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2.
Angiol Sosud Khir ; 27(3): 28-32, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528586

RESUMO

Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is an operation of choice in rendering hi-tech care for patients with aneurysms of the infrarenal aortic portion. The most frequently performed reoperations account for cases related to removing endoleaks. The article deals with assessing the presence of various types of endoleaks depending on the time elapsed after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair by means of duplex scanning and multislice computed tomography. Duplex scanning proved highly informative in detecting various types of endoleaks, being comparable with the findings of multislice computed tomography (p=0.917). The presence or absence of aneurysmal cavity coloration in the mode of Doppler colour mapping makes it possible to dynamically follow up the process of thrombogenesis. For timely diagnosis of complications after endoprosthetic repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms, the use of ultrasound duplex scanning is considered to be an informative and safe technique, possessing potential possibility of detecting endoleaks and, in our opinion, may be included into the protocol of follow-up of patients in the early postoperative period.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Endoleak/diagnóstico por imagem , Endoleak/etiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ultrassonografia
3.
Angiol Sosud Khir ; 27(3): 85-93, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528592

RESUMO

Presented herein are the results of treatment of 137 patients with infrarenal aneurysms of the abdominal portion of the aorta in a combination with ischaemic heart disease. Severity of lesions to the coronary bed and the risk of cardiac complications were assessed according to the SYNTAX score. Depending on severity of angina pectoris and the clinical course of infrarenal aortic aneurysms, we used different tactical approaches to operative treatment of patients. In a low risk of coronary complications, we performed isolated prosthetic repair or endoprosthetic reconstruction of the abdominal aorta. In patients with haemodynamically significant lesions of the coronary bed and positive non-invasive tests, the first stage consisted in coronary artery bypass grafting or stenting of coronary arteries taking into account the risk of cardiac complications according to the SYNTAX Score. The second stage consisted in prosthetic repair or endoprosthetic reconstruction of the abdominal aorta. The terms of the second stage differed and were determined by the course of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In symptomatic large aneurysms (more than 8 cm), prosthetic repair of the abdominal aorta was carried out within 2 weeks after previous stenting of coronary arteries. Simultaneous myocardial revascularization and abdominal aortic reconstruction were performed only in patients with severe angina pectoris, lesions of the trunk of the left coronary artery, three-vessel lesions of the coronary bed, high risk of cardiac complications according to the SYNTAX Score and a complicated or symptomatic course of an infrarenal aortic aneurysm. During implantation of stent grafts into the abdominal aorta there were neither lethal outcomes nor cardiac complications. In open operations, the 30-day mortality rate amounted to 2.2%, with the 5-year survival rate of 92%.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Aneurisma Aórtico , Isquemia Miocárdica , Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/complicações , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Trials ; 22(1): 639, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heparin is used worldwide for 70 years during all non-cardiac arterial procedures (NCAP) to reduce thrombo-embolic complications (TEC). But heparin also increases blood loss causing possible harm for the patient. Heparin has an unpredictable effect in the individual patient. The activated clotting time (ACT) can measure the effect of heparin. Currently, this ACT is not measured during NCAP as the standard of care, contrary to during cardiac interventions, open and endovascular. A RCT will evaluate if ACT-guided heparinization results in less TEC than the current standard: a single bolus of 5000 IU of heparin and no measurements at all. A goal ACT of 200-220 s should be reached during ACT-guided heparinization and this should decrease (mortality caused by) TEC, while not increasing major bleeding complications. This RCT will be executed during open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery, as this is a standardized procedure throughout Europe. METHODS: Seven hundred fifty patients, who will undergo open AAA repair of an aneurysm originating below the superior mesenteric artery, will be randomised in 2 treatment arms: 5000 IU of heparin and no ACT measurements and no additional doses of heparin, or a protocol of 100 IU/kg bolus of heparin and ACT measurements after 5 min, and then every 30 min. The goal ACT is 200-220 s. If the ACT after 5 min is < 180 s, 60 IU/kg will be administered; if the ACT is between 180 and 