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1.
Can Vet J ; 61(10): 1092-1100, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012826

RESUMO

As a result of the various restrictions associated with the current COVID-19 pandemic, the practice of veterinary telehealth is likely to grow substantially. One area in which high quality care can be maintained while respecting physical distancing is teleconsulting, which describes the relationship between an attending and off-site consulting veterinarian. This guide uses a dentistry case to illustrate the provision of real-time anesthesia consulting, with a focus on the technological considerations central to facilitating live, 2-way video-communication. Case selection, teamwork, and patient safety are also discussed.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Telemedicina , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Betacoronavirus
2.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(7): E36-E161, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715504

RESUMO

Dental, oral, and maxillofacial diseases are some of the most common problems in small animal veterinary practice. These conditions create significant pain as well as localized and potentially systemic infection. As such, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) believes that un- and under treated oral and dental diseases pose a significant animal welfare concern. Dentistry is an area of veterinary medicine which is still widely ignored and is subject to many myths and misconceptions. Effective teaching of veterinary dentistry in the veterinary school is the key to progression in this field of veterinary medicine, and to the improvement of welfare for all our patients globally. These guidelines were developed to provide veterinarians with the information required to understand best practices for dental therapy and create realistic minimum standards of care. Using the three-tiered continuing education system of WSAVA, the guidelines make global equipment and therapeutic recommendations and highlight the anaesthetic and welfare requirements for small animal patients. This document contains information on common oral and dental pathologies, diagnostic procedures (an easily implementable and repeatable scoring system for dental health, dental radiography and radiology) and treatments (periodontal therapy, extractions). Further, there are sections on anaesthesia and pain management for dental procedures, home dental care, nutritional information, and recommendations on the role of the universities in improving veterinary dentistry. A discussion of the deleterious effects of anaesthesia free dentistry (AFD) is included, as this procedure is ineffective at best and damaging at worst. Throughout the document the negative effects of undiagnosed and/or treated dental disease on the health and well-being of our patients, and how this equates to an animal welfare issue, is discussed.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Educação em Veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Humanos , Dor/veterinária , Universidades
3.
Aust Vet J ; 98(10): 511-516, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterise intramuscular ketamine-medetomidine-tramadol anaesthesia in hatchling green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial. ANIMALS: Ten hatchling green sea turtles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prior to anaesthesia, cardiopulmonary parameters, cloacal temperature, and venous blood gas and biochemistry were obtained from hatchling green sea turtles while they were being gently restrained. Animals were then anaesthetised with ketamine (5 mg kg-1 ), medetomidine (0.05 mg kg-1 ) and tramadol (5 mg kg-1 ) via intramuscular injection. Turtles were checked for the depth of anaesthesia at five-min intervals by recording reflexes (righting, palpebral, pinch, cloacal) and measuring heart rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature. After 20 min, a second venous blood sample was obtained for further blood gas and biochemical analysis and the medetomidine was antagonised using atipamezole (5:1 medetomidine, 0.25 mg kg-1 ). RESULTS: All turtles were successfully anaesthetised with a mean time to induction of 3.4 min (±1). In all animals, a loss of reflexes (except for palpebral reflex) and voluntary movement was observed for the entire 20 min. Anaesthesia resulted in marked apnoea for the duration of the procedure. Venous blood gas and biochemistry analysis indicated that a 20 min period of apnoea had no measurable effects on venous blood gas results. All turtles recovered uneventfully after atipamazole antagonisation, with a mean time to first breath 4.5 min (±3.7), and mean recovery time 15.5 min (±15.4). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Intramuscular ketamine-medetomidine-tramadol, antagonised with atipamazole appears to be an effective anaesthetic protocol in hatchling green sea turtles for short procedures with no deleterious effects on venous blood gases or biochemistry.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Ketamina , Tramadol , Tartarugas , Anestésicos Combinados , Animais , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Medetomidina , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(8): 635-641, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701000

