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1.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 76-82, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administration of pulsed inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO) improves arterial oxygenation in spontaneously breathing anaesthetised healthy horses and in horses undergoing colic surgery. However, because hypoventilation commonly occurs, horses are often mechanically ventilated to prevent hypercarbia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of PiNO on arterial oxygenation during anaesthesia in mechanically ventilated healthy horses and horses undergoing colic surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective nonblinded clinical trial. METHODS: Fifty horses undergoing elective arthroscopy (Group A) and 30 horses undergoing colic surgery (Group C) in dorsal recumbency were included in the study. Every second horse in each group received PiNO (A-INO, C-INO), the others served as controls (A-CN, C-CN). All horses were mechanically ventilated and anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. PiNO was mechanically delivered at the proximal end of the endotracheal tube as a pulse during the first part of each inspiration. Data were collected at the start (baseline, before PiNO) and at the end of inhalation anaesthesia. The Tukey method was used to compare baseline and end values for each parameter. RESULTS: Arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 ) increased from (median [IQR]) 13.6 (9.3, 30.1) at baseline to 24.2 (18.6, 37.0) kPa at the end of anaesthesia in A-INO (P = 0.005) and from 7.7 (6.4, 8.5) to 15.5 (9.9, 26.9) kPa in C-INO (P = 0.007). Mean (95% CI) difference in F-shunt between baseline and end were -6 (-10; -1) and -11 (-22; -1) % in A-INO (P = 0.005) and C-INO (P = 0.04) respectively. There was no change in PaO2 or F-shunt from baseline to end of anaesthesia in A-CN or C-CN. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Cardiac output was not measured, thus O2 delivery could not be calculated. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of mechanical ventilation and PiNO improved pulmonary gas exchange during anaesthesia by a simultaneous decrease in F-shunt and improved alveolar ventilation.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Cólica/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/sangue , Respiração Artificial/veterinária , Animais , Artroscopia/veterinária , Cólica/cirurgia , Cavalos
4.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(1): e21639, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647582

RESUMO

Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) exposure is a common method of anesthesia in studies of Drosophila melanogaster. A number of negative side effects of CO2 anesthesia have been reported. It is not clear whether the length of CO2 anesthesia time affects Drosophila survival in aging research. Here, we examined the potential effect of the CO2 anesthesia time length of 10-150 min. We found that long CO2 exposure could lead to Drosophila death, more significant in males. The longer the anesthesia time is, the longer it takes for flies to wake up. Long-time CO2 anesthesia can reduce the lifespan. Our stress tests showed that long-time CO2 anesthesia can increase the average survival time in both males and females under starvation conditions, but can only increase female lifespan under H2 O2 oxidative stress. Long-time CO2 anesthesia also significantly affects physiological traits, with spontaneous activity increased in females but decreased in males, and reduced female fecundity. Our study suggests that limiting the CO2 anesthesia time and giving enough recovery time before performing physiological tests are important in Drosophila aging research.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento , Anestesia , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Privação de Alimentos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(12): 887-893, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effects of recurrent sevoflurane anesthesia on cognitive functions in Alzheimer Disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into 4 groups as followed: control (Group C), sevoflurane (Group S), Alzheimer's (Group A) and Alzheimer's + sevoflurane (Group AS)]. Cognitive functions were evaluated with Radial Arm Maze Test (RAMT). Alzheimer model was created by administering 3 mg/kg (10 µl) STZ. Sevoflurane was administered to S and AS groups. Serum samples and hippocampus tissues were analyzed. RESULTS: In RAM test, the entry-exit data were significantly decreased in A and AS groups. After the 2nd and 3rd administration of anesthesia, the numbers were significantly decreased in Group S. Glial-fibrillary-acidic protein levels were significantly higher in AS compared to the C and S groups. The brain tissue caspase 3 activity was less than 1% in all rats in the Group C, 3 % in 2 rats and 1 % in 1 rat in the Group AS. In A and AS group, serum catalase, myeloperoxidase and ferroxidase activities were found to be higher than in the other groups and myeloperoxidase activity was higher in the AS than in the A Group. Serum native thiol, total thiol and disulfide levels were found to be significantly different in the A and AS groups. CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane anesthesia negatively affected the cognitive functions (Tab. 5, Fig. 10, Ref. 51).


