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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(6): 831-840, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636745

RESUMO

Objective: To identify determinants associated with insulin resistance and to assess the association between insulin resistance and cardiovascular events, vascular interventions and mortality in people with type 1 diabetes at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: One hundred and ninety-five people with type 1 diabetes from the Secondary Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) cohort were included. Insulin resistance was quantified by the estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR) with higher eGDR levels indicating higher insulin sensitivity (i.e. lower eGDR levels indicating higher insulin resistance). Linear regression models were used to evaluate determinants associated with eGDR. The effect of eGDR on cardiovascular events, cardiovascular events or vascular interventions (combined endpoint) and on all-cause mortality was analysed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders. Results: In 195 individuals (median follow-up 12.9 years, IQR 6.7-17.0), a total of 25 cardiovascular events, 26 vascular interventions and 27 deaths were observed. High eGDR as a marker for preserved insulin sensitivity was independently associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.61-0.91), a lower risk of cardiovascular events and vascular interventions (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.63-0.87) and a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67-0.98). Conclusions: Insulin resistance as measured by eGDR is an additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Modification of insulin resistance by lifestyle interventions or pharmacological treatment could be a viable therapeutic target to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/epidemiologia , Adulto , Amputação/estatística & dados numéricos , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Ruptura Aórtica/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(3): 380-386, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The epidemiology of sub-aneurysmal aortic dilatation (SAA) 25 - 29 mm is not fully understood, and the management of SAA is debated. Lack of evidence is particularly problematic in the screening setting. This study aimed to evaluate the long term outcome of men with screen detected SAAs, focusing on progression to an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and on the AAAs reaching the threshold diameter for surgical repair. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2015, all 65 year old men with a screen detected SAA in middle Sweden were re-examined with ultrasound after five and 10 years. The primary outcomes were expansion to AAA ≥ 30 mm and progression to AAA ≥ 55 mm. Secondary outcomes were risk factors for progression, repair rate, and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1 020 65 year old men with a SAA were identified, of whom 940 (92.2%; 95% confidence interval 91.0 - 93.8) had follow up. The Kaplan-Meier estimated incidence of AAA ≥ 30 mm development after the five year follow up (which was de facto carried out after a mean of 4.9 years) was 65.8% (61.6 - 69.4), all < 55 mm. The corresponding KM-estimated incidence after the 10 year follow up (carried out after a mean of 11.9 years) was 95.1% (90.1 - 97.4), and 29.7% (18.0 - 39.7) reached ≥ 55 mm. All 41 SAAs eventually expanding to ≥ 55 mm were ≥ 30 mm at the five year follow up. Of these, 32 had surgical repair with 100% survival, six have scheduled repairs, and three (7.3%) were unfit for repair. The KM estimated all cause mortality rates at five and 10 years were 7.0% and 17.9%, respectively, with no proven AAA related deaths. CONCLUSION: A majority of SAAs eventually progress to an AAA, of which 30% are estimated to eventually reach the threshold for repair within 10 years. A follow up policy with an ultrasound examination after five years can safely and effectively identify those SAAs at risk of developing into clinically significant AAAs needing repair and may be considered for anyone with reasonably good life expectancy.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Progressão da Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia
4.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(3): 388-398, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there is a correlation between institutional or surgeon case volume and outcomes in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA). DATA SOURCES: The Healthcare Database Advanced Search interface developed by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence was used to search MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL. REVIEW METHODS: The systematic review complied with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines with the protocol registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020213121). Prognostic studies were considered comparing outcomes of patients with rAAA undergoing repair in high and low volume institutions or by high and low volume surgeons. Pooled estimates for peri-operative mortality were calculated using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), applying the Mantel-Haenszel method. Analysis of adjusted outcome estimates was performed with the generic inverse variance method. RESULTS: Thirteen studies reporting a total of 