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5.
Anaesthesia ; 75(3): 313-322, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667827

RESUMO

Pulmonary aspiration of gastric content is a significant cause of anaesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. High-quality prospective randomised evidence to support prevention strategies, such as rapid sequence intubation, is difficult to generate due to well-described practical, ethical and methodological barriers. We aimed to generate an understanding of worldwide practice through surveying clinically practicing anaesthetists and airway experts. Our survey was designed to assess the influence of: departmental standards; patient factors; socio-economic factors; training; and supervision. We surveyed 10,003 anaesthetists who responded to an invitation to participate on LinkedIn. We then surveyed 16 international airway experts on the same content. When asked about a hypothetical patient with intestinal obstruction, respondents expressed preferences for [OR (95%CI)]: the head-up or -down position 4.26 (3.98-4.55), p < 0.001; nasogastric tube insertion 29.5 (26.9-32.3), p < 0.001; and the use of cricoid force 2.80 (2.62-3.00), p < 0.001, as compared with a hypothetical patient without intestinal obstruction also requiring rapid sequence intubation. Respondents from lower income countries were more likely to prefer [OR (95%CI]: the supine position 2.33 (2.00-2.63), p < 0.001; nasogastric tube insertion 1.29 (1.09-1.51), p = 0.002; and cricoid force application 2.54 (2.09-3.09), p < 0.001 as compared with respondents from higher income countries for a hypothetical patient with intestinal obstruction. This survey, which we believe is the largest of its kind, demonstrates that preferences for positioning, nasogastric tube use and cricoid force application during rapid sequence intubation vary substantially. Achieving agreed consensus may yield better training in the principles of rapid sequence intubation.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , /métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Anestesiologistas/educação , Anestesistas , Cartilagem Cricoide , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico , Posicionamento do Paciente , Pobreza , Estudos Prospectivos , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Anaesthesia ; 75(2): 234-246, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788789

RESUMO

The location of care for many brain-injured patients has changed since 2012 following the development of major trauma centres. Advances in management of ischaemic stroke have led to the urgent transfer of many more patients. The basis of care has remained largely unchanged, however, with emphasis on maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion as the key to preventing secondary injury. Organisational aspects and training for transfers are highlighted, and we have included an expanded section on paediatric transfers. We have also provided a table with suggested blood pressure parameters for the common types of brain injury but acknowledge that there is little evidence for many of our recommendations. These guidelines remain a mix of evidence-based and consensus-based statements. We have received assistance from many organisations representing clinicians who care for these patients, and we believe our views represent the best of current thinking and opinion. We encourage departments to review their own practice using our suggestions for audit and quality improvement.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/terapia , Transferência de Pacientes/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Transporte de Pacientes/métodos , Anestesiologia , Anestesistas , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas
9.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(2): 206-213, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short educational programmes are important in building global anaesthesia workforce capacity. The Vital Anaesthesia Simulation Training (VAST) course is a 3-day immersive simulation-based programme concentrating on core clinical challenges and non-technical skills required by anaesthesia providers in low-resource settings. METHODS: This mixed methods study prospectively evaluated the impact of VAST in Rwanda. Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) scores were quantitatively assessed for 30 course participants at three time points (pre-, post-, and 4 months after VAST). Qualitative data were gathered during focus groups (4 months after VAST) to learn of participants' experiences implementing new knowledge into clinical practice. RESULTS: The ANTS total scores improved from pre- (11.0 [2.3]) (mean [standard deviation]) to post-test (14.0 [1.6]), and improvements were maintained at retention (14.2 [1.7]). A similar pattern was observed when data were analysed using the four ANTS categories (all P<0.001). The key theme that emerged during focus group discussions was that the use of cognitive aids and clinical algorithms, repeated and reinforced across simulated scenarios, encouraged a systematic approach to patient care. The participants attributed the systematic approach to improving their problem-solving skills and confidence, particularly during emergencies. They found value in well-functioning teams and shared decision-making. After VAST, the participants described empowerment to advocate for better patient care and system improvement. CONCLUSIONS: VAST offers a simulation-based training to anaesthesia providers working in low-resource settings. Skills retention and self-reported application of learning into the workplace reflect the scope of impact of this training.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/educação , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Anestesistas , Países em Desenvolvimento , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ruanda
11.
Anaesthesia ; 75(1): 96-108, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729019

RESUMO

Anaesthetists are thought to be at increased risk of suicide amongst the medical profession. The aims of the following guidelines are: increase awareness of suicide and associated vulnerabilities, risk factors and precipitants; to emphasise safe ways to respond to individuals in distress, both for them and for colleagues working alongside them; and to support individuals, departments and organisations in coping with a suicide.


Assuntos
Anestesistas/psicologia , Anestesistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
14.
Anaesthesia ; 74(12): 1619, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681998
17.
Anaesth Intensive Care ; 47(3_suppl): 6-16, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674197

RESUMO

Dr Ian Hamilton McDonald (1923-2019) was a pioneer of paediatric anaesthesia and intensive care at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. He first started working at the hospital in the 1940s, later doing further training from 1953-1955 at the Nuffield Department of Anaesthesia in Oxford under Sir Robert Macintosh. McDonald returned to Melbourne as assistant director supporting Dr Margaret (Gretta) McClelland as the director of anaesthesia, together pioneering the development of a major paediatric anaesthesia department. McDonald, along with Dr John Stocks (1930-1974), was intimately involved in pioneering prolonged nasotracheal intubation in children, following on from earlier work by Dr Bernard Brandstater (an Australian working in Beirut), and Drs Tom Allen and Ian Steven in Adelaide. Ian McDonald was an influential, highly respected and greatly loved paediatric anaesthetist who had a profound influence on the early days of paediatric anaesthesia in Australia.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/história , Pediatria/história , Anestesistas , Austrália , Criança , Cuidados Críticos , História do Século XX , Humanos
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