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1.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 52(1): 34-41, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191830

RESUMO

Over the past three months, the world has faced an unprecedented health hazard. The World Health Organization has announced a pandemic infection with an unknown species of coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. Spreading mainly through the droplet route, the virus causes mild symptoms in the majority of cases, the most common being: fever (80%), dry cough (56%), fatigue (22%) and muscle pain (7%); less common symptoms include a sore throat, a runny nose, diarrhea, hemoptysis and chills. A life-threatening complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection is an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs more often in older adults, those with immune disorders and co-morbidities. Severe forms of the infection, being an indication for treatment in the intensive care unit, comprise acute lung inflammation, ARDS, sepsis and septic shock. The article presents basic information about etiology, pathogenesis and diagnostics (with particular emphasis on the importance of tomocomputer imaging), clinical picture, treatment and prevention of the infection. It goes on to emphasize the specific risks of providing anesthesiology and intensive care services. Due to the fact that effective causal treatment is not yet available and the number of infections and deaths increases day by day, infection prevention and strict adherence to recommendations of infection control organizations remain the basis for fighting the virus.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Progressão da Doença , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
2.
JAMA ; 323(6): 538-547, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044941

RESUMO

Importance: Privately insured patients who receive care from in-network physicians may receive unexpected out-of-network bills ("surprise bills") from out-of-network clinicians they did not choose. In elective surgery, this can occur if patients choose in-network surgeons and hospitals but receive out-of-network bills from other involved clinicians. Objective: To evaluate out-of-network billing across common elective operations performed with in-network primary surgeons and facilities. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective analysis of claims data from a large US commercial insurer, representing 347 356 patients who had undergone 1 of 7 common elective operations (arthroscopic meniscal repair [116 749]; laparoscopic cholecystectomy [82 372]; hysterectomy [67 452]; total knee replacement [42 313]; breast lumpectomy [18 018]; colectomy [14 074]; coronary artery bypass graft surgery [6378]) by an in-network primary surgeon at an in-network facility between January 1, 2012, and September 30, 2017. Follow-up ended November 8, 2017. Exposure: Patient, clinician, and insurance factors potentially related to out-of-network bills. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of episodes with out-of-network bills. The secondary outcome was the estimated potential balance bill associated with out-of-network bills from each surgical procedure, calculated as total out-of-network charges less the typical in-network price for the same service. Results: Among 347 356 patients (mean age, 48 [SD, 11] years; 66% women) who underwent surgery with in-network primary surgeons and facilities, 20.5% of episodes (95% CI, 19.4%-21.7%) had an out-of-network bill. In these episodes, the mean potential balance bill per episode was $2011 (95% CI, $1866-$2157) when present. Out-of-network bills were associated with surgical assistants in 37% of these episodes; when present, the mean potential balance bill was $3633 (95% CI, $3384-$3883). Out-of-network bills were associated with anesthesiologists in 37% of episodes; when present, the mean potential balance bill was $1219 (95% CI, $1049-$1388). Membership in health insurance exchange plans, compared with nonexchange plans, was associated with a significantly higher risk of out-of-network bills (27% vs 20%, respectively; risk difference, 6% [95% CI, 3.9%-8.9%]; P < .001). Surgical complications were associated with a significantly higher risk of out-of-network bills, compared with episodes with no complications (28% vs 20%, respectively; risk difference, 7% [95% CI, 5.8%-8.8%]; P < .001). Among 83 021 procedures performed at ambulatory surgery centers with in-network primary surgeons, 6.7% (95% CI, 5.8%-7.7%) included an out-of-network facility bill and 17.2% (95% CI, 15.7%-18.8%) included an out-of-network professional bill. Conclusions and Relevance: In this retrospective analysis of commercially insured patients who had undergone elective surgery at in-network facilities with in-network primary surgeons, a substantial proportion of operations were associated with out-of-network bills.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Honorários Médicos , Financiamento Pessoal/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Anestesiologistas/economia , Dedutíveis e Cosseguros , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistentes Médicos/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cirurgiões/economia , Estados Unidos
3.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e160-e170, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women make up an increasing proportion of the physician workforce in anaesthesia, but they are consistently under-represented in leadership and governance. METHODS: We performed an internet-based survey to investigate career opportunities in leadership and research amongst anaesthesiologists. We also explored gender bias attributable to workplace attitudes and economic factors. The survey instrument was piloted, translated into seven languages, and uploaded to the SurveyMonkey® platform. We aimed to collect between 7800 and 13 700 responses from at least 100 countries. Participant consent and ethical approval were obtained. A quantitative analysis was done with χ2 and Cramer's V as a measure of strength of associations. We used an inductive approach and a thematic content analysis for qualitative data on current barriers to leadership and research. RESULTS: The 11 746 respondents, 51.3% women and 48.7% men, represented 148 countries; 35 respondents identified their gender as non-binary. Women were less driven to achieve leadership positions (P<0.001; Cramer's V: 0.11). Being a woman was reported as a disadvantage for leadership and research (P<0.001 for both; Cramer's V: 0.47 and 0.34, respectively). Women were also more likely to be mistreated in the workplace (odds ratio: 10.6; 95% confidence interval: 9.4-11.9; P<0.001), most commonly by surgeons. Several personal, departmental, institutional, and societal barriers in leadership and research were identified, and strategies to overcome them were suggested. Lower-income countries were associated with a significantly smaller gender gap (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Whilst certain trends suggest improvements in the workplace, barriers to promotion of women in key leadership and research positions continue within anaesthesiology internationally.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisa Biomédica , Liderança , Sexismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): 251-260, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007241