200 s, 30 IU/kg. If the ACT is > 220 s, no extra heparin is given, and the ACT is measured after 30 min and then the same protocol is applied. The expected incidence for the combined endpoint of TEC and mortality is 19% for the 5000 IU group and 11% for the ACT-guided group. DISCUSSION: The ACTION-1 trial is an international RCT during open AAA surgery, designed to show superiority of ACT-guided heparinization compared to the current standard of a single bolus of 5000 IU of heparin. A significant reduction in TEC and mortality, without more major bleeding complications, must be proven with a relevant economic benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION {2A}: NTR NL8421 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04061798 . Registered on 20 August 2019 EudraCT 2018-003393-27 TRIAL REGISTRATION: DATA SET {2B}: Data category Information Primary registry and trial identifying number ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT04061798 Date of registration in primary registry 20-08-2019 Secondary identifying numbers NTR: NL8421 EudraCT: 2018-003393-27 Source(s) of monetary or material support ZonMw: The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development Dijklander Ziekenhuis Amsterdam UMC Primary sponsor Dijklander Ziekenhuis Secondary sponsor(s) N/A Contact for public queries A.M. Wiersema, MD, PhD Arno@wiersema.nu 0031-229 208 206 Contact for scientific queries A.M. Wiersema, MD, PhD Arno@wiersema.nu 0031-229 208 206 Public title ACT Guided Heparinization During Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair (ACTION-1) Scientific title ACTION-1: ACT Guided Heparinization During Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair, a Randomised Trial Countries of recruitment The Netherlands. Soon the recruitment will start in Germany Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied Abdominal aortic aneurysm, arterial disease, surgery Intervention(s) ACT-guided heparinization 5000 IU of heparin Key inclusion and exclusion criteria Ages eligible for the study: ≥18 years Sexes eligible for the study: both Accepts healthy volunteers: no Inclusion criteria: Study type Interventional Allocation: randomized Intervention model: parallel assignment Masking: single blind (patient) Primary purpose: treatment Phase IV Date of first enrolment March 2020 Target sample size 750 Recruitment status Recruiting Primary outcome(s) The primary efficacy endpoint is 30-day mortality and in-hospital mortality during the same admission. The primary safety endpoint is the incidence of bleeding complications according to E-CABG classification, grade 1 and higher. Key secondary outcomes Serious complications as depicted in the Suggested Standards for Reports on Aneurysmal disease: all complications requiring re-operation, longer hospital stay, all complications.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(3): 367-378, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previously, reports have shown that women experience a higher mortality rate than men after elective open (OAR) and endovascular (EVAR) repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). With recent improvements in overall AAA repair outcomes, this study aimed to identify whether sex specific disparity has been ameliorated by modern practice, and to define sex specific differences in peri- and post-operative complications and pre-operative status; factors which may contribute to poor outcome. METHODS: This was a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of sex specific differences in 30 day mortality and complications conducted according to PRISMA guidance (Prospero registration CRD42020176398). Papers with ≥ 50 women, reporting sex specific outcomes, following intact primary AAA repair, from 2000 to 2020 worldwide were included; with separate analyses for EVAR and OAR. Data sources were Medline, Embase, and CENTRAL databases 2005 - 2020 searched using ProQuest Dialog. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies (371 215 men, 65 465 women) were included. Meta-analysis and meta-regression indicated that sex specific odds ratios (ORs) for 30 day mortality were unchanged from 2000 to 2020. Mortality risk was higher in women for OAR and more so for EVAR (OR [95% CI] 1.49 [1.37 - 1.61]; 1.86 [1.59 - 2.17], respectively) and this remained following multivariable risk adjustment. Transfusion, pulmonary complications, and bowel ischaemia were more common in women after OAR and EVAR (OAR: ORs 1.81 [1.60 - 2.04], 1.40 [1.28 - 1.53], 1.54 [1.36 - 1.75]; EVAR: ORs 2.18 [2.08 - 2.29] 1.44 [1.17 - 1.77], 1.99 [1.51 - 2.62], respectively). Arterial injury, limb ischaemia, renal and cardiac complications were more common in women after EVAR (ORs 3.02 [1.62 - 5.65], 2.13 [1.48 - 3.06], 1.46 [1.22 - 1.72] and 1.19 [1.03 - 1.37], respectively); the latter was associated with greater mortality risk on meta-regression. CONCLUSION: Increased mortality risk for women following AAA repair remains. Women had a higher incidence of transfusion, pulmonary and bowel complications after EVAR and OAR. Higher mortality risk ratios for EVAR may result from cardiac complications, additional arterial injury, and embolisation, leading to renal and limb ischaemia. These findings indicate possible causes for observed outcome disparities and targets for quality improvement.