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1.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(1): e701, ene.-abr. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156367

RESUMO

Introducción: La convivencia con la infección por COVID-19 en Cuba supone un reto actual de adaptación a todos los entornos hospitalarios y de salud, creación de protocolos y nuevos modelos de asistencia. La intervención sobre la vía aérea en sus diferentes formas, conlleva un riesgo de contaminación al personal de la salud. Objetivo: Describir las consideraciones anestésicas en los procedimientos laparoscópicos y endoscópicos durante la pandemia COVID-19. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo, de investigación-acción, apoyado en el análisis de documentos y la observación participante de las acciones tomadas en el Centro Nacional de Cirugía de Mínimo Acceso en el curso de los cuatro meses transcurridos a partir de que se identificara el primer caso de COVID-19 en Cuba. Resultados: Se establecieron las recomendaciones anestésicas para el procedimiento de actuación durante la COVID-19 en el Centro Nacional de Cirugía de Mínimo Acceso, que dictan las acciones para el tratamiento de los pacientes y la protección de los trabajadores. Esto posibilita mantener la calidad de los servicios médico quirúrgicos en estos escenarios de riesgo. Conclusiones: La evaluación y tratamiento anestésico estandarizado de los pacientes ante el brote de COVID-19 y en la fase poscovid permite optimizar la seguridad del paciente y el personal sanitario. Es importante el cumplimiento de los protocolos dirigidos hacia el control estricto de la parada quirúrgica, uso adecuado de los equipos de protección personal, disminución de los aerosoles con métodos de barrera y la desinfección del salón y equipos al concluir la intervención(AU)


Introduction: Coexistence with COVID-19 infection in Cuba is a current challenge of adaptation to all hospital and health settings, creation of protocols and new models of care. The airway approach in its different forms represents a risk of contamination of the health personnel. Objective: To describe the anesthetic considerations in laparoscopic and endoscopic procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A qualitative, action-research study was carried out, supported by the analysis of documents and participant observation of the actions taken in the National Center for Minimally-Invasive Surgery in the course of four months after the first case of COVID-19 was identified in Cuba. Results: Anesthetic recommendations were established for the action procedure during COVID-19 in the National Center for Minimally-Invasive Surgery, which dictate the actions for the treatment of patients and the protection of workers. This makes it possible to maintain the quality of surgical medical services in these risk settings. Conclusions: Assessment and standardized anesthetic treatment of patients in the face of the COVID-19 outbreak and in the post-COVID phase allows optimizing the safety of the patient and the healthcare personnel. It is important to comply with the protocols aimed at controlling strictly the surgical setting, proper use of personal protective equipment, reduction of aerosols with barrier methods, and disinfection of the room and equipment at the conclusion of the intervention(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Protocolos , Segurança do Paciente , Laparoscopia/métodos , Endoscopia/métodos , Anestesia/normas
2.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 17, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633928

RESUMO

Member States at this year's World Health Assembly 73 (WHA73), held virtually for the first time due to the COVID-19 pandemic, passed multiple resolutions that must be considered when framing efforts to strengthen surgical systems. Surgery has been a relatively neglected field in the global health landscape due to its nature as a cross-cutting treatment rather than focusing on a specific disease or demographic. However, in recent years, access to essential and emergency surgical, obstetric, and anesthesia care has gained increasing recognition as a vital aspect of global health. The WHA73 Resolutions concern specific conditions, as has been characteristic of global health practice, yet proper care for each highlighted disease is inextricably linked to surgical care. Global surgery advocates must recognize how surgical system strengthening aligns with these strategic priorities in order to ensure that surgical care continues to be integrated into efforts to decrease global health disparities.


Assuntos
Anestesia/normas , Cirurgia Geral , Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Obstetrícia/normas , /epidemiologia , Cirurgia Geral/organização & administração , Cirurgia Geral/normas , Saúde Global/normas , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade
5.
AANA J ; 89(1): 62-69, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501910

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory illness has increased the amount of people needing airway rescue and the support of mechanical ventilators. In doing so, the pandemic has increased the demand of healthcare professionals to manage these critically ill individuals. Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs), who are trained experts in airway management and mechanical ventilation with experience in intensive care units (ICUs), rise to this challenge. However, many CRNAs may be unfamiliar with advancements in critical care ventilators. The purpose of this review is to provide a resource for CRNAs returning to the ICU to manage patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. The most common ventilator modes found in anesthesia machine ventilators and ICU ventilators are reviewed, as are the lung-protective ventilation strategies, including positive end-expiratory pressure, used to manage patients with COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. Adjuncts to mechanical ventilation, recruitment maneuvers, prone positioning, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are also reviewed. More research is needed concerning the management of COVID-19-infected patients, and CRNAs must become familiar with their ICU units' individual ventilator machine, but this brief review provides a good place to start for those returning to the ICU.