RESUMO

Immunotherapy has revolutionised the treatment of oncologic malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors represent a new class of immunotherapy drugs. Although these drugs show promise, they are associated with immune-related adverse reactions. An increasing number of patients who undergo surgery will have had treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this narrative review article, we discuss their mechanism of action, therapeutic effects, pertinent toxicities, and address specific perioperative considerations for patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Papel do Médico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/imunologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
7.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e185-e186, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948680
8.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e155-e159, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973823

RESUMO

An increasing number of global initiatives aim to address the disconnection between the increasing number of women entering medicine and the persistence of gender imbalance in the physician anaesthesiologist workforce. This commentary complements the global movement's efforts to increase women's representation in academic anaesthesiology by presenting considerations for fostering inclusion for women in academic anaesthesiology from both the faculty and departmental leadership perspectives in a US academic anaesthesiology department.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos , Anestesiologistas , Anestesiologia , Médicas , Docentes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança
9.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e171-e177, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have confirmed gender imbalance in anaesthesia leadership. Whether women anaesthesiologists aspire to career advancement has not been reported. This European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) survey explored anaesthesiologists' motivation to advance their careers into leadership positions, and to identify reported barriers to advancement. METHODS: ESA members (n=10 033, 5245 men, 3759 women, 1029 undefined) were invited to complete a 25-item, Internet-based survey, and responses were analysed thematically. RESULTS: In total, 3048 ESA members (1706 women, 1342 men, 30% of all members) responded to the survey. The majority were specialists, married or with a partner, and have children; 47% of women and 48% of men wish to pursue a leadership career. Barriers to career promotion noted by women were primarily attributed to work-private time considerations (extra workload and less personal time [84%], responsibility for care of family [65%], lack of part-time work opportunities [67%]), and the shift away from clinical work [59%]). Men respondents indicated the same barriers although the proportions were significantly lower. Considerations related to the partner (lack of support, career development of partner) were last on the list of variables reported by women as barriers. Importantly, many women noted deficiencies in leadership (68%) and research education (55%), and women role models (41%) and self-confidence (44%). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest survey to date of women anaesthesiologists' view on career advancement. Despite the many barriers noted by women, they are as eager as men to assume leadership positions. The survey results help in identifying possible areas for intervention to assist in career development.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Liderança , Médicas , Adulto , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Mentores , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Sexismo
11.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e134-e147, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983412