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Análise de Regressão , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(3): 380-386, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The epidemiology of sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatation (SAA) 25 - 29 mm is not fully understood, and the management of SAA is debated. Lack of evidence is particularly problematic in the screening setting. This study aimed to evaluate the long term outcome of men with screen detected SAAs, focusing on progression to an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and on the AAAs reaching the threshold diameter for surgical repair. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2015, all 65 year old men with a screen detected SAA in middle Sweden were re-examined with ultrasound after five and 10 years. The primary outcomes were expansion to AAA ≥ 30 mm and progression to AAA ≥ 55 mm. Secondary outcomes were risk factors for progression, repair rate, and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1 020 65 year old men with a SAA were identified, of whom 940 (92.2%; 95% confidence interval 91.0 - 93.8) had follow up. The Kaplan-Meier estimated incidence of AAA ≥ 30 mm development after the five year follow up (which was de facto carried out after a mean of 4.9 years) was 65.8% (61.6 - 69.4), all < 55 mm. The corresponding KM-estimated incidence after the 10 year follow up (carried out after a mean of 11.9 years) was 95.1% (90.1 - 97.4), and 29.7% (18.0 - 39.7) reached ≥ 55 mm. All 41 SAAs eventually expanding to ≥ 55 mm were ≥ 30 mm at the five year follow up. Of these, 32 had surgical repair with 100% survival, six have scheduled repairs, and three (7.3%) were unfit for repair. The KM estimated all cause mortality rates at five and 10 years were 7.0% and 17.9%, respectively, with no proven AAA related deaths. CONCLUSION: A majority of SAAs eventually progress to an AAA, of which 30% are estimated to eventually reach the threshold for repair within 10 years. A follow up policy with an ultrasound examination after five years can safely and effectively identify those SAAs at risk of developing into clinically significant AAAs needing repair and may be considered for anyone with reasonably good life expectancy.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Progressão da Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia
7.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(3): 388-398, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there is a correlation between institutional or surgeon case volume and outcomes in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA). DATA SOURCES: The Healthcare Database Advanced Search interface developed by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence was used to search MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL. REVIEW METHODS: The systematic review complied with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines with the protocol registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020213121). Prognostic studies were considered comparing outcomes of patients with rAAA undergoing repair in high and low volume institutions or by high and low volume surgeons. Pooled estimates for peri-operative mortality were calculated using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), applying the Mantel-Haenszel method. Analysis of adjusted outcome estimates was performed with the generic inverse variance method. RESULTS: Thirteen studies reporting a total of 120 116 patients were included. Patients treated in low volume centres had a statistically significantly higher peri-operative mortality than those treated in high volume centres (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.22 - 1.59). Subgroup analysis showed a mortality difference in favour of high volume centres for both endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR; OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.11 - 2.35) and open repair (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.25 - 1.81). Adjusted analysis showed a benefit of treatment in high volume centres for open repair (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.21 - 2.33) but not for EVAR (OR 1.42, 95% CI 0.84 - 2.41). Differences in peri-operative mortality between low and high volume surgeons were not statistically significant for either EVAR (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.59 - 1.89) or open surgical repair (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.87 - 1.63). CONCLUSION: A high institutional volume may result in a reduction of peri-operative mortality following surgery for rAAA. This peri-operative survival advantage is more pronounced for open surgery than EVAR. Individual surgeon caseload was not found to have a significant impact on outcomes.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Ruptura Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Hospitais com Baixo Volume de Atendimentos , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Ruptura Aórtica/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Competência Clínica , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(29): 2288-2292, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333943

