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3.
Anesth Analg ; 132(4): e61-e63, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723200
4.
Anesthesiology ; 134(4): 526-540, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630039

RESUMO

Health care is undergoing major transformation with a shift from fee-for-service care to fee-for-value. The advent of new care delivery and payment models is serving as a driver for value-based care. Hospitals, payors, and patients increasingly expect physicians and healthcare systems to improve outcomes and manage costs. The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on surgical and procedural practices further highlights the urgency and need for anesthesiologists to expand their roles in perioperative care, and to impact system improvement. While there have been substantial advances in anesthesia care, perioperative complications and mortality after surgery remain a key concern. Anesthesiologists are in a unique position to impact perioperative health care through their multitude of interactions and influences on various aspects of the perioperative domain, by using the surgical experience as the first touchpoint to reengage the patient in their own health care. Among the key interventions that are being effectively instituted by anesthesiologists include proactive engagement in preoperative optimization of patients' health; personalization and standardization of care delivery by segmenting patients based upon their complexity and risk; and implementation of best practices that are data-driven and evidence-based and provide structure that allow the patient to return to their optimal state of functional, cognitive, and psychologic health. Through collaborative relationships with other perioperative stakeholders, anesthesiologists can consolidate their role as clinical leaders driving value-based care and healthcare transformation in the best interests of patients.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesiologia/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Papel do Médico , Humanos
6.
J Clin Anesth ; 70: 110192, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556792

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Anesthesiologists have a high prevalence of burnout with adverse effects on professionalism and safety. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an interactive anesthesiology educational program on the wellness of anesthesia providers and their children, as assessed by a modified Professional Fulfillment Index. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Perioperative area. PATIENTS: Thirty clinicians participated in the program. Twenty respondents, representing 67% of participants and each corresponding to a parent and their child or children, completed the post-event survey. INTERVENTIONS: An interactive anesthesiology educational program incorporating children, between the ages of five and eighteen years old, of anesthesia providers was held in the perioperative area. The program was held over four hours and was comprised of four sessions including pediatric anesthesia, neuroanesthesia, airway, and ultrasound stations. MEASUREMENTS: Anesthesia providers and their children were administered a post-event assessment, including a modified Professional Fulfillment Index and satisfaction survey. MAIN RESULTS: All twenty (100%) of respondents indicated it was "very true" or "completely true" that their child was happy with the program, and that it was worthwhile and satisfying to both the anesthesia provider and their child. Nineteen (95%) of reporting participants indicated it was "very true" or "completely true" that it was meaningful to have the department host such a program and 17 (85%) respondents felt their child now better understands the anesthesia work of the parent. All clinician volunteers indicated it was "very true" or "completely true" that they were contributing professionally during the program in ways that they valued most. CONCLUSION: An interactive educational wellness initiative provides an effective and feasible method for increasing professional fulfillment and satisfaction among anesthesia providers while educating our youngest generation of learners. Implementation of such a program may also occur with modifications such as televideo to maintain COVID-19 precautions.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/psicologia , Anestesiologia/educação , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(4): 896-902, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A 'cannot intubate, cannot oxygenate' (CICO) situation is rare in paediatric anaesthesia, but can always occur in children under certain emergency situations. There is a paucity of literature on specific procedures for securing an emergency invasive airway in children younger than 6 yr. A modified emergency front of neck access (eFONA) technique using a rabbit cadaver model was developed to teach invasive airway protection in a CICO situation in children. METHODS: After watching an instructional video of our eFONA technique (tracheotomy, intubation with Frova catheter over which a tracheal tube is inserted), 29 anaesthesiologists performed two separate attempts on rabbit cadavers. The primary outcome was the success rate and the performance time overall and in subgroups of trained and untrained participants. RESULTS: The overall success rate across 58 tracheotomies was 95% and the median performance time was 67 s (95% confidence interval [CI], 56-76). Performance time decreased from the first to the second attempt from 72 s (95% CI, 57-81) to 61 s (95% CI, 50-81). Performance time was 59 s (95% CI, 49-79) for untrained participants and 72 s (95% CI, 62-81) for trained participants. Clinical experience and age of the participants was not correlated with performance time, whereas the length of the tracheotomy incision showed a significant correlation (P=0.006). CONCLUSION: This eFONA training model for children facilitates rapid skill acquisition under realistic anatomical conditions to perform an emergency invasive airway in children younger than 2 yr.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Intubação Intratraqueal/normas , Manequins , Traqueotomia/educação , Traqueotomia/normas , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Anestesiologistas/educação , Anestesiologistas/normas , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Coelhos , Traqueotomia/métodos
9.
Public Health Rep ; 136(2): 143-147, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439097