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Anestesia , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Éteres Metílicos/farmacologia , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos , Estreptozocina/farmacologia , Animais , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Sevoflurano/administração & dosagem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18262, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852095

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Attaining lung isolation in the infant is a challenge for anesthesia care providers. Pulmonary lobe isolation is more challenging. We describe an approach to performing selective pulmonary lobe isolation using the pediatric endobronchial blocker in an infant in the absence of appropriate auxiliary guidance tool. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 8-month-old and 9.5 kg male infant was admitted because of repeated cough with fever for 3 months and a large cyst of his right lung for 2 weeks. He had been living in a pastoral area with his parents. DIAGNOSIS: Based on the chest computed tomography (CT) and his history about long-term residence in the pastoral area, this patient's diagnosis was considered as right middle lobe hydatid cyst. INTERVENTIONS: Guided by a fiberoptic bronchoscope, a cuffed 4.0-mm inside diameter (ID) endotracheal tube was successfully placed into the right main bronchus of this infant. Then, pediatric 5-French (Fr) endobronchial blocker was placed into the right middle and lower lobes through the endotracheal tube without navigation of fiberoptic bronchoscope. OUTCOMES: Lobe isolation was successfully achieved for right middle lobectomy. This approach allows clinicians to perform lobe isolation in the absence of fiberoptic bronchoscope with very small outer diameter. CONCLUSION: This technique is relatively easy to use and less dependent on equipment with small outer diameter in the selective pulmonary lobe isolation in infants and small children.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Broncoscopia/métodos , Cistos/cirurgia , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Cistos/diagnóstico , Desenho de Equipamento , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Humanos , Lactente , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Georgian Med News ; (294): 141-145, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687967

RESUMO

General anesthesia may cause damage of the central nervous system and cognitive dysfunction in the postoperative period. A new intranasal form of Noopept (N-Phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) was developed by our team at the Department of the medical technology (Zaporizhzhia State Medical University, Ukraine). The objectives of this investigation were the study of neuroprotective action of Noopept and to prove using in the clinic for correction of amnestic and behavioral disorders after ketamine anesthesia. We discovered that the intranasal administration of noopept after ketamine anesthesia significantly decreases anxiety and excitability, raises the animal's activity, shows an intensive antiamnesic effects and increases animal's training ability. Noopept significantly exceeds piracetam and cerebrocurin according to neuroprotective effects.


Assuntos
Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Amnésia/induzido quimicamente , Anestesia , Anestesia Geral , Animais , Dipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Mentais/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento , Ucrânia
10.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 515-527, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587973

RESUMO

The number of donkeys in the world may not be increasing but awareness of their use and concern for welfare and pain recognition and treatment are receiving increasing veterinary interest. Therefore, accurate information about anesthesia and analgesia in donkeys and mules is important to more equine practitioners. This review highlights the current knowledge on various anesthetic and analgesic approaches in donkey and mules. The authors emphasize that there is still much information that is not available about donkeys and mules; in many circumstances, the clinician must use available equine information to treat the patient, while monitoring for differences in response.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Cavalos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17553, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593138

