risk of bias of eligible studies were assessed by three independent reviewers. The random effects model was used due to both statistical and clinical heterogeneity among studies. Results: The search yielded 496 records, of which 9 studies were included in the systematic review. We were able to pool findings for operative time, post-operative pain scores, patient satisfaction, and complication rates. On the average, the WALANT group had longer operative times by 2.06 minutes (pooled mean difference, random effects, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 3.67 minutes, p = 0.01, I2 0%, p = 0.66). The post-operative pain scores were lower in the WALANT group by an average of two VAS points (random effects, pooled mean difference -2.40, 95% confidence interval -3.41 to -1.38, p < 0.00001; I2 0% p = 0.99). We had insufficient evidence to demonstrate a difference in terms of patient satisfaction (random effects, pooled risk ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.93 to 1.03, p = 0.36, I2 0%, p = 0.64) and complication rates (random effects, pooled risk ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 2.18, p = 0.29, I2 60% p = 0.08) between WALANT versus conventional methods. Conclusions: The WALANT group reported lower post-operative pain scores, but had slightly longer operative times. There are no significant differences between WALANT and conventional methods in terms of patient satisfaction and complication rates.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Mãos/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Satisfação do Paciente , Humanos , Torniquetes
6.
Acta Clin Croat ; 58(Suppl 1): 48-52, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741559

RESUMO

During neurosurgery procedures it is vital to assure optimal cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. Despite physiological autoregulation of brain perfusion, maintaining hemodynamic stability and good oxygenation during anesthesia is vital for success. General anesthesia with mechanical ventilation and current drugs provide excellent hemodynamic condition and it is the first choice for most neurosurgery procedures. However, sometimes it is very hard to avoid brief increase or decrease in blood pressure especially during period of intense pain, or without pain stimulation. This could be detrimental for patients presented with high intracranial pressure and brain edema. Modifying anesthesia depth or treatment with vasoactive drugs usually is needed to overcome such circumstances. On the other hand it is important to wake the patients quickly after anesthesia for neurological exam. That is why regional anesthesia of scalp and spine could show beneficial effects by decreasing pain stimuli and hemodynamic variability with sparing effect of anesthetics drugs. Also regional techniques provide excellent postoperative pain relief, especially after spinal surgery.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Hemodinâmica , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Anestesia Geral , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Couro Cabeludo/cirurgia , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia
7.
Acta Clin Croat ; 58(Suppl 1): 74-81, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741563

RESUMO

During the last two decades ultrasound guidance has been established as an invaluable tool for performing peripheral nerve blocks. Ultrasound guidance reduces block performance time, volume of local anesthetic, risk of intravascular injection and need for opioid rescue analgesia compared to landmark based and neurostimulator guided techniques. The use of ultrasound guidance must not be understood as a surrogate to, but should complement a thorough understanding of anatomy. The purpose of this overview is to present ultrasound guided techniques for performing basic lower extremity blocks, as well as to discuss more recent trends in providing regional analgesia for patients undergoing lower extremity surgery.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Anestésicos Locais , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Manejo da Dor , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
8.
Acta Clin Croat ; 58(Suppl 1): 96-100, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741566

RESUMO

Surgical procedure causes tissue damage which activates systemic inflammatory response and leads to changes in endocrine and metabolic system. Anaesthesia and pain can further disrupt immune performance. Regional anaesthesia causes afferent nerve blockade and in this way mediates immune protection. Thoracic epidural analgesia is the cornerstone of pain relief in thoracic and abdominal surgery. Alternatively thoracic paravertebral block can be used with less side effects and good analgesic properties. Drugs that interfere with blood coagulation obstruct the use of central regional blocks. Surgery has also changed recently from open to minimally invasive. Also pain treatment for this procedures has changed to less aggressive, systemic or locoregional techniques. It was shown that transversus abdominis plane block and epidural analgesia have the same effect on postoperative pain, but transversus abdominis plane block was better regarding hemodynamic stability and hospital stay. Multimodal approach combining regional and systemic analgesia is currently the most appropriate perioperative pain management strategy. More studies should be done to give recommendations.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Abdome/cirurgia , Músculos Abdominais , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/efeitos adversos
9.
Acta Clin Croat ; 58(Suppl 1): 108-113, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741568