RESUMO

The first few months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenged health care facilities worldwide in many ways. Inpatient and intensive care unit (ICU) beds were at a premium, and personnel shortages occurred during the initial peak of the pandemic. New York State was the hardest hit of all US states, with a high concentration of cases in New York City and, in particular, Bronx County. The governor of New York and leadership of hospitals in New York City called upon all available personnel to provide support and patient care during this health care crisis. This case study highlights the efforts of Jacobi Medical Center, located in the northeast Bronx, from March 1 through May 31, 2020, and its use of nontraditional health care personnel, including Department of Dentistry/OMFS (Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery) staff members, to provide a wide range of health care services. Dental staff members including ancillary personnel, residents, and attendings were redeployed and functioned throughout the facility. Dental anesthesiology residents provided medical services in support of their colleagues in a step-down COVID-19-dedicated ICU, providing intubation, ventilator management, and critical and palliative care. (Step-down units provide an intermediate level of care between ICUs and the general medical-surgical wards.) Clear communication of an acute need, a well-articulated mission, creative use of personnel, and dedicated staff members were evident during this challenging time. Although not routinely called upon to provide support in the medical and surgical inpatient areas, dental staff members may provide additional health care personnel during times of need.


Assuntos
/terapia , Odontólogos , Anestesiologistas , Hospitais , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Recursos Humanos
11.
Anesth Analg ; 132(3): 866-877, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anesthesiologists typically care for patients having a broad range of procedures. Outcomes might be improved when care is provided by caregivers experienced in particular types of surgery. We tested the hypothesis that intraoperative care provided by pairs of anesthesia caregivers having significant experience with a particular type of surgery reduces a composite of in-hospital death and 6 serious complications, including bleeding, cardiac, gastrointestinal, infectious, respiratory, and urinary complications, compared to care provided by pairs of anesthesia caregivers with less experience. METHODS: We included patients having surgery lasting at least 30 minutes. Using cluster analysis, attending anesthesiologists, and Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs) were identified as experienced or inexperienced caregivers for each type of surgery at the case level. We then compared surgeries for which anesthesia was provided by a pair of experienced caregivers versus a pair of inexperienced caregivers on our composite outcome. We estimated the average relative effect (ie, the exponentiated average log odds ratio) of receiving anesthesia from an experienced versus inexperienced caregiver pair across the 7 components of the composite outcome using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model to adjust for between-component correlation and with inverse propensity score weighing to adjust for potential confounding from a host of variables. RESULTS: A total of 8968 patients who received anesthesia care by an experienced pair were compared with 25,361 patients who received care from an inexperienced pair, adjusting for potential confounding. The incidence of composite complications (ie, any component event) was 7.6% (677/8968) for experienced pairs and 12% (2976/25,361) for inexperienced pairs (P < .001). Care by experienced pairs of caregivers was associated with lower odds of the composite outcome with an estimated average relative effect odds ratio across the individual components of 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.71), P < .001. Among the 7 components of the primary outcome, experienced pairs of providers had significantly lower estimated odds of bleeding, infection, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Anesthesia care by experienced pairs was associated with fewer bleeding complications, fewer infections, shorter hospitalization, and reduced in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Competência Clínica , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Especialização , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Tempo de Internação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Anesth Analg ; 132(4): 1120-1128, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anesthesiology residents' experiences and perspectives about their programs may be helpful in improving training. The goals of this repeated cross-sectional survey study are to determine: (1) the most important factors residents consider in choosing an anesthesiology residency, (2) the aspects of the clinical base year that best prepare residents for anesthesia clinical training, and what could be improved, (3) whether residents are satisfied with their anesthesiology residency and what their primary struggles are, and (4) whether residents believe their residency prepares them for proficiency in the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Core Competencies