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Intraspinal anesthesia, the most common anesthesia type of orthopedic operation, is regarded as safe and simple. Despite of the rare incidence, puncture related complication of intraspinal anesthesia is catastrophic for spinal cord. Here we present an intradural hematoma case triggered by improper anesthesia puncture. The principal reason of this tragedy was rooted in the neglect of spine deformities diagnosis before anesthesia. To the best of our knowledge, there is no specific case report focusing on the intradural hematoma triggered by improper anesthesia puncture. PATIENT CONCERNS: Hereby a case of thoracolumbar spinal massive hematoma triggered by intraspinal anesthesia puncture was reported. The presenting complaint of the patient was little neurologic function improvement after surgery at 6-month follow-up. DIAGNOSES: Emergency MRI demonstrated that massive spindle-like intradural T2-weighted image hypointense signal masses from T12 to S2 badly compressed the dural sac ventrally, and his conus medullaris was at L3/4 intervertebral level with absence of L5 vertebral lamina. Hereby, the diagnoses were congenital spinal bifida, tethered cord syndrome, spine intradural hematoma, and paraplegia. INTERVENTIONS: Urgent surgical interventions including laminectomy, spinal canal exploration hematoma removal, and pedicle fixation were performed. The patient received both medication (mannitol, mecobalamin, and steroids) and rehabilitation (neuromuscular electric stimulation, hyperbaric oxygen). OUTCOMES: Postoperation, he had regained only hip and knee flexion at II grade strength. His neurologic function was unchanged until 3 weeks postoperation. Six-month follow-up showed just little neurologic function improvement, and the American Spinal Injury Association grade was C. LESSONS: By presenting an intradural hematoma case triggered by improper anesthesia puncture, we shared the treatment experience and discussed the potential mechanism of neurologic compromise. The principal reason for this tragedy is preanesthesia examination deficiency. Necessary radiology examinations must be performed to prevent misdiagnosis for spinal malformation.


Assuntos
Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Hematoma/etiologia , Punções/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma/patologia , Hematoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica/epidemiologia , Injeções Espinhais , Laminectomia/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Medula Espinal/irrigação sanguínea , Medula Espinal/patologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/patologia , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(4): 811-818, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599245

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate myocardial protective effect of isoflurane and propofol as a fast tract anesthesia in off pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery by measuring postoperative cardiac enzyme Troponin-I, and liver enzyme. The study was conducted on 260 patients scheduled to undergo elective off pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either isoflurane or propofol anesthesia and was aimed to extubated within 6 hours. Troponin-I levels were measured preoperatively, at arrival in postoperative intensive care unit, at 12, 24, 48, 72 hours and 4 weeks following surgery. Liver function was also assessed and compared between preoperative and postoperative values. There is no difference in Troponin-I levels between the two studies groups at observed pre and post-operative time intervals. Fast tract anesthesia using isoflurane and propofol provides same myocardial protection during and after OPCABG and overall outcome was excellent.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea , Isoflurano/uso terapêutico , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Troponina I/metabolismo
13.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(10): 794-801, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative neuromonitoring using tc-MEPs satisfactorily detects motor tract integrity changes during spinal surgery. However, tc-MEP is affected by anesthesia and other factors, in which the stimulation threshold increases because the waveform amplitude decreases over time with the accumulation and boluses of anesthetics. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 139 patients. The average age was 30 years. Tc-MEPs were recorded bilaterally from the tibialis anterior muscle and the abductor hallucis muscle. Statistical tests were used to investigate the changes to evaluate anesthetic effects. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in tc-MEP amplitude change (%) between the groups of propofol (13 %), remifentanil (22 %) and sufentanil (26 %, p < 0.01). Significant differences were found between the groups of propofol, remifentanil, and sufentanil (20 %) and bolus sufentanil (‒30 %), and bolus ketamine (730 %, p < 0.008). Major differences were observed between bolus sufentanil (‒30 %) and bolus ketamine (730 %, p < 0.001). When comparing tc-MEPs with no amplitude, no significant difference was found between the groups of propofol (26 %), remifentanil (24 %), and sufentanil (28 %, p < 0.007). Substantial difference was found between the groups of propofol, remifentanil, and sufentanil (mean 26 %) and the group where ketamine boluses were administered. We didn't observe any loss of amplitude (0 %, p < 0.0002). CONCLUSION: IONM may be useless in patients where boluses of sufentanil are administered and also with Medical Research Council grades 3 and below. Consider applying IONM in patients with severe spinal deformity along with a higher age of over 50 and neurological deficit. Increasing stimulus intensity or facilitation techniques may be considered to improve the usefulness of tc-MEP. Our concept of findings supports the neurophysiological monitoring findings in other studies (Tab. 10, Ref. 45).