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the emergency management process of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA), and analyze the perioperative mortality factors of different surgical methods. Methods: The emergency data and hospitalization data of 91 patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from June 2010 to June 2019 were retrospectively analyzed.Twelve of the patients died preoperatively due to excessive blood loss, and the remaining 79 patients were hospitalized for open surgery (OSR) or endovascular repair (EVAR).The differences in age, time to hospital arrival, emergency preparation time, first creatinine value, emergency infusion volume, preoperative drop in blood pressure, preoperative use of vasoactive drugs and iliac artery involvement were compared between preoperative death group (n=12) and preoperative survival group (n=79), OSR group (n=50) and EVAR group (n=29), postoperative death group (n=23) and postoperative survival group (n=56). Results: Seventy-nine patients received open surgery or endovascular repair, and 23 died after operation. Age, time to hospital arrival, first creatinine value and emergency infusion volume were (77±11) years, (18±5)h, (469±150) µmol/L, (4 140±1 743) ml in the preoperative death group and (70±10) years, (12±8) h, (228±174) µmol/L, (1 358±1 211) ml in the preoperative survival group, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). There were no significant differences in preoperative data, intraoperative treatment and postoperative perioperative mortality between the open surgery group and the endovascular repair group (all P>0.05). The intraoperative blood loss, operation time and aortic occlusion rate in the endovascular repair group were 100 (50, 175) ml, (3.2±0.9) h, 13.8%, respectively, which were better than that in the open surgery group 1700 (600, 3425) ml, (5.2±1.1) h, 100%. The differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Age, emergency preparation time, first creatinine value, emergency infusion volume, blood pressure decline rate and vasoactive drug utilization rate in the death group were (77±8) years, (4.1±1.7) h, (456±172) µmol/L, (2 024±1 687) ml, 100%, 100%, respectively, and (68±10) years, (2.7±2.2) h, (135±26) µmol/L, (1 085±825) ml, 21.4%, 12.5% in the survival group, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Age, emergency preparation time, first creatinine value, emergency infusion volume, decreased blood pressure and use of vasoactive drugs are all associated with perioperative death in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. EVAR surgery is a better choice if conditions exist.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Ruptura Aórtica , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Ruptura Aórtica/cirurgia , Tratamento de Emergência , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(3): 400-407, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAA) are treated by endovascular aneurysm repair (rEVAR) increasingly often. Despite rEVAR being a minimally invasive method, abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) remains a significant post-operative threat. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ACS after rEVAR, including aortic morphological features. METHODS: The Swedish vascular registry (Swedvasc) was assessed for ACS after rEVAR in the period 2008 - 2015. All patients identified were compared with controls (i.e., patients who did not develop ACS after rEVAR), matched by centre and repair date. Case records were reviewed, and radiology images analysed in a core laboratory. Comparisons were performed with respect to physiological and radiological risk factors. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 40 patients with ACS and 68 controls. Pre-operatively, patients with ACS had a lower blood pressure (BP) than controls (median 70 mmHg vs. 97 mmHg; p < .001). Intra-operatively, they had aortic balloon occlusion more often (55.0% vs. 10.3%; p < .001) and received more transfusions than controls (median nine units of packed red blood cells [pRBC] vs. two units; p < .001). Ninety-seven per cent of those who developed ACS had a pre-operative BP < 70 mmHg, aortic balloon occlusion, or received more than five pRBC unit transfusions. Treatment outside the instructions for use did not differ between patients and controls (57.5% vs. 54.4%; p = .84), and neither did the pre-operative patency of the inferior mesenteric artery (57.1% vs. 63.9%; p = .52) nor the number of visible lumbar arteries on pre-operative imaging (2 vs. 4; p = .014). In multivariable logistic regression, the number of intra-operative transfusions were predictive of ACS (p < .001), while pre-operative hypotension (p = .32) and aortic balloon occlusion (p = .018) were not. CONCLUSION: ACS after rEVAR is mainly associated with physiological factors and is unlikely to develop without the presence of a pre-operative BP < 70 mmHg, the need for an aortic occlusion balloon, or more than five intra-operative pRBC unit transfusions. Treatment outside the IFU or any other morphological factor were not associated with a risk of ACS.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Ruptura Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Oclusão com Balão , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 27(4): 570-572, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313244