RESUMO

Despite an increase in the proportion of women anaesthesiologists over time, women remain under-represented in academic and leadership positions, honour awards, and academic promotion. Current literature has identified several reasons for the observed gender disparity in anaesthesiology leadership and faculty positions, including unsupportive work environments, lack of mentorship, personal choices, childcare responsibilities, and active discrimination against women. A scoping review design was selected to examine the nature and extent of available research. Our review provides an overview of the literature that explores gender issues in anaesthesiology, identifies gaps in the literature, and appraises effective strategies to improve gender equity in anaesthesiology. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE up to July 2019, and included 30 studies for analysis. Most reports used retrospective or survey methodologies. The review shows that women anaesthesiologists face gender biases in the work environment, are under-represented in various positions of leadership or influence, and as authors. Work-life demands may impose a challenge. Motivation and interest in career advancement of women anaesthesiologists have not been well studied. Several strategies have been proposed, ranging from an individual to administrative level, which may help anaesthesiologists achieve equal representation of women in the field.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Médicas , Autoria , Distinções e Prêmios , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Sexismo
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18747, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A low first-pass success rate of radial artery cannulation was obtained when using the conventional palpation technique (C-PT) or conventional ultrasound-guided techniques, we; therefore, evaluate the effect of a modified long-axis in-plane ultrasound technique (M-LAINUT) in guiding radial artery cannulation in adults. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized and controlled clinical trial of 288 patients undergoing radial artery cannulation. Patients were randomized 1:1 to M-LAINUT or C-PT group at Fujian Medical University Union Hospital between 2017 and 2018. Radial artery cannulation was performed by 3 anesthesiologists with different experience. The outcome was the first and total radial artery cannulation success rates, the number of attempts and the cannulation time, and incidence of complications. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-five patients were statistically analyzed. The success rate of first attempt was 91.6% in the M-LAINUT group (n = 143) and 57.7% in the C-PT group (n = 142; P < .001) (odds ratio, 7.9; 95% confidence interval, 4.0-15.7). The total success rate (≤5 minutes and ≤3 attempts) in the M-LAINUT group was 97.9%, compared to 84.5% in the palpation group (P < .001) (odds ratio, 8.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-29.2). The total cannulation time was shorter and the number of attempts was fewer in the M-LAINUT group than that in the C-PT group (P < .05). The incidence of hematoma in the C-PT group was 19.7%, which was significantly higher than the 2.8% in the M-LAINUT group (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Modified long-axis in-plane ultrasound-guided radial artery cannulation can increase the first and total radial artery cannulation success rates, reduce the number of attempts, and shorten the total cannulation time in adults.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Palpação/métodos , Artéria Radial , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Idoso , Anestesiologistas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Anaesthesia ; 75(3): 313-322, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667827

RESUMO

Pulmonary aspiration of gastric content is a significant cause of anaesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. High-quality prospective randomised evidence to support prevention strategies, such as rapid sequence intubation, is difficult to generate due to well-described practical, ethical and methodological barriers. We aimed to generate an understanding of worldwide practice through surveying clinically practicing anaesthetists and airway experts. Our survey was designed to assess the influence of: departmental standards; patient factors; socio-economic factors; training; and supervision. We surveyed 10,003 anaesthetists who responded to an invitation to participate on LinkedIn. We then surveyed 16 international airway experts on the same content. When asked about a hypothetical patient with intestinal obstruction, respondents expressed preferences for [OR (95%CI)]: the head-up or -down position 4.26 (3.98-4.55), p < 0.001; nasogastric tube insertion 29.5 (26.9-32.3), p < 0.001; and the use of cricoid force 2.80 (2.62-3.00), p < 0.001, as compared with a hypothetical patient without intestinal obstruction also requiring rapid sequence intubation. Respondents from lower income countries were more likely to prefer [OR (95%CI]: the supine position 2.33 (2.00-2.63), p < 0.001; nasogastric tube insertion 1.29 (1.09-1.51), p = 0.002; and cricoid force application 2.54 (2.09-3.09), p < 0.001 as compared with respondents from higher income countries for a hypothetical patient with intestinal obstruction. This survey, which we believe is the largest of its kind, demonstrates that preferences for positioning, nasogastric tube use and cricoid force application during rapid sequence intubation vary substantially. Achieving agreed consensus may yield better training in the principles of rapid sequence intubation.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , /métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Anestesiologistas/educação , Anestesistas , Cartilagem Cricoide , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico , Posicionamento do Paciente , Pobreza , Estudos Prospectivos , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(1): 44-62, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653394