and for independent practice. METHODS: Anesthesiologists beginning their US residency training from 2013 to 2016 were invited to participate in anonymous, confidential, and voluntary self-administered online surveys. Resident cohort was defined by clinical anesthesia year 1, such that 9 survey administrations were included in this study-3 surveys for the 2013 and 2014 cohorts (clinical anesthesia years 1-3), 2 surveys for the 2015 cohort (clinical anesthesia years 1-2), and 1 survey for the 2016 cohort (clinical anesthesia year 1). RESULTS: The overall response rate was 36% (4707 responses to 12,929 invitations). On a 5-point Likert scale with 1 as "very unimportant" and 5 as "very important," quality of clinical experience (4.7-4.8 among the cohorts) and departmental commitment to education (4.3-4.5) were rated as the most important factors in anesthesiologists' choice of residency. Approximately 70% of first- and second-year residents agreed that their clinical base year prepared them well for anesthesiology residency, particularly clinical training experiences in critical care rotations, anesthesiology rotations, and surgery rotations/perioperative procedure management. Overall, residents were satisfied with their choice of anesthesiology specialty (4.4-4.5 on a 5-point scale among cohort-training levels) and their residency programs (4.0-4.1). The residency training experiences mostly met their expectations (3.8-4.0). Senior residents who reported any struggles highlighted academic more than interpersonal or technical difficulties. Senior residents generally agreed that the residency adequately prepared them for independent practice (4.1-4.4). Of the 6 ACGME Core Competencies, residents had the highest confidence in professionalism (4.7-4.9) and interpersonal and communication skills (4.6-4.8). Areas in residency that could be improved include the provision of an appropriate balance between education and service and allowance for sufficient time off to search and interview for a postresidency position. CONCLUSIONS: Anesthesiology residents in the United States indicated they most value quality of clinical training experiences and are generally satisfied with their choice of specialty and residency program.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/educação , Anestesiologia/educação , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Internato e Residência , Adulto , Anestesiologistas/psicologia , Escolha da Profissão , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Anesthesiology ; 134(1): 103-110, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncovering patients' biases toward characteristics of anesthesiologists may inform ways to improve the patient-anesthesiologist relationship. The authors previously demonstrated that patients prefer anesthesiologists displaying confident body language, but did not detect a sex bias. The effect of anesthesiologists' age on patient perceptions has not been studied. In this follow-up study, it was hypothesized that patients would prefer older-appearing anesthesiologists over younger-appearing anesthesiologists and male over female anesthesiologists. METHODS: Three hundred adult, English-speaking patients were recruited in the Preanesthesia Evaluation and Testing Center. Patients were randomized (150 per group) to view a set of four videos in random order. Each 90-s video featured an older female, older male, younger female, or younger male anesthesiologist reciting the same script describing general anesthesia. Patients ranked each anesthesiologist on confidence, intelligence, and likelihood of choosing the anesthesiologist to care for their family member. Patients also chose the one anesthesiologist who seemed most like a leader. RESULTS: Three hundred patients watched the videos and completed the questionnaire. Among patients younger than age 65 yr, the older anesthesiologists had greater odds of being ranked more confident (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.64; P < 0.001) and more intelligent (odds ratio, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.62 to 3.11; P < 0.001), and had greater odds of being considered a leader (odds ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.72 to 4.00; P < 0.001) when compared with younger anesthesiologists. The preference for older anesthesiologists was not observed in patients age 65 and older. Female anesthesiologists had greater odds of being ranked more confident (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.87; P = 0.003) and more likely to be chosen to care for one's family member (odds ratio, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.31; P < 0.001) compared with male anesthesiologists. The ranking preference for female anesthesiologists on these two measures was observed among white patients and not among nonwhite patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients preferred older anesthesiologists on the measures of confidence, intelligence, and leadership. Patients also preferred female anesthesiologists on the measures of confidence and likelihood of choosing the anesthesiologist to care for one's family member.