RESUMO

Type III endoleak is an uncommon but life-threatening complication of endovascular aortic repair, and such leaks at certain sites can be challenging to treat through an endovascular route. A 77-year-old man presented with severe abdominal pain and was found to have an abdominal aortic aneurysm with contained rupture due to an unfavorably cited type IIIb endoleak. He was successfully treated with an endovascular approach using bilateral iliac limb proximal extension combined with embolization of endoleak sac, endoleak site and the feeding recess, preserving flow through both the iliac limbs obviating the need for an additional femorofemoral bypass. The patient improved clinically and had a favorable long-term follow-up profile.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Prótese Vascular , Endoleak/diagnóstico por imagem , Endoleak/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 194(2-3): 121-134, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227656

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate patient radiation dose during fluoroscopically guided endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) procedures. Fluoroscopy time (FT) and kerma-area product (KAP) were recorded from 87 patients that underwent EVAR procedures with a mobile C-arm fluoroscopy system. Effective dose (ED) and organs' doses were calculated utilising appropriate conversion coefficients based on the recorded KAP values. Entrance surface dose (ESD) was calculated based on KAP values and technical parameters. The mean FT was 22.7 min (range 6.4-76.8 min), resulting in a mean KAP of 36.6 Gy cm2 (range 2.0-167.8 Gy cm2), a mean ED of 6.2 mSv (range 0.3-28.5 mSv) and a mean ESD of 458 mGy (range 26-2098 mGy). The corresponding median values were 17.4 min, 25.6 Gy cm2, 4.4 mSv and 320 mGy. The threshold of 2 Gy for skin erythema was exceeded in two procedures for a focus-to-skin distance (FSD) of 40 cm and six procedures when an FSD of 30 cm was considered. The highest doses absorbed by the adrenals, kidneys, spleen and pancreas and ranged between 3.7 and 313.3 mGy (average 66.8 mGy), 3.3 and 285.1 mGy (average 60.8 mGy), 1.3 and 111.1 mGy (average 23.7 mGy), 1.1 and 92.1 mGy (average 19.6 mGy), respectively. A wide range of patient doses was reported in the literature. The radiation dose received by the patients was comparative or lower than most of the previously reported values. However, higher doses can be revealed due to the X-ray system's non-optimum use and extended FTs, mainly affected by complex clinical conditions, patients' body habitus and vascular surgeon experience. The large variation of patient doses highlights the potential to optimise the EVAR procedure by considering the balance between the radiation dose and the required image quality. Additional studies need to be conducted in increasing the vascular surgeons' awareness regarding patient dose and radiation protection issues during EVAR procedures.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Proteção Radiológica , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Doses de Radiação , Radiografia Intervencionista
16.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(3): 409-421, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with severe infrarenal aortic neck angulation have worse outcomes than those without severe angulation after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). DATA SOURCES: The HDAS (Healthcare Database Advanced Search) interface developed by NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) was used to search electronic bibliographic databases. REVIEW METHODS: Studies comparing outcomes of standard EVAR in patients with and without severe neck angulation were considered. Pooled outcome estimates were calculated using the odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), using the Mantel-Haenszel or inverse variance method, as appropriate. Random effects models of meta-analysis were applied. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) methodology was used to assess the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: Ten studies reporting a total of 7 371 patients (1 576 with severe neck angulation and 5 795 without) were included. The studies reported medium term follow up. No statistically significant difference was found for the primary outcomes (overall mortality: HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.88 - 1.85, low certainty; aneurysm related mortality: HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.80 - 1.44, moderate certainty; aneurysm rupture: HR 1.41, 95% CI 0.66 - 2.99, low certainty). The hazard of type Ia endoleak (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.32 - 2.61) and re-intervention was higher in patient with severe angulation (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.54), but there was no significant difference in the odds of adjunctive procedures (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.48 - 3.11), or the hazard of sac expansion (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.44 - 1.55) or stent migration (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.78 - 1.92). Meta-analysis of studies that conducted multiple Cox regression analysis showed no significant difference for any of the primary outcomes. CONCLUSION: Severe neck angulation may not be a poor prognostic indicator for overall/aneurysm related mortality and rupture in the medium term after EVAR but may increase the risk of late type 1 endoleaks and re-intervention; therefore, patients require close surveillance.