120 116 patients were included. Patients treated in low volume centres had a statistically significantly higher peri-operative mortality than those treated in high volume centres (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.22 - 1.59). Subgroup analysis showed a mortality difference in favour of high volume centres for both endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR; OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.11 - 2.35) and open repair (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.25 - 1.81). Adjusted analysis showed a benefit of treatment in high volume centres for open repair (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.21 - 2.33) but not for EVAR (OR 1.42, 95% CI 0.84 - 2.41). Differences in peri-operative mortality between low and high volume surgeons were not statistically significant for either EVAR (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.59 - 1.89) or open surgical repair (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.87 - 1.63). CONCLUSION: A high institutional volume may result in a reduction of peri-operative mortality following surgery for rAAA. This peri-operative survival advantage is more pronounced for open surgery than EVAR. Individual surgeon caseload was not found to have a significant impact on outcomes.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Ruptura Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Hospitais com Baixo Volume de Atendimentos , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Ruptura Aórtica/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Competência Clínica , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(3): 367-378, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previously, reports have shown that women experience a higher mortality rate than men after elective open (OAR) and endovascular (EVAR) repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). With recent improvements in overall AAA repair outcomes, this study aimed to identify whether sex specific disparity has been ameliorated by modern practice, and to define sex specific differences in peri- and post-operative complications and pre-operative status; factors which may contribute to poor outcome. METHODS: This was a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of sex specific differences in 30 day mortality and complications conducted according to PRISMA guidance (Prospero registration CRD42020176398). Papers with ≥ 50 women, reporting sex specific outcomes, following intact primary AAA repair, from 2000 to 2020 worldwide were included; with separate analyses for EVAR and OAR. Data sources were Medline, Embase, and CENTRAL databases 2005 - 2020 searched using ProQuest Dialog. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies (371 215 men, 65 465 women) were included. Meta-analysis and meta-regression indicated that sex specific odds ratios (ORs) for 30 day mortality were unchanged from 2000 to 2020. Mortality risk was higher in women for OAR and more so for EVAR (OR [95% CI] 1.49 [1.37 - 1.61]; 1.86 [1.59 - 2.17], respectively) and this remained following multivariable risk adjustment. Transfusion, pulmonary complications, and bowel ischaemia were more common in women after OAR and EVAR (OAR: ORs 1.81 [1.60 - 2.04], 1.40 [1.28 - 1.53], 1.54 [1.36 - 1.75]; EVAR: ORs 2.18 [2.08 - 2.29] 1.44 [1.17 - 1.77], 1.99 [1.51 - 2.62], respectively). Arterial injury, limb ischaemia, renal and cardiac complications were more common in women after EVAR (ORs 3.02 [1.62 - 5.65], 2.13 [1.48 - 3.06], 1.46 [1.22 - 1.72] and 1.19 [1.03 - 1.37], respectively); the latter was associated with greater mortality risk on meta-regression. CONCLUSION: Increased mortality risk for women following AAA repair remains. Women had a higher incidence of transfusion, pulmonary and bowel complications after EVAR and OAR. Higher mortality risk ratios for EVAR may result from cardiac complications, additional arterial injury, and embolisation, leading to renal and limb ischaemia. These findings indicate possible causes for observed outcome disparities and targets for quality improvement.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Análise de Regressão , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(4): 540-548, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Failed endovascular infrarenal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) due to development of late type Ia endoleak exposes patients to the risk of rupture and should be treated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of fenestrated/branched EVAR (F/BEVAR) for treatment of failed EVAR with type Ia endoleak. METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2019, a prospective multicentre study was conducted (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04532450) that included 85 consecutive patients who had undergone F/BEVAR to treat a type Ia endoleak following EVAR. The primary outcome was overall freedom from any re-intervention or death related to the F/BEVAR procedure. RESULTS: In 30 cases (35%) EVAR was associated with a short < 10 mm or angulated (> 60°) infrarenal aortic neck, poor placement of the initial stent graft (n = 3, 4%), sizing error (n = 2, 2%), and/or stent graft migration (n = 7, 8%). Type Ia endoleak was observed after a period of 59 ± 25 months following EVAR. The authors performed 82 FEVAR (96%) and three BEVAR (4%) procedures with revascularisation of 305 target arteries. Overall technical