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurements with invasive blood pressure (IBP) measurements of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in anesthetized dogs as obtained with a veterinary-specific multiparameter monitor. ANIMALS: 21 client-owned healthy female dogs anesthetized for routine ovariohysterectomy. PROCEDURES: ABP measurements were obtained with a single veterinary-specific multiparameter monitor via a pneumatic cuff placed over the medial dorsal metatarsal artery (NIBP) and a transducer connected to a catheter placed in the contralateral artery (IBP). The 224 paired ABP measurements (complete data set) were categorized into 3 subsets-hypotension, normotension, and hypertension-on the basis of invasive measurements of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). The NIBP and IBP measurements of systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure (SAP and DAP, respectively) and MAP were compared. RESULTS: NIBP measurements were frequently lower than IBP measurements. The greatest underestimation was for the hypertension subset of NIBP measurements, with biases for SAP of 15.7 mm Hg, DAP of 14.1 mm Hg, and MAP of 12.0 mm Hg. Considering the complete data set, precision was acceptable (SD of the differences between paired measurements ≤ 15 mm Hg for DAP [9.0 mm Hg] and MAP [12.1 mm Hg]); however, precision was not acceptable for SAP (SD, 18.6 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: NIBP measurements with the studied veterinary-specific multiparameter monitor generally agreed with IBP measurements during hypotensive and normotensive periods for anesthetized healthy female dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy. However, inaccuracies, frequently underestimations, were observed during periods of hypertension, and therefore, NIBP measurements should be interpreted cautiously.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Pressão Arterial , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Monitores de Pressão Arterial , Cães , Feminino
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230799, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop a multifactorial tool for assessment of sedation in dogs. METHODS: Following a modified Delphi method, thirty-eight veterinary anaesthetists were contacted to describe the following levels of awareness: no-sedation, light, moderate, profound sedation and excitation. The answers were summarized in descriptors for each level. A questionnaire was created with all the variables obtained from the descriptors. The questionnaire was returned to the panel of anaesthetists to be used before and after real sedations in conjunction with the previous 5-point categorical scale. Data obtained were analysed using the classification-tree and random-forest methods. RESULTS: Twenty-three anaesthetists (60%) replied with descriptions. The descriptors and study variables were grouped in categories: state-of-mind, posture, movements, stimuli-response, behaviour, response-to-restraint, muscle tone, physiological data, facial-expression, eye position, eyelids, pupils, vocalization and feasibility-to-perform-intended-procedure. The anaesthetists returned 205 completed questionnaires. The levels of awareness reported by the anaesthetists were: no sedation in 92, mild (26), moderate (37) and profound in 50 cases. The classification-tree detected 6 main classifying variables: change in posture, response-to-restraint, head-elevation, response-to-toe-pinching, response-to-name, and movements. The random-forest found that the following variables: change in posture, response-to-restraint, head-elevation, response-to-name, movements, posture, response-to-toe-pinching, demeanour, righting-reflex and response-to-handclap, were classified correctly in 100% awake, 62% mild, 70% moderate and 86% of profound sedation cases. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The questionnaire and methods developed here classified correctly the level of sedation in most cases. Further studies are needed to evaluate the validity of this tool in the clinical and research setting.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestesiologia , Anestesistas , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 67-79, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212548

