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3.
Anaesthesia ; 75 Suppl 1: e34-e38, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903583

RESUMO

Safety of patients in the operating theatre relies on a cordial and efficient working relationship between all members of the theatre team. A team that communicates well, defines the roles of its members and is aware of their limitations will provide safe patient care. In this review, we will examine how human factors engineering - the science of how to design processes, equipment and environments to optimise the human contributions to performance - can be used to improve safety and efficiency of surgery. Although these are often dismissed as 'common sense', we will explain how these solutions emerge not from healthcare but from diverse disciplines such as psychology, design and engineering.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/métodos , Ergonomia/métodos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Humanos
5.
Anaesthesia ; 75 Suppl 1: e18-e27, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903566

RESUMO

Article 25 of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights enshrines the right to health and well-being for every individual. However, universal access to high-quality healthcare remains the purview of a handful of wealthy nations. This is no more apparent than in peri-operative care, where an estimated five billion individuals lack access to safe, affordable and timely surgical care. Delivery of surgery and anaesthesia in low-resource environments presents unique challenges that, when unaddressed, result in limited access to low-quality care. Current peri-operative research and clinical guidance often fail to acknowledge these system-level deficits and therefore have limited applicability in low-resource settings. In this manuscript, the authors priority-set the need for equitable access to high-quality peri-operative care and analyse the system-level contributors to excess peri-operative mortality rates, a key marker of quality of care. To provide examples of how research and investment may close the equity gap, a modified Delphi method was adopted to curate and appraise interventions which may, with subsequent research and evaluation, begin to address the barriers to high-quality peri-operative care in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/métodos , Saúde Global , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos
7.
Anaesthesia ; 75(2): 234-246, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788789

RESUMO

The location of care for many brain-injured patients has changed since 2012 following the development of major trauma centres. Advances in management of ischaemic stroke have led to the urgent transfer of many more patients. The basis of care has remained largely unchanged, however, with emphasis on maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion as the key to preventing secondary injury. Organisational aspects and training for transfers are highlighted, and we have included an expanded section on paediatric transfers. We have also provided a table with suggested blood pressure parameters for the common types of brain injury but acknowledge that there is little evidence for many of our recommendations. These guidelines remain a mix of evidence-based and consensus-based statements. We have received assistance from many organisations representing clinicians who care for these patients, and we believe our views represent the best of current thinking and opinion. We encourage departments to review their own practice using our suggestions for audit and quality improvement.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/terapia , Transferência de Pacientes/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Transporte de Pacientes/métodos , Anestesiologia , Anestesistas , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas
10.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(2): 206-213, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short educational programmes are important in building global anaesthesia workforce capacity. The Vital Anaesthesia Simulation Training (VAST) course is a 3-day immersive simulation-based programme concentrating on core clinical challenges and non-technical skills required by anaesthesia providers in low-resource settings. METHODS: This mixed methods study prospectively evaluated the impact of VAST in Rwanda. Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) scores were quantitatively assessed for 30 course participants at three time points (pre-, post-, and 4 months after VAST). Qualitative data were gathered during focus groups (4 months after VAST) to learn of participants' experiences implementing new knowledge into clinical practice. RESULTS: The ANTS total scores improved from pre- (11.0 [2.3]) (mean [standard deviation]) to post-test (14.0 [1.6]), and improvements were maintained at retention (14.2 [1.7]). A similar pattern was observed when data were analysed using the four ANTS categories (all P<0.001). The key theme that emerged during focus group discussions was that the use of cognitive aids and clinical algorithms, repeated and reinforced across simulated scenarios, encouraged a systematic approach to patient care. The participants attributed the systematic approach to improving their problem-solving skills and confidence, particularly during emergencies. They found value in well-functioning teams and shared decision-making. After VAST, the participants described empowerment to advocate for better patient care and system improvement. CONCLUSIONS: VAST offers a simulation-based training to anaesthesia providers working in low-resource settings. Skills retention and self-reported application of learning into the workplace reflect the scope of impact of this training.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/educação , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Anestesistas , Países em Desenvolvimento , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ruanda
12.
Anaesthesia ; 75(2): 247-253, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472021