Assuntos
Anestesia , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adulto , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Potencial Evocado Motor , Humanos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Remifentanil/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sufentanil/administração & dosagem
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17634, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651880

RESUMO

The benefits of an anesthesia pre-operative evaluation clinic (APEC) based on outpatients are well described in previous literatures. In the majority of hospitals in South Korea, preoperative anesthetic evaluation for surgical patients is limited to hospitalized patients on the day before surgery. Thus, we would like to share our institutional experience of implementing an APEC based on outpatients and report on the attitudes and satisfaction of the medical staff (surgeons).A 2-page survey was distributed to all specialists and resident physicians involved in surgery at a single university hospital during a 3-month period. A 5-point Likert scale of agreement and an open-ended question examined perceptions of APEC. A total of 123 questionnaires were distributed and 67 surveys were collected over a 3-month period with a 54.5% collection rate. The surgeons' perceptions of APEC are summarized in . It is difficult to state the tendency of surgeons' perception of the clinic, including workload, patient satisfaction, patient safety, necessity, cost-effectiveness, and efficiency through this survey. However, many surgeons chose to comment on suggestions to improve the quality of the APEC through the open-ended question.The surgeons' attitude and satisfaction to anesthetic services including APEC are an important component of achieving quality improvement. Although it is difficult to state the tendency of surgeons' perception of the clinic, including workload, patient satisfaction, patient safety, necessity, cost-effectiveness, and efficiency through this survey, continuous assessment and feedback may improve efficiency of the APEC and affect patient perception as well.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Anestesia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Satisfação Pessoal , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1558-1564, set.-out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038680