Assuntos
Anestesia/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesia/normas , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Respiração Artificial/normas , Ventiladores Mecânicos/normas , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventiladores Mecânicos/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 539-547, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628401

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of standard procedures currently performed in nonoperating room anesthesia (NORA) and highlights anesthetic implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel noninvasive interventional procedures remain on the rise, accelerating demand for anesthesia support outside the conventional operating room. The field of interventional oncology has introduced a variety of effective minimally invasive therapies making interventional radiology gain a major role in the management of cancer. Technical innovation brings newer ablative and embolotherapy techniques into practice. Flexible bronchoscopy has replaced rigid bronchoscopy for many diagnostic and therapeutic indications. Endobronchial ultrasonography now allows sampling of mediastinal, paratracheal, or subcarinal lymph nodes rendering more invasive procedures such as mediastinoscopy unnecessary. Similarly, endoscopic ultrasonosgraphy currently plays a central position in the management of gastrointestinal disease. Sophisticated catheter techniques for ablating cardiac arrhythmias have become state of the art; Watchman procedure gaining position in the prevention of stroke resulting from atrial fibrillation. SUMMARY: NORA is a rapidly evolving field in anesthesia. Employing new technology to treat a wide variety of diseases brings new challenges to the anesthesiologist. Better understanding of emerging interventional techniques is key to safe practice and allows the anesthesia expert to be at the forefront of this swiftly expanding multidisciplinary arena.


Assuntos
Anestesia/normas , Anestesiologia/normas , Anestesiologistas , Broncoscopia , Cateterismo , Endoscopia , Gastroenterologia/normas , Humanos , Pneumologia/normas , Radiologia Intervencionista/normas , Ultrassonografia
9.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 554-560, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628402

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With an ageing population, mounting pressure on the healthcare dollar, significant advances in medical technology, and now in the context of coronavirus disease 2019, the traditional paradigm in which operative procedures are undertaken is changing. Increasingly, procedures are performed in more distant, isolated and less familiar locations, challenging anaesthesiologists and requiring well developed situational awareness. This review looks at implications for the practitioner and patient safety, outlining considerations and steps involved in translation of systems and processes well established in the operating room to more unfamiliar environments. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite limited nonoperating room anaesthesia outcome data, analysis of malpractice claims, anaesthesia-related medical disputes and clinical outcome registries have suggested higher morbidity and mortality. Complications were often associated with suboptimal monitoring, nonadherence to recommended guidelines and sedationist or nonanaesthesiologist caregivers. More recently, clear monitoring guidelines, global patient safety initiatives and widespread implementation of cognitive aids may have contributed to nonoperating room anaesthesia (NORA) outcomes approaching that of traditional operating rooms. SUMMARY: As NORA caseloads increase, understanding structural and anaesthetic requirements is essential to patient safety. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has provided an opportunity for anaesthesiologists to implement lessons learned from previous analyses, share expertise as patient safety leaders and provide valuable input into protecting patients and caregivers.


Assuntos
Anestesia/normas , Anestesiologia/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus , Lista de Checagem , Cognição , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Segurança do Paciente
10.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 584-588, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628407

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonoperating room anesthesia (NORA) cases performed in pediatric patients have increased over the past decade. It is imperative for the anesthesia provider to be familiar with the nuances of this environment and the myriad of cases to ensure delivery of safe and efficient care. RECENT FINDINGS: Though case volume has increased, sedative agents have largely remained unchanged. NORA sites must meet the same operating room standards and expectations of anesthesia established by the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Despite the increasing NORA volume and efforts to instill a similar culture of safety as the operating room complex, NORA cases present challenges with limited resources and access to the patient, highlighting the need for resident and fellow training to include NORA experiences. SUMMARY: Experience working in the NORA environment helps provide, maintain, and improve the cognitive fitness and resilience that an anesthesiologist needs to tackle the complexities from the variety of NORA cases and locations. Patient factors aside, procedural considerations can affect the anesthetic plan, so understanding the nuances of the procedure helps the anesthesia provider provide safe and efficient care.