success was 94%, with three failures including one persistent Type Ia endoleak and two unsuccessful stent graft implantations. Intra-operative target artery revascularisation was successful in 303 of 305 attempts. The in hospital mortality rate was 5%. Cardiac, renal and pulmonary complications occurred in 6%, 14%, and 7% of patients, respectively. Post-operative spinal cord ischaemia occurred in four patients (4.7%). At three years, the survival rate was 64% with overall freedom from any re-intervention or aneurysm related death of 40%, and freedom from specific F/BEVAR re-intervention of 73%. At three years, the secondary patency rate of the target visceral arteries was 96%. During follow up, 27 patients (33%) required a revision procedure of the fenestrated (n = 11) or index EVAR stent graft (n = 16), including six open conversions. CONCLUSION: While manufactured F/BEVAR was effective in treating type Ia endoleak in patients with failed EVAR, it was at the cost of a number of secondary endovascular and open surgical procedures.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Endoleak/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Prótese Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Endoleak/diagnóstico por imagem , Endoleak/etiologia , Endoleak/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Reoperação , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento
7.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(4): 561-568, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between post-implantation syndrome (PIS) and long term outcomes, with emphasis on cardiovascular prognosis. METHODS: One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients undergoing EVAR in a tertiary institution were previously included in a study investigating the risk factors and short term consequences of PIS (defined as tympanic temperature ≥ 38°C and CRP > 10 mg/L, after excluding complications with an effect on inflammatory markers). This study was based on a prospectively maintained database. Survival status was derived from inquiry of civil registry database information and causes of death from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular events. Secondary endpoints were overall and specific cause mortality (cardiovascular, ischaemic heart disease, AAA, and cancer related mortality). Aneurysm sac dynamics and occurrence of endoleaks were also analysed. Survival estimates were obtained using Kaplan-Meier plots and a multivariable model was constructed to correct for confounders. RESULTS: The PIS incidence was 39% (58/149). At the time of surgery, patients had a mean age of 73 ± 7 years and were predominantly male. There were no baseline differences between the PIS and non-PIS groups. The median follow up was 6.4 years (3.2 - 8.3), similar in both groups (p = .81). There was no difference in cardiovascular events for PIS and non-PIS patients (p = .63). However, Kaplan-Meier plots suggest a trend towards a higher rate of cardiovascular events in PIS patients during the first years: freedom from cardiovascular events at one year was 94% vs. 89% and at three years 90% vs. 82%. No differences were found in overall and specific cause mortality. There was a higher rate of type II endoleaks for non-PIS patients (28% vs. 9%, p = .005). Sac dynamics were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that PIS is not associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of cardiovascular events. PIS had no impact on mortality. Lastly, PIS patients had fewer type II endoleaks, but sac dynamics were analogous.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013662, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an abnormal dilation in the diameter of the abdominal aorta of 50% or more of the normal diameter or greater than 3 cm in total. The risk of rupture increases with the diameter of the aneurysm, particularly above a diameter of approximately 5.5 cm. Perioperative and postoperative morbidity is common following elective repair in people with AAA. Prehabilitation or preoperative exercise is the process of enhancing an individual's functional capacity before surgery to improve postoperative outcomes. Studies have evaluated exercise interventions for people waiting for AAA repair, but the results of these studies are conflicting. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of exercise programmes on perioperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) databases, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers to 6 July 2020. We also examined the included study reports' bibliographies to identify other relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining exercise interventions compared with usual care (no exercise; participants maintained normal physical activity) for people waiting for AAA repair. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed the included studies, extracted data and resolved disagreements by discussion. We assessed the methodological quality of studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and collected results related to the outcomes of interest: post-AAA repair mortality; perioperative and postoperative complications; length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay; length of hospital stay; number of days on a ventilator; change in aneurysm size pre- and post-exercise; and quality of life. We used GRADE to evaluate certainty of the evidence. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). MAIN RESULTS: This review identified four RCTs with a total of 232 participants with clinically diagnosed AAA deemed suitable for elective intervention, comparing prehabilitation exercise therapy with usual care (no exercise). The prehabilitation exercise therapy was supervised and hospital-based in three of the four included trials, and in the remaining trial the first session was supervised in hospital, but subsequent sessions were completed unsupervised in the participants' homes. The dose and schedule of the prehabilitation exercise therapy varied across the trials with three to six sessions per week and a duration of one hour per session for a period of one to six weeks. The types of exercise therapy included circuit training, moderate-intensity continuous exercise and high-intensity interval training. All trials were at a high risk of bias. The certainty of the evidence for each of our outcomes was low to very low. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence because of risk of bias and imprecision (small sample sizes). Overall, we are uncertain whether prehabilitation exercise compared to usual care (no exercise) reduces the occurrence of 30-day (or longer if reported) mortality post-AAA repair (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.31 to 5.77; 3 trials, 192 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Compared to usual care (no exercise), prehabilitation exercise may decrease the occurrence of cardiac complications (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.92; 1 trial, 124 participants; low-certainty evidence) and the occurrence of renal complications (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.88; 1 trial, 124 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether prehabilitation exercise, compared to usual care (no exercise), decreases the occurrence of pulmonary complications (RR 0.49, 95% 0.26 to 0.92; 2 trials, 144 participants; very low-certainty evidence), decreases the need for re-intervention (RR 1.29, 95% 0.33 to 4.96; 2 trials, 144 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or decreases postoperative bleeding (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.80; 1 trial, 124 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There was little or no difference between the exercise and usual care (no exercise) groups in length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay and quality of life. None of the studies reported data for the number of days on a ventilator and change in aneurysm size pre- and post-exercise outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Due to very low-certainty evidence, we are uncertain whether prehabilitation exercise therapy reduces 30-day mortality, pulmonary complications, need for re-intervention or postoperative bleeding. Prehabilitation exercise therapy might slightly reduce cardiac and renal complications compared with usual care (no exercise). More RCTs of high methodological quality, with large sample sizes and long-term follow-up, are needed. Important questions should include the type and cost-effectiveness of exercise programmes, the minimum number of sessions and programme duration needed to effect clinically important benefits, and which groups of participants and types of repair benefit most.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Exercício Pré-Operatório , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Viés , Exercícios em Circuitos , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reoperação , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). However, few reports have demonstrated whether sarcopenia would affect the development of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in these patients. This study aimed to examine whether sarcopenia is associated with AKI and morbidity and mortality after infrarenal AAA operation. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 379 patients who underwent infrarenal AAA surgery. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was performed using the skeletal muscle index, which was calculated from axial computed tomography at the level of L3. The patients were separated into those with sarcopenia (n = 104) and those without sarcopenia (n = 275). We applied multivariable and Cox regression analyses to evaluate the risk factors for AKI and overall mortality. A propensity score matching (PSM) evaluation was done to assess the postoperative results. RESULTS: The incidence of AKI was greater in sarcopenia than non-sarcopenia group before (34.6% vs. 15.3%; p < 0.001) and after the PSM analysis (34.6% vs. 15.4%; p = 0.002). Multivariable analysis revealed sarcopenia to be associated with AKI before (p = 0.010) and after PSM (p = 0.016). Sarcopenia was also associated with overall mortality before (p = 0.048) and after PSM (p = 0.032). A Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that overall mortality was elevated patients with sarcopenia before and after PSM than in those without (log-rank test, p < 0.001, p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia was associated with increased postoperative AKI incidence and overall mortality among individuals who underwent infrarenal AAA operation.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/complicações , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Aorta Abdominal , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Músculo Esquelético , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/mortalidade
10.