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chemical restraint, general anesthesia and opioid treatment on hematological components in Cuniculus paca. Eight healthy, adult, captivity female animals , underwent three laparoscopic procedures with a 15-day interval were evaluated. After physical restraint, an association of ketamine (25mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly for chemical restraint. Posteriorly, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; and randomly administered methadone (0.5mg/kg), tramadol (5mg/kg) or saline-placebo (0,1mL/kg) intramuscularly. After pharmacological restraint and in the final laparoscopy stage, venous blood samples were obtained for complete blood count, total plasma protein (TP), creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sodium, potassium, chloride and ionized calcium analysis. During general anesthesia, hemoglobin, TP concentration and lymphocytes decreased (P=0.029; <0.001; 0.022 respectively), whereas the potassium levels increased (P=0.034). In conclusion, chemical restraint with ketamine/midazolam association causes a slight decrease in blood cellular components. Isoflurane anesthesia for laparoscopic procedure lead to decrease in hemoglobin, lymphocytes and protein concentrations, while potassium increased, without any influence from the tramadol or methadone treatment. However, these alterations were transient, and its hematologic values can collaborate in carrying out epidemiological, pathophysiological or case studies in the Cuniculus paca.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de contenção química, anestesia geral e tratamento com opiáceos nos parâmetros hematológicos em Cuniculus paca. Foram avaliados oito animais saudáveis, fêmeas, adultas, de cativeiro, que foram submetidas a três procedimentos laparoscópicos, com intervalo de 15 dias. Após a contenção física, uma associação de cetamina (25mg/kg) e midazolam (0,5mg/kg) foi administrada por via intramuscular para contenção química. Posteriormente, a anestesia foi induzida e mantida com isoflurano, e administrou-se aleatoriamente metadona (0,5mg/kg), tramadol (5mg/kg) ou placebo salina por via intramuscular. Após a contenção farmacológica e em estágio final da laparoscopia, foram obtidas amostras de sangue venoso para contagem sanguínea completa, proteína de plasma total (TP), creatinina, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), cálcio, sódio, potássio e cloreto ionizado. Durante a anestesia geral, a concentração de hemoglobina, TP e linfócitos diminuiu (P= 0,029;< 0,001; 0,022, respectivamente), enquanto os níveis de potássio aumentaram (P= 0,034). Em conclusão, a contenção química com associação de cetamina/midazolam promove uma ligeira diminuição dos componentes celulares do sangue. A anestesia com isoflavano para o procedimento laparoscópico levou a uma diminuição das concentrações de hemoglobina, linfócitos e proteínas, enquanto o potássio aumentou, sem qualquer influência do tratamento com tramadol ou metadona. No entanto, essas alterações foram transitórias, e os seus valores hematológicos obtidos podem colaborar na realização de estudos epidemiológicos, fisiopatológicos ou casuísticas para Cuniculus paca.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Cuniculidae/cirurgia , Cuniculidae/sangue , Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/sangue , Tramadol/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Metadona/administração & dosagem
17.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(5): 679-687, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While increased surgical-provider volume has been associated with improved outcomes, research regarding volume-outcome relationships within high-volume institutions and the role of anaesthesiologists is limited. Further, the effect of anaesthesia-care-team composition remains understudied. This analysis aimed to identify the impact of anaesthesiologist and surgeon volume on adverse events after total joint arthroplasties. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 40 437 patients who underwent total joint arthroplasties at a high-volume institution from 2005 to 2014. The main effects of interest were anaesthesiologist and surgeon volume and experience along with anaesthesia-care-team composition. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate three outcomes: any complication, cardiopulmonary complication, and length of stay (>5 days). Odds ratios (ORs) and 99.75% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. RESULTS: Across all three models, anaesthesiologist volume and experience, and anaesthesia-care-team composition were not significant predictors. Surgeon annual case volume >50 was associated with significantly reduced odds of any complication (annual case volume: 50-149; OR: 0.80; CI: 0.66-0.98) and prolonged length of stay (OR: 0.69; CI: 0.60-0.80). Surgeon experience >20 yr was associated with significantly reduced odds of prolonged length of stay (OR: 0.85; CI: 0.75-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Anaesthesiologist volume and experience, and anaesthesia-care-team composition did not impact the odds of an adverse outcome, although a higher surgeon volume was associated with decreased odds of complications and prolonged length of stay. Further study is necessary to determine if these findings can be extrapolated to less specialised, lower volume surgical settings.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Artroplastia de Quadril/normas , Artroplastia do Joelho/normas , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Anestesia/métodos , Anestesia/normas , Anestesia/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesiologia/organização & administração , Anestesiologia/normas , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/normas , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 419-439, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395323

RESUMO

Even when performed by skilled operators, locating the nerves can be challenging in small exotic pets; in such cases, the use of an electrical nerve stimulator may be useful to confirm the correct identification of the target nerve. Exotic animal anesthesia and analgesia have dramatically progressed over the past decade and continue to do so as more research and technologies develop. Technological advancements such as airway devices, endoscopic intubation techniques, positive intermittent pressure ventilators, and invasive and noninvasive blood pressure monitors have played a significant role in improving patient safety and the anesthetic outcomes of exotic animals.


Assuntos
Analgesia/veterinária , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais Exóticos/fisiologia , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/instrumentação , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/normas , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/veterinária , Analgesia/tendências , Anestesia/tendências , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/veterinária , Endoscopia/instrumentação , Endoscopia/métodos , Endoscopia/tendências , Endoscopia/veterinária , Humanos , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Bloqueio Nervoso/instrumentação , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/tendências , Bloqueio Nervoso/veterinária , Manejo da Dor , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/tendências , Respiração Artificial/veterinária
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