Assuntos
Anestesia/normas , Anestesiologia/normas , Anestesiologistas , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Pediatria/normas
11.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 594-600, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628408

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide aids to deal with increasing amount of several comorbidities in nonoperating room anesthesia (NORA). RECENT FINDINGS: New indexes for assessment of comorbidities are described and guidelines for the care of patients with obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes and COVID19 in NORA summarized. SUMMARY: In addition to ASA classification, such instruments as Charlson Comorbidity Index, Frailty Index, Surgical Complexity Score and Revised Cardiac Risk could supplement the prospective assessment of the risk of comorbidities. Using institutional protocols patients with significant obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, COPD, diabetes and COVID19 can be safely cared in NORA. However, the individual functioning and the severity are more important than only the number of diseases.


Assuntos
Anestesia/normas , Anestesiologia/normas , Comorbidade , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus , Humanos , Obesidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono
12.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(4): 605-613, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Handover of anaesthesia patient care during surgery is common; however, its association with patient outcome is unclear. This systematic review aimed to assess the impact of anaesthesia handover during surgery on patient outcome. METHODS: All prospective and retrospective clinical studies specifically investigating the association of intraoperative transfer of anaesthesia care between anaesthesia providers in the operating room with patient morbidity and mortality were included. Searches were conducted from inception to April 24, 2019 in Medline, Medline in Process, CINAHL, and Embase. Reference lists of included studies were searched. Studies were assessed for eligibility and data were extracted by independent reviewers in duplicate with disagreements resolved by consensus or a third reviewer. Risk of bias was assessed in duplicate using the National Institutes of Health Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Data were summarised narratively given substantial heterogeneity. An exploratory meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model for a subset of comparable studies. RESULTS: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Six studies focused on patients as the unit of analysis (npatients=605 678) and two focused on anaesthesia providers as the unit of analysis (nproviders=307). Seven studies identified a relationship between anaesthesia handovers and adverse patient outcomes, whereas one suggested that handover may be beneficial to error detection or rectification. Included studies were of fair or good quality. Meta-analysis of four studies found a 40% increased risk of patients experiencing an adverse event when an anaesthesia handover occurs during the procedure (pooled risk ratio=1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 1.65; P<0.001; I2=98%). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative anaesthesia handovers generally increase morbidity and mortality for surgical patients but could have the potential to improve safety in certain contexts. Future research should determine the specific handover characteristics that impact safety.


Assuntos
Anestesia/normas , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Humanos , Morbidade , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade
13.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(3): 395-415, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The world is currently facing an unprecedented healthcare crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of these guidelines is to produce a framework to facilitate the partial and gradual resumption of intervention activity in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The group has endeavoured to produce a minimum number of recommendations to highlight the strengths to be retained in the 7 predefined areas: (1) protection of staff and patients; (2) benefit/risk and patient information; (3) preoperative assessment and decision on intervention; (4) modalities of the preanaesthesia consultation; (5) specificity of anaesthesia and analgesia; (6) dedicated circuits and (7) containment exit type of interventions. RESULTS: The SFAR Guideline panel provides 51 statements on anaesthesia management in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. After one round of discussion and various amendments, a strong agreement was reached for 100% of the recommendations and algorithms. CONCLUSION: We present suggestions for how the risk of transmission by and to anaesthetists can be minimised and how personal protective equipment policies relate to COVID-19 pandemic context.


Assuntos
Analgesia/normas , Anestesia/normas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Analgesia/efeitos adversos , Analgesia/métodos , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/métodos , Criança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Procedimentos Clínicos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Desinfecção , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Comitê de Profissionais , Risco , Avaliação de Sintomas , Precauções Universais
14.
Psychother Psychosom ; 89(5): 314-319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554959