RESUMO

A review of anesthetic procedures used in Andean bears (Tremarctos ornatus), sloth bears (Melursus ursinus), and giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) housed at the Smithsonian Institution's National Zoological Park (NZP) from 1995 to 2016 was performed. A total of 146 anesthetic procedures (55 procedures on 12 Andean bears, 38 procedures on nine sloth bears, and 53 procedures on five giant pandas) occurred at NZP during this time frame. Induction protocols involved some combination of ketamine (K; n = 121), tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ; n = 91), medetomidine (M; n = 67), xylazine (X; n = 42), midazolam (Mid; n = 9), and butorphanol (B; n = 1). The most commonly used protocols were TZKM for both Andean bears (n = 29) and sloth bears (n = 12), and KX in giant pandas (n = 17). Supplemental injections of K, TZ, Mid, or M were required to complete inductions in 66 cases (45%). Anesthetic maintenance was most often completed with isoflurane, ketamine, or propofol. The most commonly reported complications included perianesthetic emesis (n = 47), ptyalism (n = 16), and seizure-like activity (n = 11). The most frequent physiologic findings included low pulse oximetry values (n = 95), bradycardia (n = 95), hypothermia (n = 74), and hypertension (n = 55). Dose ranges, induction, and recovery times, supplementation and complication rates, and physiologic values are reported for each protocol by species.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais de Zoológico , Ursidae , Anestesia/métodos , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Protocolos Clínicos , District of Columbia , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 80-87, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212549

RESUMO

Twenty-one free-ranging warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, were immobilized with a combination of medetomidine (0.07 ± 0.01 mg/kg), butorphanol (0.26 ± 0.04 mg/kg), tiletamine-zolazepam (0.69 ± 0.15 mg/kg), and ketamine (1.43 ± 0.21 mg/kg) administered intramuscularly by dart. Induction, immobilization, and recovery characteristics were evaluated using a standardized scoring system. In the immobilized warthogs, physiological variables were measured every 5 min and arterial blood gases were analyzed at 15-min intervals. At 45 min after initial drug administration, atipamezole (0.34 ± 0.050 mg/kg) and naltrexone (0.53 ± 0.079 mg/kg) were administered intravenously. Overall, induction quality after darting was scored as excellent and the mean time to safe handling was 5.9 ± 2.0 min. Based on muscle relaxation, and loss of palpebral and pedal reflexes, most subjects (17 out of 21) reached a plane of surgical anesthesia by 10 and 15 min; 20 out of 21 warthogs were in this plane for the duration of the monitoring period. In the immobilized warthogs the overall mean heart rate was 65 ± 15.3 beats per minute, mean respiratory rate was 14.7 ± 5.6 breaths per minute, and the mean rectal temperature was 37.9 ± 1.4°C during the 40 min. Arterial blood gas results showed hypoxemia (mean PaO2 62.1 ± 16.2 mmHg), hypercapnia (mean PaCO2 47.1 ± 5.1 mmHg), and acidemia (mean pH = 7.36 ± 0.04). Values for PaO2 and pH improved over the immobilization period. After antagonist administration, overall recovery quality from immobilization was scored as good, with animals standing at a mean time of 7.3 ± 4.9 min. The drug combination proved to be effective in the immobilization of free-ranging warthogs with rapid induction, good anesthesia, and limited cardiorespiratory changes. This anesthetic protocol produces effective, safe, and partially reversible immobilization in warthogs.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Imobilização/veterinária , Suínos/fisiologia , Anestesia/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Parques Recreativos , África do Sul , Tiletamina/administração & dosagem , Zolazepam/administração & dosagem
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 102-109, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212552