Ann Surg ; 274(5): e452-e459, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between hospital volume and failure to rescue (FtR), after open repair (OAR), and endovascular repair (EVAR) of intact abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) among centers participating in the VASCUNET and International Consortium of Vascular Registries. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: FtR (ie, in-hospital death following major complications) is a composite end-point representing the inability to treat complications effectively and prevent death. METHODS: Using data from 8 vascular registries, complication and mortality rates after intact AAA repair were examined (n = 60,273; EVAR-43,668; OAR-16,605). A restricted analysis using pooled data from 4 countries (Australia, Hungary, New Zealand, and USA) reporting data on all postoperative complications (bleeding, stroke, cardiac, respiratory, renal, colonic ischemia) was performed to identify risk-adjusted association between hospital volume and FtR. RESULTS: The most frequently reported complications were cardiac (EVAR-3.0%, OAR-8.9%) and respiratory (EVAR-1.0%, OAR-5.7%). In adjusted analysis, 4.3% of EVARs and 18.5% of OARs had at least 1 complication. The overall FtR rate was 10.3% after EVAR and 15.7% after OAR. Subjects treated in the highest volume centers (Q4) had 46% and 80% lower odds of FtR after EVAR (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.34-0.87; P = 0.04) and OAR (OR = 0.22; 95% CI = 0.11-0.44; P < 0.001) when compared to lowest volume centers (Q1), respectively. Colonic ischemia had the highest risk of FtR for both procedures (adjusted predicted risks, EVAR: 27%, 95% CI 14%-45%; OAR: 30%, 95% CI 17%-46%). CONCLUSIONS: In this multi-national dataset, FtR rate after intact AAA repair with EVAR and OAR is significantly associated with hospital volume. Hospitals in the top volume quartiles achieve the lowest mortality after a complication has occurred.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Falha da Terapia de Resgate/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Austrália/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(1): 46-53, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Greater population life expectancy and consistent improvement in diagnostic techniques have increased the diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in the elderly population. The aim was to study the natural history of small (< 55 mm) incidental AAAs in octogenarian and nonagenarian patients to assess the need for follow up and/or invasive treatment. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospective registry. Patients ≥ 80 years old at the time of diagnosis of a < 55 mm AAA in 1988-2018 were selected. Clinical and anatomical characteristics were registered. Patients were divided in three groups: 30 - 39 mm, 40 - 49 mm, and 50 - 54 mm AAA. The outcome variables were aorto-iliac rupture, AAA reaching a surgical threshold (≥ 55 mm), and death. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed and life tables, Kaplan-Meier curves, and uni- and multivariable Cox regression were used. RESULTS: Three hundred and ten patients were included, 256 (82.6%) men, with mean index age of 84.5 years (standard deviation [SD] 3.5), and median follow up of 37.9 months (interquartile range [IQR] 18.2 - 65.4). Eighteen (5.8%) AAAs ruptured; four of these patients were operated on and only one survived. Sixty-two (20%) AAA reached a surgical size; eight were repaired electively, with 0% early mortality. The survival rates were 81%, 70%, and 38% at one, two, and five years. The rupture rates were 1%, 2%, and 6% and the AAAs reaching surgical threshold were 1%, 4%, and 19% for the same time periods. AAA size < 40 mm was an independent protective factor from rupture (0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03 - 0.48), reaching surgical threshold (0.08; 95% CI 0.04 - 0.16) and death (0.63; 95% CI 0.42 - 0.95). CONCLUSION: The risk of late rupture of small incidental AAA diagnosed in octogenarian and nonagenarian patients is very small, especially when the AAA is < 40 mm in diameter. In contrast, global mortality is high. Conservative management seems sensible, with strict selection of the patients who would benefit from follow up and eventual repair.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Ruptura Aórtica/mortalidade , Tratamento Conservador/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/complicações , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/terapia , Ruptura Aórtica/etiologia , Ruptura Aórtica/prevenção & controle , Ruptura Aórtica/cirurgia , Progressão da Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(1): 16-24, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Outcomes for intact abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair vary over time and by healthcare system, country, and surgeon. The aim of this study was to analyse peri-operative mortality for intact AAA repair in 11 countries over time and compare outcomes by gender, age, and geographical location. METHODS: Prospective data on primary repair of intact AAA were collected from 11 countries through the International Consortium of Vascular Registries (ICVR) and analysed for two time periods, 2010 - 2013 and 2014 - 2016. The primary outcome was peri-operative mortality after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and open surgical repair (OSR). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to adjust for differences in patient characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 103 715 patients were included. The percentage of patients undergoing EVAR increased from 63.6% to 71.2% (p < .001) over the study period. This proportion varied by country from 35% in Hungary to 81% in the United States. Overall peri-operative mortality decreased from 2.1% to 1.6 % (p < .001). Mortality also declined significantly over time for both OSR 4.2% to 3.6 % (p = .002) and EVAR 1.0% to 0.7% (p = .002). Mortality was significantly higher for female than male patients (3.0% vs. 1.6% p < .001). The percentage of patients > 80 years old undergoing AAA repair remained constant at 23.6% (p = .91). Peri-operative mortality was higher for patients > 80 years than for those < 80 years old (2.7% vs. 1.6% p < .001). Forty-six per cent (n = 275) of all EVAR deaths occurred in the over 80s. CONCLUSION: The proportion of AAA repairs performed using EVAR has increased over time. Peri-operative mortality continues to decline for both OSR and EVAR. Outcomes however were significantly worse for both women and those aged over 80, so efforts should be focused on these patient groups to further reduce elective AAA mortality rates.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253327, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Health Service (NHS) abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening programme (NAAASP) in England screens 65-year-old men. The programme monitors those with an aneurysm, and early intervention for large aneurysms reduces ruptures and AAA-related mortality. AAA screening services have been disrupted following COVID-19 but it is not known how this may impact AAA-related mortality, or where efforts should be focussed as services resume. METHODS: We repurposed a previously validated discrete event simulation model to investigate the impact of COVID-19-related service disruption on key outcomes. This model was used to explore the impact of delayed invitation and reduced attendance in men invited to screening. Additionally, we investigated the impact of temporarily suspending scans, increasing the threshold for elective surgery to 7cm and increasing drop-out in the AAA cohort under surveillance, using data from NAAASP to inform the population. FINDINGS: Delaying invitation to primary screening up to two years had little impact on key outcomes whereas a 10% reduction in attendance could lead to a 2% lifetime increase in AAA-related deaths. In surveillance patients, a 1-year suspension of surveillance or increase in the elective threshold resulted in a 0.4% increase in excess AAA-related deaths (8% in those 5-5.4cm at the start). Longer suspensions or a doubling of drop-out from surveillance would have a pronounced impact on outcomes. INTERPRETATION: Efforts should be directed towards encouraging men to attend AAA screening service appointments post-COVID-19. Those with AAAs on surveillance should be prioritised as the screening programme resumes, as changes to these services beyond one year are likely to have a larger impact on surgical burden and AAA-related mortality.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico , Ruptura Aórtica/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/complicações , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Ruptura Aórtica/etiologia , Ruptura Aórtica/mortalidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Simulação por Computador , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Medicina Estatal/normas , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ultrassonografia/normas , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(5): 483-495, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared the outcomes of open surgical repair (OSR) versus endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) with parallel graft technique (PG) in patients with juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (JAAA) excluded from fenestrated endovascular aortic repair (FEVAR) due to clinical, anatomical, technical or manufacturing time reasons. METHODS: A single-center analysis of consecutive patients who underwent elective and urgent (within 24-48 hours) repair of JAAA from January 2010 to January 2019 was performed. Two groups were compared: patients excluded from FEVAR and respectively treated by OSR or by PG for JAAA. Perioperative clinical, anatomic and operative data were collected in a dedicated database. The endpoints were primary technical success, changes in renal function, early and long-term mortality, freedom from aortic related reinterventions (ARRs) and aortic related mortality (ARM). RESULTS: Overall, 118 consecutive patients were treated for JAAA, 32 of whom (27.1%) with FEVAR. Eighty-six patients were enrolled in the study (OSR group, N.=61; PG group, N.