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Competência Clínica , Pacientes , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesia Geral , Atitude , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Cinésica , Liderança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Anesth Analg ; 132(2): 545-555, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-quality and high-utility feedback allows for the development of improvement plans for trainees. The current manual assessment of the quality of this feedback is time consuming and subjective. We propose the use of machine learning to rapidly distinguish the quality of attending feedback on resident performance. METHODS: Using a preexisting databank of 1925 manually reviewed feedback comments from 4 anesthesiology residency programs, we trained machine learning models to predict whether comments contained 6 predefined feedback traits (actionable, behavior focused, detailed, negative feedback, professionalism/communication, and specific) and predict the utility score of the comment on a scale of 1-5. Comments with ≥4 feedback traits were classified as high-quality and comments with ≥4 utility scores were classified as high-utility; otherwise comments were considered low-quality or low-utility, respectively. We used RapidMiner Studio (RapidMiner, Inc, Boston, MA), a data science platform, to train, validate, and score performance of models. RESULTS: Models for predicting the presence of feedback traits had accuracies of 74.4%-82.2%. Predictions on utility category were 82.1% accurate, with 89.2% sensitivity, and 89.8% class precision for low-utility predictions. Predictions on quality category were 78.5% accurate, with 86.1% sensitivity, and 85.0% class precision for low-quality predictions. Fifteen to 20 hours were spent by a research assistant with no prior experience in machine learning to become familiar with software, create models, and review performance on predictions made. The program read data, applied models, and generated predictions within minutes. In contrast, a recent manual feedback scoring effort by an author took 15 hours to manually collate and score 200 comments during the course of 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Harnessing the potential of machine learning allows for rapid assessment of attending feedback on resident performance. Using predictive models to rapidly screen for low-quality and low-utility feedback can aid programs in improving feedback provision, both globally and by individual faculty.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/educação , Anestesiologia/educação , Competência Clínica , Mineração de Dados , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Feedback Formativo , Internato e Residência , Aprendizado de Máquina , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Estados Unidos
16.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim ; 68(2): 114-116, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371977
17.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 38(4): 344-347, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In light of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, how resources are managed and the critically ill are allocated must be reviewed. Although ethical recommendations have been published, strategies for dealing with overcapacity of critical care resources have so far not been addressed. OBJECTIVES: Assess expert opinion for allocation preferences regarding the growing imbalance between supply and demand for medical resources. DESIGN: A 10-item questionnaire was developed and sent to the most prominent members of the European Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care (ESAIC). SETTING: Survey via a web-based platform. PATIENTS: Respondents were members of the National Anaesthesiologists Societies Committee and Council Members of the ESAIC; 74 of 80 (92.5%), responded to the survey. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Responses were analysed thematically. The majority of respondents (83.8%), indicated that resources for COVID-19 were available at the time of the survey. Of the representatives of the ESAIC governing bodies, 58.9% favoured an allocation of excess critical care capacity: 69% wished to make them available to supraregional patients, whereas 30.9% preferred to keep the resources available for the local population. Regarding the type of distribution of resources, 35.3% preferred to make critical care available, 32.4% favoured the allocation of medical equipment and 32.4% wished to support both options. The majority (59.5%) supported the implementation of a central European institution to manage such resource allocation. CONCLUSION: Experts in critical care support the allocation of resources from centres with overcapacity. The results indicate the need for centrally administered allocation mechanisms that are not based on ethically disputable triage systems. It seems, therefore, that there is wide acceptance and solidarity among the European anaesthesiological community that local medical and human pressure should be relieved during a pandemic by implementing national and international re-allocation strategies among healthcare providers and healthcare systems.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Pandemias , Alocação de Recursos , Triagem , /epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos , Assistência à Saúde , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , União Europeia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rev. SOBECC ; 25(4): 234-240, 21-12-2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141401