RESUMO

Anesthesia is commonly employed in aquatic medicine to facilitate physical exams, diagnostics, and surgical interventions. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) is the most commonly used anesthetic for fish and is currently the only anesthetic approved by the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine for food-producing fish. Despite the frequency of anesthetic procedures in fish, anesthetic monitoring remains rudimentary in many facilities. This study evaluated the impact on blood gases, acid-base balance, and electrolytes in koi (Cyprinus carpio) anesthetized at concentrations of 100 mg/L and 150 mg/L MS-222. Blood samples from 25 fish per treatment were collected at 5 and 20 min of anesthetic immersion. Forty-nine of 50 fish recovered uneventfully from anesthesia; one fish did not recover and was euthanatized. Results showed significant increases in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) (P = 0.006) and hyperglycemia (P = <0.0001) with increasing anesthetic concentration and time under anesthesia and a significant decrease in partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) with increased anesthetic time (P = 0.021). There were several electrolyte changes observed with both increasing anesthetic time and concentration. All electrolytes except potassium remained within published reference ranges for koi, while potassium showed a significant decrease in concentration associated with anesthetic time and concentration. The results of this study indicate that MS-222 at 100 mg/L and 150 mg/L represent safe anesthetic concentrations for koi undergoing minimally invasive diagnostics; however, koi anesthetized with MS-222 at a concentration of 150 mg/L experienced more significant changes in blood gases, acid-base balance, and electrolyte concentrations.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Aminobenzoatos/administração & dosagem , Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Carpas/fisiologia , Eletrólitos/metabolismo , Anestesia/métodos , Animais , Gasometria/veterinária , Carpas/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fatores de Tempo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
9.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 47(1): 38-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To collect baseline descriptive data on the anaesthesia and analgesia protocols used by New Zealand veterinarians in first-opinion practice when performing routine canine and feline ovariohysterectomies. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. ANIMALS: Not applicable. METHODS: An online survey was conducted asking respondents for: 1) preoperative patient assessment; 2) preanaesthetic medication and induction drugs used; 3) anaesthesia maintenance drug choices and monitoring equipment used; and 4) postoperative analgesia drug selections and monitoring for ovariohysterectomy performed in healthy adult dogs and cats. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 472 veterinarians, of whom 282 provided responses for canine ovariohysterectomy and 361 provided responses for feline ovariohysterectomy. Approximately 23% of canine ovariohysterectomies and 13% of feline ovariohysterectomies had preanaesthetic bloodwork performed. There were 74 unique premedication/induction drug combinations reported for canine ovariohysterectomies and 94 for feline ovariohysterectomies. The most commonly used drug combinations were acepromazine, morphine ± propofol and butorphanol, ketamine and medetomidine for canine and feline ovariohysterectomies respectively. Most animals were intubated, and anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Use of intravenous catheters, fluid administration, heat support, and monitoring equipment varied. There were 41 unique postoperative analgesia drug combinations reported for canine ovariohysterectomies and 20 for feline ovariohysterectomies. Canine ovariohysterectomies were most commonly administered injectable opioids on the day of surgery followed by 3 days of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), whereas feline ovariohysterectomies were usually administered a single injection of an opioid or NSAID or both on the day of surgery. Most animals were seen within 7-10 days for re-examination and/or suture removal. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Veterinarians use a wide range of anaesthesia and analgesia protocols for routine ovariohysterectomies. Further research is needed comparing the safety and efficacy of commonly used protocols to determine whether there are opportunities to improve the level of patient welfare.


Assuntos
Analgesia/veterinária , Anestesia/veterinária , Gatos/cirurgia , Cães/cirurgia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Médicos Veterinários , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Combinados/administração & dosagem , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/veterinária , Nova Zelândia , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 993-996, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926534

RESUMO

Seven anesthesia events were performed over 6 wk on a 1.5-yr-old female okapi (Okapia johnstoni) being managed for a fetlock injury. A combination of butorphanol (B) (median; range) (0.045; 0.031-0.046 mg/kg), medetomidine (M) (0.037; 0.031-0.037 mg/kg), ketamine (K) (0.553; 0.536-1.071 mg/kg), and thiafentanil (T) (0.0045; 0.0040-0.0046 mg/kg) was administered in a padded stall. One dart containing all drugs was used for the first two anesthesias. Subsequently, BM was administered 10 min prior to KT using two darts. Time (median; range) from initial injection to first effects (6; 3-7 min) and recumbency (14; 4-20 min) were recorded. Induction quality with the one-dart protocol was poor or fair and was good or excellent with the two-dart protocol. Following recumbency, the okapi was intubated and ventilated, and physiological parameters were recorded. Anesthesia was consistently achieved with BMKT, but induction was smoother with the staged two-dart approach. Neither resedation nor renarcotization was observed post-reversal.