RESUMO

Anterior section of the hip joint capsule is innervated by femoral nerve and obturator nerve, and posterior section is innervated by the nerve to quadratus femoris muscle and occasionally by the superior gluteal (posterolateral region) and sciatic nerve (posterosuperior region). One of the regional anesthesia options for hip surgery is the fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) that affects nerves important for hip innervation and sensory innervation of the thigh - femoral, obturator and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. FICB can be easily performed and is often a good solution for management of hip fractures in emergency departments. Its use reduces morphine pre-operative requirement for patients with femoral neck fractures and can also be indicated for hip arthroplasty, hip arthroscopy and burn management of the region. Quadratus lumborum block (QLB) is a block of the posterior abdominal wall performed exclusively under ultrasound guidance, with still unclarified mechanism of action. When considering hip surgery and postoperative management, the anterior QLB has shown to reduce lengthy hospital stay and opioid use, it improves perioperative analgesia in patients undergoing hip and proximal femoral surgery compared to standard intravenous analgesia regimen, provides early and rapid pain relief and allows early ambulation, thus preventing deep vein thrombosis and thromboembolic complications etc. However, some nerve branches responsible for innervation of the hip joint are not affected by QLB, which has to be taken into consideration. QLB has shown potential for use in hip surgery and perioperative pain management, but still needs to be validated as a reliable treatment approach.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Fáscia , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Articulação do Quadril/inervação , Humanos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18056, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous adductor canal block (CACB) versus continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) in postoperative analgesia and early rehabilitation of patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EMbase were systematically searched to retrieve literature comparing efficacy of CACB versus CFNB on pain relief and functional recovery in knee replacement patients until December 2018, without language limitation. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: A total of 7 clinical randomized controlled trials and 4 retrospective studies were included, involving 484 cases in the CACB group and 491 in the CFNB group. The results of the meta-analysis showed that the visual analogue scores (VAS) at rest were similar between the CACB group and the CFNB group at 8 hours (standard mean difference(SMD) = -0.26, 95% confidence interval(CI): -0.62, 0.11), 12 hours (SMD = -0.02, 95%CI: -0.50, 0.47), 24 hours (SMD = 0.05, 95%CI: -0.22, 0.33), and 48 hours (SMD = -0.10, 95%CI: -0.29, 0.09) after TKA (P > .05 for all). The muscle strength of patients in the CACB group post-operation was significantly improved than those of the CFNB group (SMD = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.35, 1.26; P = .0005). There were no significant differences in the amount of opioids consumption and the incidence of postoperative fall between CACB and CFNB (P > .05). CONCLUSION: The analgesic effects of CACB versus CFNB are equivalent after TKA. CACB has less effect on the quadriceps muscle strength, which is beneficial to the early postoperative activities and functional rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Nervo Femoral , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Músculo Quadríceps/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Coxa da Perna/inervação , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Lancet ; 394(10211): 1807-1815, 2019 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three perioperative factors impair host defence against recurrence during cancer surgery: the surgical stress response, use of volatile anaesthetic, and opioids for analgesia. All factors are ameliorated by regional anaesthesia-analgesia. We tested the primary hypothesis that breast cancer recurrence after potentially curative surgery is lower with regional anaesthesia-analgesia using paravertebral blocks and the anaesthetic propofol than with general anaesthesia with the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane and opioid analgesia. A second hypothesis was that regional anaesthesia-analgesia reduces persistent incisional pain. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial at 13 hospitals in Argentina, Austria, China, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Singapore, and the USA. Women (age <85 years) having potentially curative primary breast cancer resections were randomised by computer to either regional anaesthesia-analgesia (paravertebral blocks and propofol) or general anaesthesia (sevoflurane) and opioid analgesia. The primary outcome was local or metastatic breast cancer recurrence. The secondary outcome was incisional pain at 6 months and 12 months. Primary analyses were done under intention-to-treat principles. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00418457. The study was stopped after a preplanned futility boundary was crossed. FINDINGS: Between Jan 30, 2007, and Jan 18, 2018, 2132 women were enrolled to the study, of whom 24 were excluded before surgery. 1043 were assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 1065 were allocated to general anaesthesia. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between study groups. Median follow-up was 36 (IQR 24-49) months. Among women assigned regional anaesthesia-analgesia, 102 (10%) recurrences were reported, compared with 111 (10%) recurrences among those allocated general anaesthesia (hazard ratio 0·97, 95% CI 0·74-1·28; p=0·84). Incisional pain was reported by 442 (52%) of 856 patients assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 456 (52%) of 872 patients allocated to general anaesthesia at 6 months, and by 239 (28%) of 854 patients and 232 (27%) of 852 patients, respectively, at 12 months (overall interim-adjusted odds ratio 1·00, 95% CI 0·85-1·17; p=0·99). Neuropathic breast pain did not differ by anaesthetic technique and was reported by 87 (10%) of 859 patients assigned to regional anaesthesia-analgesia and 89 (10%) of 870 patients allocated to general anaesthesia at 6 months, and by 57 (7%) of 857 patients and 57 (7%) of 854 patients, respectively, at 12 months. INTERPRETATION: In our study population, regional anaesthesia-analgesia (paravertebral block and propofol) did not reduce breast cancer recurrence after potentially curative surgery compared with volatile anaesthesia (sevoflurane) and opioids. The frequency and severity of persistent incisional breast pain was unaffected by anaesthetic technique. Clinicians can use regional or general anaesthesia with respect to breast cancer recurrence and persistent incisional pain. FUNDING: Sisk Healthcare Foundation (Ireland), Eccles Breast Cancer Research Fund, British Journal of Anaesthesia International, College of Anaesthetists of Ireland, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Science Fund for Junior Faculty 2016, Central Bank of Austria, and National Healthcare Group.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestesia por Condução/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática , Mastectomia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17450, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral aneurysm surgery has significant mortality and morbidity rate. Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms, their rupture, subarachnoid hemorrhage and neurologic complications. Proinflammatory cytokine level in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an indicator of inflammatory response. Cytokines contribute to secondary brain injury and can worsen the outcome of the treatment. Lidocaine is local anesthetic that can be applied in neurosurgery as regional anesthesia of the scalp and as topical anesthesia of the throat before direct laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Besides analgesic, lidocaine has systemic anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effect.Primary aim of this trial is to determine the influence of local anesthesia with lidocaine on the perioperative levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in plasma and CSF in cerebral aneurysm patients. METHODS: We will conduct prospective randomized clinical trial among patients undergoing craniotomy and cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery in general anesthesia. Patients included in the trial will be randomly assigned to the lidocaine group (Group L) or to the control group (Group C). Patients in Group L, following general anesthesia induction, will receive topical anesthesia of the throat before endotracheal intubation and also regional anesthesia of the scalp before Mayfield frame placement, both done with lidocaine. Patients in Group C will have general anesthesia only without any lidocaine administration. The primary outcomes are concentrations of cytokines interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in plasma and CSF, measured at specific timepoints perioperatively. Secondary outcome is incidence of major neurological and infectious complications, as well as treatment outcome in both groups. DISCUSSION: Results of the trial could provide insight into influence of lidocaine on local and systemic inflammatory response in cerebrovascular surgery, and might improve future anesthesia practice and treatment outcome. TRIAL IS REGISTERED AT CLINICALTRIALS.GOV:: NCT03823482.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Craniotomia/métodos , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/sangue , Aneurisma Intracraniano/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringe , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Couro Cabeludo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg ; 139(12): 1731-1741, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392408