RESUMO

Objetivo: Identificar e caracterizar o indicador de qualidade de taxa de mortalidade intraoperatória e pós-operatória. Método: Estudo retrospectivo, quantitativo, com delineamento descritivo, transversal e correlação entre variáveis, realizado de janeiro a dezembro de 2017 em 18.337 prontuários. Foram utilizados métodos de estatística descritiva e inferencial, analisando-se questões de probabilidade de uma população com base nos dados da amostra. Resultados: No período estudado, houve 18.337 pacientes com taxa de mortalidade intraoperatória de 1,75%, e a referente aos sete primeiros dias de pós-operatório foi de 1,76%. Destes, 191 (58,95%) eram do sexo masculino, 32,71% dos pacientes foram classificados como American Society of Anesthesiologists III, e 80,24% das cirurgias de caráter de urgência, classificadas como limpas, tiveram tempo médio de duração de até 120 minutos. Conclusão: A taxa de mortalidade encontrada na instituição está em conformidade com os valores descritos pelo Compromisso com a Qualidade Hospitalar. Houve correlação significativa entre as variáveis: tempo de cirurgia (até 120 minutos) e caráter de urgência; e classificação da cirurgia (limpa) e período de morte (até sete dias).


Objective: To identify and characterize the quality indicator of intraoperative and postoperative mortality rate. Method: This is a retrospective, quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with variable correlation, based on 18,337 medical records and conducted from January to December 2017. The methods used were descriptive and inferential statistics, with analysis of probability issues of a population according to sample data. Results: In the study period, 18,337 patients underwent surgery, with a mortality rate of 1.75% in the intraoperative period and 1.76% in the first seven postoperative days. Among them, 191 (58.95%) were men, and 32.71% were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists class III; 80.24% of urgent surgeries, considered clean, had a mean duration of up to 120 minutes. Conclusion: The mortality rate found in the facility is in accordance with the values described by the Commitment to Hospital Quality. The following variables showed a significant correlation: operative time (up to 120 minutes) and urgent surgery; and surgical contamination (clean) and death period (up to seven days).


Objetivo: Identificar el indicador de calidad de las tasas de mortalidad intraoperatoria y posoperatoria. Método: Estudio retrospectivo, cuantitativo, con diseño descriptivo, transversal y correlación entre variables, realizado de enero a diciembre de 2017 en 18.337 registros. Se utilizaron métodos de estadística descriptiva e inferencial, analizando la probabilidad de una población a partir de los datos muestrales. Resultados: Durante el período de estudio, hubo 18.337 pacientes, con una tasa de mortalidad intraoperatoria del 1,75%, y la de los primeros siete días postoperatorios del 1,76%. De estos, 191 (58,95%) eran hombres, 32,71% de los pacientes fueron clasificados como American Society of Anesthesiologists III, 80,24% de las cirugías urgentes, clasificadas como limpias, tuvieron una duración media de hasta 120 minutos. Conclusión: La tasa de mortalidad encontrada en la Institución está de acuerdo con los valores descritos por el Compromiso con la Calidad Hospitalaria. Hubo una correlación significativa entre las variables: tiempo de cirugía (hasta 120 minutos) y urgencia; clasificación de cirugía (limpia) y período de muerte (hasta 7 días).


Assuntos
Humanos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Mortalidade , Período Intraoperatório , Pacientes , Cirurgia Geral , Anestesiologistas
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The WHO has included burnout as an occupational phenomenon in the ICD-11. According to the WHO, burnout is a syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of feelings of guilt and burnout on health in Polish anesthesiologists. Alcohol and tobacco intake, psychosomatic disorders, and depression were assessed. METHODS: The study had a non-randomized cross-sectional character. The sample consisted of 372 Polish anesthesiologists. Burnout was measured by the Spanish burnout inventory. RESULTS: Post hoc analysis for burnout consequences: depression (F(5,366) = 17.51, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.193), psychosomatic disorders (F(5,366) = 13.11, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.152), and tobacco intake (F(5,366) = 6.23, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.078), showed significant differences between burnout with and without the highest levels of feelings of guilt. All the instruments applied were reliable. CONCLUSIONS: Depression, psychosomatic disorders, and alcohol and tobacco intake are suspected to be consequences of the highest guilt levels related to burnout, i.e., Profile 2 according to the burnout model of Gil-Monte. Participation in prevention programs is recommended for these cases.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Culpa , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco
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