Assuntos
Antílopes/fisiologia , Butorfanol/farmacologia , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Ketamina/farmacologia , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe how small animal anaesthesia is performed in French-speaking Eastern Canada, and the variations between practices, in particular based on practice type, veterinarian gender and experience. DESIGN: Observational study, survey. SAMPLE: 156 respondents. PROCEDURE: A questionnaire was designed to assess current small animal anaesthesia practices in French-speaking Eastern Canada, mainly in the province of Quebec. The questionnaire was available through SurveyMonkey, and consisted of four parts: demographic information about the veterinarians surveyed, evaluation and management of anaesthetic risk, anaesthesia procedure, monitoring and safety. Gender, year of graduation, and type of practice were tested as potential risk factors. Chi-square exact test was used to study relations between each risk factor, and the effect of the selected risk factor on each response of the survey. For ordinal data, the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test was used to maximize power. RESULTS: Response rate over a period of 3 months was 20.85% (156 respondents). Overall, the way anaesthesia is performed by most respondents does not meet international guidelines, such as patient preparation and evaluation prior to anaesthesia, not using individualised protocols (for 41%), not obtaining intravenous access (12.4% use it for all their anaesthesia in cats, and 30.6% in dogs), lack of patient monitoring at certain intervals for 55% of the responses, and client prompted optional analgesia (for 29% of respondents). Some practices are more compliant than others. Among them, referral centres generally offer better care than general practices. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The level of care in anaesthesia and analgesia in practices in French-speaking Eastern Canada is concerning, highlighting the need for more sustained continuing education.


Assuntos
Analgesia/veterinária , Anestesia/veterinária , Analgesia/efeitos adversos , Analgesia/métodos , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/métodos , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Quebeque , Inquéritos e Questionários , Médicos Veterinários
13.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 177-182, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812610

RESUMO

The aim of this prospective, randomized, blinded crossover study was compare the cardiopulmonary and sedative effects of ketamine in combination with acepromazine, diazepam, dexmedetomidine, midazolam or xylazine, injected intramuscularly in rabbits, using eight one-year-old male New Zealand rabbits (4.1 ± 0.40 kg). All treatments included ketamine (K; 30 mg/kg) in combination with one of the following: acepromazine 0.5 mg/kg (treatment KA); diazepam 1 mg/kg (KD); dexmedetomidine 0.025 mg/kg (KDex); midazolam 1 mg/kg (KM); or xylazine 3 mg/kg (KX) mixed in the same syringe and injected intramuscularly. Cardiopulmonary variables, blood gases and sedative scores were measured before injection (T0 or baseline) and every 10 min thereafter, over a 60-min period. There were reductions in heart rate, compared with the baseline, at all evaluation times in treatment KX. Treatments KDex, KM and KX presented reductions in respiratory rate at all evaluation times, in comparison with the baseline. There were reductions in mean arterial pressure in KA and KX at times T10-T60 and in PaO2 in KDex, KM and KX at T10-T50. The sedation scores were similar in KA, KDex, KM and KX at T10-T20. Ketamine in combination with acepromazine, dexmedetomidine, midazolam or xylazine promoted similar sedative effects for twenty minutes, but the α2-agonists can promote hypoxemia.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Ketamina/farmacologia , Acepromazina/administração & dosagem , Acepromazina/efeitos adversos , Acepromazina/farmacologia , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Animais , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Hipóxia , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/efeitos adversos , Midazolam/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Coelhos , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilazina/administração & dosagem , Xilazina/efeitos adversos , Xilazina/farmacologia
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 230-235, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837511