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regional anaesthesia (RA) is often used in shoulder surgery because it provides adequate postoperative analgesia and may enhance the patient outcome. RA reduces overall opioid consumption and is frequently used in enhanced recovery programs to decrease hospital stay. However, there is very limited literature confirming these advantages in the surgical repair of proximal humerus fractures. This paper reviews the current literature on the use of RA in pain management after surgical repair of these fractures and evaluates the effect of RA on the functional outcome, length of stay in hospital, and health care expenditure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to March 1, 2018. Studies investigating the use of RA in the management of proximal humerus fractures were included. RESULTS: Eleven studies (containing 1872 patients) were eligible for inclusion. The analgesic effect of RA was investigated in eight studies that confirmed its pain-relieving ability. Two studies measured functionality and length of hospitalization and suggested that RA improved function and shortened the stay in hospital. Nine papers mentioned side effects associated with RA while three articles claim that RA decreases the incidence of adverse events associated with general anaesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review suggests that RA is a good option for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing surgical repair of a proximal humerus fracture and is associated with fewer adverse events, a shorter recovery time, and a better functional outcome than those achieved by general anaesthesia alone. However, given the limited amount of data available, conclusions need to be made with caution and prospective studies are needed in the future.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas do Ombro/cirurgia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 32(5): 649-652, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415045