RESUMO

Pilot and feasibility studies are preliminary investigations undertaken before a larger study. We hypothesised that only a small proportion of pilot or feasibility studies published in anaesthesia journals were correctly labelled as such. We searched for papers published between 2007 and 2017 in six anaesthesia journals using the text words 'pilot' OR 'feasibility' and included 266 original articles with 26,682 human participants. Only 34 (12.8%) were correctly labelled as a pilot or feasibility study. They were more likely to: have more median (IQR [range]) participants, 73 (40-130 [4-2716]) vs. 27 (15-60 [2-3305], p < 0.001; report feasibility outcomes, 82.4% vs. 4.3%, p < 0.001; and report an intention to convert, 100% vs. 39.7%, p < 0.001. They were less likely to test the efficacy of the primary outcome, 50% vs. 72.8%, p = 0.009; and report firm clinical conclusions 41.2% vs. 67.7%, p = 0.004. Of the studies published more than 5 years ago, correctly labelled pilot or feasibility studies were more likely to precede a published conversion study, 53.8% vs. 16%, p = 0.004. There was no difference between the number of citations 18 (9-44 [2-216]) vs. 20 (7-47 [0-251]), p = 0.865. These results have important consequences for patients, trialists, researchers and funders. We argue that correctly labelled pilot studies enhance the quality of scientific research by encouraging methodological rigour, ensuring scientific validity and reducing research waste. Authors, reviewers, editors and publishers should ensure they adhere to the contents of the 2016 CONSORT extension for pilot and feasibility studies.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Bibliometria , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
14.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 129(1): 55-62, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe typical anesthesia practices for children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). STUDY DESIGN: Online survey. METHOD: A sample of pediatric anesthesiologists received the survey by email. RESULTS: 110 respondents were included. 46.4% worked in a free-standing children's hospital and 32.7% worked in a children's facility within a general hospital. 73.6% taught residents. 44.4% saw at least one child with OSA per week, 25.5% saw them daily. On a 100-mm visual analog scale, respondents rated their comfort with managing these children as 84.94 (SD 17.59). For children with severe OSA, 53.6% gave oral midazolam preoperatively, but 24.5% typically withheld premedication and had the parent present for induction. 68.2% would typically use nitrous oxide for inhalational induction. 68.2% used fentanyl intraoperatively, while 20.0% used morphine. 61.5% reduced their intraop narcotic dose for children with OSA. 98.2% used intraoperative dexamethasone, 58.2% used 0.5 mg/kg for the dose. 98.2% used ondansetron, 62.7% used IV acetaminophen, and 8.2% used IV NSAIDs. 83.6% extubated awake. 27.3% of respondents stated that their institution had standardized guidelines for perioperative management of children with OSA undergoing adenotonsillectomy. People who worked in children's hospitals, who had >10 years of experience, or who saw children with OSA frequently were significantly more comfortable dealing with children with OSA (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Apart from using intraoperative dexamethasone and ondansetron, management varied. These children would likely benefit from best practices perioperative management guidelines.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestesiologia , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Pediatria , Padrões de Prática Médica , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Tonsilectomia , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Adenoidectomia , Extubação/métodos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Óxido Nitroso/uso terapêutico , Ondansetron/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825379

RESUMO

The paper presents the author's analysis of the main trends in the development of modern neuroanesthesiology over the past five to ten years. These, in the author\s opinion, include the introduction and elaboration of blood-sparing techniques, monitoring the depth of anesthesia, fast track concept, applying regional (conduction) anesthesia techniques, xenon anesthesia, development of effective and safe protocols for DVT and PTE prophylaxis for neurosurgical patients, study of the hemostatic system using bedside methods for assessing hemostasis (thromboelastogram) and correcting hypocoagulation by activated recombinant VII factor.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução , Anestesiologia , Hemostáticos , Hemostasia , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos
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