RESUMO

Minimizing sympathetic stimulation under anesthesia prevents activation of the neuroendocrine stress response. The minimum alveolar concentration blunting adrenergic responses in 50% of the population when exposed to a noxious stimulus is defined as MAC-BAR. The purpose of this study was to determine the MAC-BAR of sevoflurane (MAC-BARsevo) in sheep and the MAC-BAR sparing effects of ketamine. Thirteen healthy Dorset-cross adult ewes, 4 ± 1 year old and weighing 74 ± 9 kg, were enrolled in a randomized blinded crossover study design. Ewes were anesthetized twice for MAC-BARsevo determination. After face mask induction with sevoflurane, sheep received intravenous ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg and a constant rate infusion of 1.5 mg/kg/h or an equivalent volume of saline (placebo). After 8 day washout, the other treatment was administered. A bracketing technique was used for MAC-BARsevo determination and values were collected in duplicate. The mechanical stimulus (sponge forceps) was applied at the coronary band for 1 min and blood was collected for ketamine plasma concentrations. The MAC-BARsevo values of each treatment were compared using a paired t-test. Mean MAC-BARsevo of the ketamine and placebo were 2.73 ± 0.23% and 2.77 ± 0.31%, respectively and no significant difference was found (p = .638). Average ketamine plasma concentrations was 1.54 ± 0.18 µg/mL maintained through the study. Ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg, followed by 1.5 mg/kg/h, did not decrease the MAC-BARsevo in sheep. Further studies to determine the effect of higher doses of ketamine on inhalational anesthetic agents and their potential adverse effects are warranted.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Ketamina , Alvéolos Pulmonares/química , Sevoflurano/farmacocinética , Adrenérgicos/administração & dosagem , Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/sangue , Ketamina/farmacologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/efeitos dos fármacos , Sevoflurano/administração & dosagem , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos , Ovinos
15.
Equine Vet J ; 52(1): 76-82, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administration of pulsed inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO) improves arterial oxygenation in spontaneously breathing anaesthetised healthy horses and in horses undergoing colic surgery. However, because hypoventilation commonly occurs, horses are often mechanically ventilated to prevent hypercarbia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of PiNO on arterial oxygenation during anaesthesia in mechanically ventilated healthy horses and horses undergoing colic surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective nonblinded clinical trial. METHODS: Fifty horses undergoing elective arthroscopy (Group A) and 30 horses undergoing colic surgery (Group C) in dorsal recumbency were included in the study. Every second horse in each group received PiNO (A-INO, C-INO), the others served as controls (A-CN, C-CN). All horses were mechanically ventilated and anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. PiNO was mechanically delivered at the proximal end of the endotracheal tube as a pulse during the first part of each inspiration. Data were collected at the start (baseline, before PiNO) and at the end of inhalation anaesthesia. The Tukey method was used to compare baseline and end values for each parameter. RESULTS: Arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 ) increased from (median [IQR]) 13.6 (9.3, 30.1) at baseline to 24.2 (18.6, 37.0) kPa at the end of anaesthesia in A-INO (P = 0.005) and from 7.7 (6.4, 8.5) to 15.5 (9.9, 26.9) kPa in C-INO (P = 0.007). Mean (95% CI) difference in F-shunt between baseline and end were -6 (-10; -1) and -11 (-22; -1) % in A-INO (P = 0.005) and C-INO (P = 0.04) respectively. There was no change in PaO2 or F-shunt from baseline to end of anaesthesia in A-CN or C-CN. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Cardiac output was not measured, thus O2 delivery could not be calculated. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of mechanical ventilation and PiNO improved pulmonary gas exchange during anaesthesia by a simultaneous decrease in F-shunt and improved alveolar ventilation.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Cólica/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/cirurgia , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/sangue , Respiração Artificial/veterinária , Animais , Artroscopia/veterinária , Cólica/cirurgia , Cavalos
16.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(1): 65-76, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of IM administration of alfaxalone and butorphanol combined with acepromazine, midazolam, or dexmedetomidine in dogs. ANIMALS: 6 young healthy mixed-breed hounds. PROCEDURES: Dogs received each of 3 treatments (alfaxalone [2 mg/kg] and butorphanol [0.4 mg/kg] combined with acepromazine [0.02 mg/kg; AB-ace], midazolam [0.2 mg/kg; AB-mid], or dexmedetomidine [0.005 mg/kg; AB-dex], IM) in a blinded, randomized crossover-design study with a 1-week washout period between treatments. Sedation scores and cardiorespiratory variables were recorded at predetermined time points. Data were analyzed by use of mixed-model ANOVA and linear generalized estimating equations with post hoc adjustments. RESULTS: All treatments resulted in moderate to deep sedation (median score, ≥ 15/21) ≤ 5 minutes after injection. Sedation scores did not differ among treatments until the 40-minute time point, when the score was higher for AB-dex than for other treatments. Administration of AB-dex resulted in median scores reflecting deep sedation until 130 minutes, versus 80 and 60 minutes for AB-ace and AB-mid, respectively, after injection. Heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen delivery decreased significantly after AB-dex, but not AB-ace or AB-mid administration. Respiratory variables remained within clinically acceptable ranges after all treatments. Undesirable recovery characteristics were observed in 4 dogs after AB-mid treatment. Four dogs required atipamezole administration 180 minutes after AB-dex injection. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: All protocols produced reliable sedation. The results indicated that in young, healthy dogs, AB-mid may produce undesirable recovery characteristics; AB-dex treatment caused cardiovascular depression and should be used with caution.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sedação Profunda/veterinária , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Acepromazina/administração & dosagem , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/normas , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Cães , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Masculino , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Pregnanodionas/administração & dosagem
17.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 37: 100368, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837761