RESUMO

Most cases of serotonin toxicity are provoked by therapeutic doses of a combination of two or more serotonergic drugs, defined as drugs affecting the serotonin neurotransmitter system. Common serotonergic drugs include many antidepressants, antipsychotics, and opioid analgesics, particularly fentanyl, tramadol, meperidine (pethidine), and methadone, but rarely morphine and other related phenanthrenes. Symptoms of serotonin toxicity are attributable to an effect on monoaminergic transmission caused by an increased synaptic concentration of serotonin. The serotonin transporter (SERT) maintains low serotonin concentrations and is important for the reuptake of the neurotransmitter into the presynaptic nerve terminals. Some opioids inhibit the reuptake of serotonin by inhibiting SERT, thus increasing the plasma and synaptic cleft serotonin concentrations that activate the serotonin receptors. Opioids that are good inhibitors of SERT (tramadol, dextromethorphan, methadone, and meperidine) are most frequently associated with serotonin toxicity. Tramadol also has a direct serotonin-releasing action. Fentanyl produces an efflux of serotonin, and binds to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A and 5-HT2A receptors, whilst methadone, meperidine, and more weakly tapentadol, bind to 5-HT2A but not 5-HT1A receptors. The perioperative period is a time where opioids and other serotonergic drugs are frequently administered in rapid succession, sometimes to patients with other serotonergic drugs in their system. This makes the perioperative period a relatively risky time for serotonin toxicity to occur. The intraoperative recognition of serotonin toxicity is challenging as it can mimic other serious syndromes, such as malignant hyperthermia, sepsis, thyroid storm, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Anaesthetists must maintain a heightened awareness of its possible occurrence and a readiness to engage in early treatment to avoid poor outcomes.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Anestesiologistas , Serotoninérgicos/efeitos adversos , Síndrome da Serotonina/terapia , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome da Serotonina/diagnóstico
18.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1106): 20190781, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31868522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sedation for pediatric patients undergoing interventional procedures in radiology is in increasing demand. Once only anesthesiology-performed, there is a demand for sedation services to perform sedations for these procedures. However, the safety of performing long sedations by non-anesthesiologists in interventional radiology has not been reported. This pilot study aimed at describing a single center's experience and outcome with sedation. METHODS: This study reviews the sedations performed at a single center by a pediatric emergency physician who performed the sedation. The results regarding safety and satisfaction were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 52 sedations were documented. Four cases of significant adverse events and three adverse events occurred. In all cases, the procedures were completed. None of the patients required intubation or admission following the sedation. There was high satisfaction by the interventional radiologists. CONCLUSION: This small pilot study shows that sedations for procedures in interventional radiology can be performed safely and successfully by dedicated non-anesthesiology sedation services. This may be considered as an alternative when anesthesiology service is not available. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This small, single center pilot study examines the safety of sedation by a non-anesthesiologist for interventional radiology procedures. This may offer an additional method of performing procedures in the pediatric population while anesthesia is not readily available.


Assuntos
Sedação Consciente/métodos , Medicina de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Malformações Vasculares/cirurgia , Adolescente , Anestesiologistas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sedação Consciente/efeitos adversos , Medicina de Emergência/normas , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Segurança do Paciente
19.
Endocr Pract ; 25(12): 1346-1359, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682518