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Ruptura Aórtica/epidemiologia , Ruptura Aórtica/etiologia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Endoleak/epidemiologia , Endoleak/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Prognóstico , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Eur J Radiol ; 142: 109843, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate sparse sampling computed tomography (SpSCT) for detection of endoleak after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) at different dose levels in terms of subjective image criteria and diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: Twenty clinically indicated computed tomography aortic angiography (CTA) scans were used to obtain simulated low-dose scans with 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% of the applicated clinical dose, resulting in five dose levels (DL). From full sampling (FS) data sets, every second (2-SpSCT) or fourth (4-SpSCT) projection was used to generate simulated sparse sampling scans. All examinations were evaluated by four blinded radiologists regarding subjective image criteria and diagnostic performance. RESULTS: Sensitivity was higher than 93% in 4-SpSCT at the 25% DL which is the same as with FS at full dose (100% DL). High accuracies and relative high AUC-values were obtained for 2- and 4-SpSCT down to the 12.5% DL, while for FS similar values were shown down to 25% DL only. Subjective image quality was significantly higher for 4-SpSCT compared to FS at each dose level. More than 90% of all cases were rated with a high or medium confidence for FS and 2-SpSCT at the 50% DL and for 4-SpSCT at the 25% DL. At DL 25% and 12.5%, more cases showed a high confidence using 2- and 4-SpSCT compared with FS. CONCLUSIONS: Via SpSCT, a dose reduction down to a 25% dose level (mean effective dose of 1.49 mSv in the current study) for CTA is possible while maintaining high image quality and full diagnostic confidence.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Aortografia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Endoleak/diagnóstico por imagem , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013662, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an abnormal dilation in the diameter of the abdominal aorta of 50% or more of the normal diameter or greater than 3 cm in total. The risk of rupture increases with the diameter of the aneurysm, particularly above a diameter of approximately 5.5 cm. Perioperative and postoperative morbidity is common following elective repair in people with AAA. Prehabilitation or preoperative exercise is the process of enhancing an individual's functional capacity before surgery to improve postoperative outcomes. Studies have evaluated exercise interventions for people waiting for AAA repair, but the results of these studies are conflicting. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of exercise programmes on perioperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) databases, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers to 6 July 2020. We also examined the included study reports' bibliographies to identify other relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining exercise interventions compared with usual care (no exercise; participants maintained normal physical activity) for people waiting for AAA repair. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed the included studies, extracted data and resolved disagreements by discussion. We assessed the methodological quality of studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and collected results related to the outcomes of interest: post-AAA repair mortality; perioperative and postoperative complications; length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay; length of hospital stay; number of days on a ventilator; change in aneurysm size pre- and post-exercise; and quality of life. We used GRADE to evaluate certainty of the evidence. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). MAIN RESULTS: This review identified four RCTs with a total of 232 participants with clinically diagnosed AAA deemed suitable for elective intervention, comparing prehabilitation exercise therapy with usual care (no exercise). The prehabilitation exercise therapy was supervised and hospital-based in three of the four included trials, and in the remaining trial the first session was supervised in hospital, but subsequent sessions were completed unsupervised in the participants' homes. The dose and schedule of the prehabilitation exercise therapy varied across the trials with three to six sessions per week and a duration of one hour per session for a period of one to six weeks. The types of exercise therapy included circuit training, moderate-intensity continuous exercise and high-intensity interval training. All trials were at a high risk of bias. The certainty of the evidence for each of our outcomes was low to very low. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence because of risk of bias and imprecision (small sample sizes). Overall, we are uncertain whether prehabilitation exercise compared to usual care (no exercise) reduces the occurrence of 30-day (or longer if reported) mortality post-AAA repair (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.31 to 5.77; 3 trials, 192 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to usual care (no exercise), prehabilitation exercise may decrease the occurrence of cardiac complications (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.92; 1 trial, 124 participants; low-certainty evidence) and the occurrence of renal complications (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.88; 1 trial, 124 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether prehabilitation exercise, compared to usual care (no exercise), decreases the occurrence of pulmonary complications (RR 0.49, 95% 0.26 to 0.92; 2 trials, 144 participants; very low-certainty evidence), decreases the need for re-intervention (RR 1.29, 95% 0.33 to 4.96; 2 trials, 144 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or decreases postoperative bleeding (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.80; 1 trial, 124 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There was little or no difference between the exercise and usual care (no exercise) groups in length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay and quality of life. None of the studies reported data for the number of days on a ventilator and change in aneurysm size pre- and post-exercise outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Due to very low-certainty evidence, we are uncertain whether prehabilitation exercise therapy reduces 30-day mortality, pulmonary complications, need for re-intervention or postoperative bleeding. Prehabilitation exercise therapy might slightly reduce cardiac and renal complications compared with usual care (no exercise). More RCTs of high methodological quality, with large sample sizes and long-term follow-up, are needed. Important questions should include the type and cost-effectiveness of exercise programmes, the minimum number of sessions and programme duration needed to effect clinically important benefits, and which groups of participants and types of repair benefit most.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Exercício Pré-Operatório , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Viés , Exercícios em Circuitos , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reoperação , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198541

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to share our experience in managing a patient with Klebsiella pneumoniae mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm who was also infected with COVID-19. A 69-year-old male was transferred to our hospital for the management of an infra-renal mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. During his hospital course, the patient contracted severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). He was intubated due to respiratory distress. Over a short period, his mycotic aneurysm increased in size from 2.5 cm to 3.9 cm. An emergency repair of his expanding aneurysm was achieved using our previously described protocol of coating endovascular stents with rifampin. The patient was managed with a rifampin-coated endovascular stent graft without any major complications. Postoperatively, the patient did not demonstrate any neurological deficits nor any vascular compromise. He remained afebrile during his postoperative course and was extubated sometime thereafter. He was then transferred to the ward for additional monitoring prior to his discharge to a rehab hospital while being on long-term antibiotics. During his hospital stay, he was monitored with serial ultrasounds to ensure the absence of abscess formation, aortic aneurysm growth or graft endoleak. At 6 weeks after stent graft placement, he underwent a CT scan, which showed a patent stent graft, with a residual sac size of 2.5 cm without any evidence of abscess or endoleak. Over a follow-up period of 180 days, the patient remained asymptomatic while remaining on long-term antibiotics. Thus, in patients whose surgical risk is prohibitive, endovascular stent grafts can be used as a bridge to definitive surgical management.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Infectado , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Implante de Prótese Vascular , COVID-19 , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Idoso , Aneurisma Infectado/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Prótese Vascular , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
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