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of anesthesia on grading of canine hip dysplasia. For this purpose, 20 middle-sized healthy dogs from different breeds were used. Radiographs were taken using 4 different imaging methods, including the hip-extended, subluxation, distraction, and compression. This procedure was repeated 4 times for each dog, while the dogs were unanesthetized and anesthetized with 3 different anesthetic protocols at 15-day intervals (propofol [5 mg/kg, IV]; diazepam [0.5 mg/kg, IV] / ketamine [20 mg/kg, IV]; medetomidine [0.05 µg/kg, IM] / ketamine [20 mg/kg, IM]). The radiographs were taken and evaluated by the same investigator to prevent interobserver variation. Because of the radiographic positioning difficulty, unanesthetized radiographic imaging revealed higher repetition number than the anesthetized; therefore, radiation safety decreased. The administration of diazepam/ketamine and medetomidine/ketamine was sufficient in terms of both muscle relaxation and duration of the anesthesia; however, some dogs under propofol anesthesia were required maintenance doses to complete radiographic imaging procedure. Unanesthetized radiographic images of the dogs had significantly lower (P < .001) hip score, distraction index (DI), subluxation index (SI), and higher compression index (CI) (P< .001), when compared with anesthetized radiographic images. When compared the anesthetic protocols, propofol revealed lower (P< 0.001) hip score, DI, SI, and higher (P < .001) CI than medetomidine/ketamine. Medetomidine/ketamine is the most appropriate anesthetic protocol for detailed radiographic evaluation of CHD considering both muscle relaxation and duration of action.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Displasia Pélvica Canina/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia/veterinária , Analgesia/veterinária , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Cães , Quimioterapia Combinada/veterinária , Feminino , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Relaxamento Muscular , Radiografia/métodos
18.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(12): 1067-1073, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare results of a commercially available device for oscillometrically measured blood pressure (OBP) with invasively measured blood pressure (IBP) in awake and anesthetized dogs. ANIMALS: 19 adult dogs (mean ± SD body weight, 17.8 ± 7.5 kg). PROCEDURES: Blood pressures were measured in dogs while they were awake and anesthetized with isoflurane. The OBP was recorded on a thoracic limb, and IBP was simultaneously recorded from the median caudal artery. Agreement between OBP and IBP was evaluated with the Bland-Altman method. Guidelines of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) were used for validation of the oscillometric device. RESULTS: In awake dogs, mean bias of the oscillometric device was -11.12 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement [LOA], -61.14 to 38.90 mm Hg) for systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), 9.39 mm Hg (LOA, -28.26 to 47.04 mm Hg) for diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP), and -0.85 mm Hg (LOA, -40.54 to 38.84 mm Hg) for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). In anesthetized dogs, mean bias was -12.27 mm Hg (LOA, -47.36 to 22.82 mm Hg) for SAP, -3.92 mm Hg (LOA, -25.28 to 17.44 mm Hg) for DAP, and -7.89 mm Hg (LOA, -32.31 to 16.53 mm Hg) for MAP. The oscillometric device did not fulfill ACVIM guidelines for the validation of such devices. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Agreement between OBP and IBP results for awake and anesthetized dogs was poor. The oscillometric blood pressure device did not fulfill ACVIM guidelines for validation. Therefore, clinical use of this device cannot be recommended.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Monitores de Pressão Arterial/veterinária , Oscilometria/veterinária , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Monitores de Pressão Arterial/normas , Cães , Feminino , Membro Anterior , Masculino , Oscilometria/instrumentação , Oscilometria/normas , Vigília