RESUMO

Objective: The development of these updated clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) was commissioned by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), The Obesity Society, American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, Obesity Medicine Association, and American Society of Anesthesiologists Boards of Directors in adherence with the AACE 2017 protocol for standardized production of CPGs, algorithms, and checklists. Methods: Each recommendation was evaluated and updated based on new evidence from 2013 to the present and subjective factors provided by experts. Results: New or updated topics in this CPG include: contextualization in an adiposity-based chronic disease complications-centric model, nuance-based and algorithm/checklist-assisted clinical decision-making about procedure selection, novel bariatric procedures, enhanced recovery after bariatric surgery protocols, and logistical concerns (including cost factors) in the current health-care arena. There are 85 numbered recommendations that have updated supporting evidence, of which 61 are revised and 12 are new. Noting that there can be multiple recommendation statements within a single numbered recommendation, there are 31 (13%) Grade A, 42 (17%) Grade B, 72 (29%) Grade C, and 101 (41%) Grade D recommendations. There are 858 citations, of which 81 (9.4%) are evidence level (EL) 1 (highest), 562 (65.5%) are EL 2, 72 (8.4%) are EL 3, and 143 (16.7%) are EL 4 (lowest). Conclusion: Bariatric procedures remain a safe and effective intervention for higher-risk patients with obesity. Clinical decision-making should be evidence based within the context of a chronic disease. A team approach to perioperative care is mandatory, with special attention to nutritional and metabolic issues. A1C = hemoglobin A1c; AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; ABCD = adiposity-based chronic disease; ACE = American College of Endocrinology; ADA = American Diabetes Association; AHI = Apnea-Hypopnea Index; ASA = American Society of Anesthesiologists; ASMBS = American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery; BMI = body mass index; BPD = biliopancreatic diversion; BPD/DS = biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch; CI = confidence interval; CPAP = continuous positive airway pressure; CPG = clinical practice guideline; CRP = C-reactive protein; CT = computed tomography; CVD = cardiovascular disease; DBCD = dysglycemia-based chronic disease; DS = duodenal switch; DVT = deep venous thrombosis; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; EFA = essential fatty acid; EL = evidence level; EN = enteral nutrition; ERABS = enhanced recovery after bariatric surgery; FDA = U.S. Food and Drug Administration; G4G = Guidelines for Guidelines; GERD = gastroesophageal reflux disease; GI = gastrointestinal; HCP = health-care professional(s); HTN = hypertension; ICU = intensive care unit; IGB = intragastric balloon(s); IV = intravenous; LAGB = laparoscopic adjustable gastric band; LAGBP = laparoscopic adjustable gastric banded plication; LGP = laparoscopic greater curvature (gastric) plication; LRYGB = laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; LSG = laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; MetS = metabolic syndrome; NAFLD = nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NASH = nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NSAID = nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; OA = osteoarthritis; OAGB = one-anastomosis gastric bypass; OMA = Obesity Medicine Association; OR = odds ratio; ORC = obesity-related complication(s); OSA = obstructive sleep apnea; PE = pulmonary embolism; PN = parenteral nutrition; PRM = pulmonary recruitment maneuver; RCT = randomized controlled trial; RD = registered dietician; RDA = recommended daily allowance; RYGB = Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; SG = sleeve gastrectomy; SIBO = small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; TOS = The Obesity Society; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone; T1D = type 1 diabetes; T2D = type 2 diabetes; VTE = venous thromboembolism; WE = Wernicke encephalopathy; WHO = World Health Organization.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Balão Gástrico , Derivação Gástrica , Laparoscopia , Obesidade , Anestesiologistas , Endocrinologistas , Humanos , Estados Unidos
20.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 33(2): 165-177, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582096

RESUMO

The impact of positive pressure ventilation extends the effect on lungs and gas exchange because the altered intra-thoracic pressure conditions influence determinants of cardiovascular function. These mechanisms are called heart-lung interactions, which conceptually can be divided into two components (1) The effect of positive airway pressure on the cardiovascular system, which may be more or less pronounced under various pathologic cardiac conditions, and (2) The effect of cyclic airway pressure swing on the cardiovascular system, which can be useful in the interpretation of the individual patient's current haemodynamic state. It is imperative for the anaesthesiologist to understand the fundamental mechanisms of heart-lung interactions, as they are a foundation for the understanding of optimal, personalised cardiovascular treatment of patients undergoing surgery in general anaesthesia. The aim of this review is thus to describe what the anaesthesiologist needs to know about heart-lung interactions.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/normas , Função Ventricular/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Humanos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos
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