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical practice of anesthesia continues to evolve and grow toward increasing quality and safety while improving the patient and family perioperative experience. Within the realm of pediatric anesthesia, advances in regional anesthesia techniques are important part in this aim. RECENT FINDINGS: The aim of this review is to provide an update on recent advances in pediatric regional anesthesia. This includes an emphasis on safety data from large datasets that previously were not available. In addition, novel blocks within pediatric regional anesthesia will be described. SUMMARY: Large data sets have given clinical providers information into the practice of regional anesthesia. It has confirmed the safety of common regional anesthetic techniques in addition to providing guidance to improving outcomes for children.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Anestesia por Condução/efeitos adversos , Anestesia por Condução/normas , Anestesiologia/métodos , Anestesiologia/normas , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Criança , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
16.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 32(5): 690-696, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415047

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Outcomes following surgery are of major importance to clinicians, institutions and most importantly patients. This review examines whether regional anesthesia and analgesia influence outcome after vascular surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Large database analyses of contemporary practice suggest that utilizing regional anesthesia for both open and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair, lower limb revascularization and carotid endarterectomy reduces morbidity, length of stay and possibly even mortality. Results from such analyses are limited by an inherent risk of bias but are nevertheless important given the number of patients required in randomized trials to detect differences in rare outcomes. There is minimal evidence that regional anesthesia influences longer term outcomes except for arteriovenous fistula surgery where brachial plexus blocks appear to improve 3-month fistula patency. SUMMARY: Patients undergoing vascular surgery often have multiple comorbidities and it is important to be able to outline both benefits and risks of regional anesthesia techniques. Regional anesthesia in vascular surgery allows avoidance of general anesthesia and does provide short-term benefits beyond superior analgesia. Evidence of long-term benefits is lacking in most procedures. Further work is required on newer patient centered outcomes.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Doenças Vasculares/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Anestesia por Condução/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças Vasculares/mortalidade
18.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 32(5): 683-689, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389804

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In several guidelines, regional anesthesia and analgesia have been suggested as safer alternatives for general anesthesia and systemic analgesia for their safety profile in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the underlying scientific basis is still evolving. The present review is intended to provide an up-to-date account on the question whether the use of regional anesthesia improves outcomes in patients with OSA. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of studies found favorable effects of regional anesthesia used in patients with OSA, including reduced incidence of major perioperative complications such as the need for mechanical ventilation, reintubation and pulmonary/cardiac complications. No negative effects of regional anesthesia specific to patients with OSA were found. Regional anesthesia was most effective when used as a sole technique, but also carried benefits when added to general anesthesia. The majority of available literature focuses on orthopedic surgery and neuraxial anesthesia. SUMMARY: Regional anesthesia can be recommended as a good strategy to treat patients with OSA whenever feasible, as it reduces the incidence of potentially catastrophic perioperative complications. However, the breadth of both surgical and regional anesthetic techniques analyzed is limited; further research should focus on extending the knowledge base beyond neuraxial anesthesia and orthopedics.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Analgesia/métodos , Analgesia/normas , Anestesia por Condução/normas , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/normas , Anestesiologia/normas , Humanos , Incidência , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/normas , Assistência Perioperatória/efeitos adversos , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 23(10): 69, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372836

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral nerve blocks are effective and safe modalities for perioperative analgesia. But it remains unclear what blocks are adequate for ambulatory surgeries, as well as the proper patient management before and after discharge. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging nerve blocks have sparked interests due to ease to perform under ultrasound guidance and lower risks of adverse events. Some of these novel blocks are particularly suitable for ambulatory procedures, including but not limited to motor-sparing lower extremity nerve blocks and phrenic-sparing nerve blocks for shoulder surgeries. The adoption of peripheral nerve block into outpatient surgery is a multidisciplinary effort that encompasses appropriate patient choice, careful selection of nerve blocks that minimize potential adverse events after discharge, and proper patient follow-up until block effects resolve.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Anestesia por Condução , Bloqueio Nervoso , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Nervos Periféricos/cirurgia , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Humanos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
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