19.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(6): 622-629, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation measurement via pulse oximetry (SpO2 ) to serve as a surrogate for PaO2 in dogs. DESIGN: Two-part study: prospective observational and retrospective components. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Ninety-two dogs breathing room air prospectively enrolled on a convenience basis. Retrospective evaluation of 1,033 paired SpO2 and PaO2 measurements from 62 dogs on mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: Dogs with concurrent SpO2 and PaO2 measured on room air had a data sheet completed with blood gas analysis. SpO2 , PaO2 , and FiO2 values were collected from medical records of dogs on mechanical ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Predicted PaO2 was calculated from SpO2 using the dog oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. The correlation coefficient between measured and predicted PaO2 was 0.49 (P < 0.0001) in room air dogs and 0.74 (P < 0.0001) in ventilated dogs. In room air dogs, Bland-Altman analysis between measured minus predicted PaO2 versus the average showed a mean bias of -6.0 mm Hg (95% limit of agreement, -35 to 23 mm Hg). The correlation coefficient between PaO2 /FiO2 and SpO2 /FiO2 ratios was 0.76 (P < 0.0001). After combining data sets, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed the optimal cutoff value for detecting hypoxemia (PaO2  < 80 mm Hg) was an SpO2 of 95%, with sensitivity and specificity of 77.8% and 89.5%, respectively. Using this cutoff, 6.9% of SpO2 readings failed to detect hypoxemia, whereas 7.2% predicted hypoxemia that was not present. CONCLUSIONS: The SpO2 was not clinically suitable as a surrogate for PaO2 , though it performed better in mechanically ventilated dogs. As sensitivity for the detection of hypoxemia was poor, pulse oximetry does not appear to be an acceptable screening test. The SpO2 /FiO2 ratio may have value for evaluation of anesthetized dogs on supplemental oxygen. Arterial blood gas analysis remains ideal for assessment of oxygenation.


Assuntos
Oximetria/veterinária , Oxigênio/sangue , Respiração Artificial/veterinária , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Gasometria/veterinária , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia , Pulmão , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vigília
20.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 515-527, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587973

RESUMO

The number of donkeys in the world may not be increasing but awareness of their use and concern for welfare and pain recognition and treatment are receiving increasing veterinary interest. Therefore, accurate information about anesthesia and analgesia in donkeys and mules is important to more equine practitioners. This review highlights the current knowledge on various anesthetic and analgesic approaches in donkey and mules. The authors emphasize that there is still much information that is not available about donkeys and mules; in many circumstances, the clinician must use available equine information to treat the patient, while monitoring for differences in response.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Equidae , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/fisiopatologia , Cavalos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem
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