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a critical procedure in psychiatric treatment, but as typically delivered involves the use of bag-mask ventilation (BMV), which during the COVID-19 pandemic exposes patients and treatment staff to potentially infectious aerosols. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the utility of a modified anesthesia protocol for ECT utilizing preoxygenation by facemask and withholding the use of BMV for only those patients who desaturate during the apneic period. METHODS: This chart review study analyzes patients who were treated with ECT using both the traditional and modified anesthesia protocols. RESULTS: A total of 106 patients were analyzed, of whom 51 (48.1%) required BMV using the new protocol. Of clinical factors, only patient BMI was significantly associated with the requirement for BMV. Mean seizure duration reduced from 52.0 ± 22.4 to 46.6 ± 17.1 s, but seizure duration was adequate in all cases. No acute physical, respiratory, or psychiatric complications occurred during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A modified anesthesia protocol reduces the use of BMV by more than 50%, while retaining adequate seizure duration.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Anestesia/normas , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Eletroconvulsoterapia/normas , Oxigenoterapia/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Respiração Artificial/normas , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 30(7): 737-742, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438527

RESUMO

After a novel human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was reported in China in December 2019, the disease quickly reached pandemic level. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak constituted a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The caseload has increased exponentially, with WHO reporting 182 000 global cases by March 17, 2020, and over 2.6 million by 23 April. The clinical situation is complex, with children presenting different clinical features compared to adults. Several articles with recommendations on the anesthetic management of adult patients with COVID-19 have been published, but no specific recommendations for pediatric anesthesiologists have been made yet. This article addresses specific concerns for the anesthetic management of the pediatric population with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anestesia/normas , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pediatria/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Anestesia/métodos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias , Pediatria/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
18.
World J Emerg Surg ; 15(1): 33, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, in December 2019; the outbreak was caused by a novel coronavirus previously never observed in humans. China has imposed the strictest quarantine and closed management measures in history to control the spread of the disease. However, a high level of evidence to support the surgical management of potential trauma patients during the novel coronavirus outbreak is still lacking. To regulate the emergency treatment of trauma patients during the outbreak, we drafted this paper from a trauma surgeon perspective according to practical experience in Wuhan. MAIN BODY: The article illustrates the general principles for the triage and evaluation of trauma patients during the outbreak of COVID-19, indications for emergency surgery, and infection prevention and control for medical personnel, providing a practical algorithm for trauma care providers during the outbreak period. CONCLUSIONS: The measures of emergency trauma care that we have provided can protect the medical personnel involved in emergency care and ensure the timeliness of effective interventions during the outbreak of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Algoritmos , Anestesia/normas , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Emergências , Unidades Hospitalares/normas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Triagem/normas
19.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(5): 571-578, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia (PHEA) is frequently required for injured patients. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) quality standards state that PHEA should be delivered within 45 min of an emergency call. We investigated whether there is geo-temporal variation in service provision to the UK population. METHODS: We retrospectivly audited the time of day when PHEA is provided by UK Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS), by recording PHEA provision on a randomly selected week and weekend day in 2018. Pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia in the United Kingdom: an observational cohort study retrospectively assessed the time from emergency call to pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia delivery by HEMS during a 1 yr period from April 2017 to March 2018. The population coverage likely to receive pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia in accord with NICE guidelines was estimated by integrating population data with the median time to PHEA, hours of service provision, geographic location, and transport modality. RESULTS: On a weekday 20 HEMS units (comprising from four to 31 enhanced care teams) were estimated to be able to meet NICE guidelines for delivery of PHEA to a poulation of 6.6-35.2 million individuals (at times of minimum and maximal staffing, respectively). At the weekend, 17 HEMS units (comprising from 5 to 28 enhanced care teams) were estimated to be able to meet NICE guidelines for PHEA deliveryto a population of 6.8-34.1 million individuals (minimum and maximal staffing, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: There is marked geo-temporal variation in the ability of HEMS organisations to deliver pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia in the UK.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Anestesia/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Plantão Médico/normas , Plantão Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesia/normas , Estudos de Coortes , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Emergências , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Mapeamento Geográfico , Humanos , Auditoria Médica/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Transporte de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
20.
Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 24(2): 127-137, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336243

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei, China, and has spread to more than 200 other countries around the world. COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease with continuous human-to-human transmission. The origin of the virus is unknown. Airway manipulations and intubations, which are common during anesthesia procedures may increasingly expose anesthesia providers and intensive care unit team members to SARS-CoV-2. Through a comprehensive review of existing studies on COVID-19, this article presents the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, reviews current medical management, and suggests ways to improve the safety of anesthetic procedures. Owing to the highly contagious nature of the virus and the lack of therapeutic drugs or vaccines, precautions should be taken to prevent medical staff from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anestesia/normas , Anestesiologia/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/métodos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Risco
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