=25). The mean age was 77.4±6.5 years for PG group and 71.1±6.7 years for OSR group (P=0.0001); the average comorbidity score of the Society for Vascular Surgery was higher for patients treated by PG (10.2±4.8 vs. 5.5±0.4, P=0.0001), with no differences for hypertension and renal score. After propensity score matching, 42 patients (27 OSR, 15 PG) without differences in the preoperative risk factors were selected. Conical shape and neck mural thrombus were respectively more represented in the OSR group (95.1% vs. 56.0%; 63.9% vs. 36.0%). Aortic clamp site was supraceliac for 12 patients (19.7%), suprarenal for 21 (34.4%) and trans-renal for 28 patients (45.9%). In the PG group, 16 patients (64%) were treated with a single renal chimney. Primary technical success was similar in the two groups (100.0% vs. 92.0%, P=0.08), with a higher rate of procedure achieved by assisted technical success for the PG group after propensity score matching analysis (20.0% vs. 0%, P=0.04). Deterioration of renal function occurred for both groups of patients, with a significant creatinine increasing 12 months after surgery in the PG group compared with OSR group (1.72±0.66 vs. 1.18±0.40, P=0.006). Multiple logistic regression shows no independent predictor of peri-operative medical complication among demographics and pre-operative relevant clinical factors between the two cohorts. No difference in terms of early mortality was observed between the groups (1.6% vs. 0%, P=1.00). At 5 years, overall survival was lower for patients treated by PG (53.5% vs. 70.2%, P=0.007), such as freedom from ARRs (64.6 vs. 90.5%, P=0.03). Freedom from ARM at 5 years did not show significant differences among the two groups (100% vs. 98.4%, P=1.00). CONCLUSIONS: PG represents a feasible procedure for patients excluded from FEVAR due to clinical, anatomical, technical or device manufacturing time reasons, ensuring low rates of ARM. However, ARRs during the follow-up remain the Achilles heel of this technique. OSR is still the most durable procedure in the endovascular era, allowing the treatment of proximal "hostile necks" with low rates of reoperation and a similar impact on the renal function compared to PG.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 301, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130661

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women are less likely to develop infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm; however, when they do, it is almost always associated with challenging anatomy, more rapid aneurysmal growth rate and earlier rupture. Women generally have poorer outcomes following open aneurysm repair; and in this respect, the present study aims to evaluate if it is so after endovascular repair. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of our database was performed for patients underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) between January 2013-March 2020. 249 elective EVAR patients were evaluated. Patients were categorized according to gender and 26 patients (10.4%) were female. Demographics and pre-peri-postoperative findings were compared. Propensity score matching (ratio 1:1) was performed to reduce selection bias. RESULTS: In the overall unmatched cohort, female population had more diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) and hypertension (p = 0.005). However, coronary artery disease (p = 0.005) and coronary artery bypass grafting (p = 0.006) were more in male gender. Non-IFU implantation was higher in female group (38.5% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.025). After propensity matching, even though it was not statistically significant, early mortality for female gender was higher when compared to male gender (7.7% and 0%, respectively, p = 0.490). In the follow-up period, no difference in all-cause mortality, secondary interventions or complications have been observed between the genders. CONCLUSION: Challenging anatomy and subsequently treated patients outside IFU may be the reasons for higher morbidity and mortality in women. However, despite these factors female and male patients revealed equivalent early and late results.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Br J Surg ; 108(5): 521-527, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to use recent evidence to investigate and update volume-outcome relationships after open surgical repair (OSR) and endovascular repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm in England. METHODS: Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data from April 2006 to March 2018 were obtained. The primary outcome was in-hospital death. Other outcomes included duration of hospital stay, readmissions within 30 days, and critical care requirements. Case-mix adjustment included age, sex, HES year, deprivation index, weekend admission, mode of admission, type of procedure and co-morbidities. RESULTS: Annual volume of all repairs combined appeared to be an appropriate measure of volume. After case-mix adjustment, a significant relationship between volume and in-hospital mortality was seen for OSR (P < 0·001) but not for EVAR (P = 0·169 for emergency and P = 0·363 for elective). The effect appeared to extend beyond 60 repairs per year to volumes above 100 repairs per year. There was no significant relationship between volume and duration of hospital stay or 30-day readmissions. In patients receiving emergency OSR, higher volume was associated with longer stay in critical care. CONCLUSION: Higher annual all-procedure volumes were associated with significantly lower in-hospital mortality for OSR, but such a relationship was not significant for EVAR. There was not enough evidence for a volume effect on other outcomes.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino
17.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(2): 267-274, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inactivation of matrix Gla protein (MGP), using vitamin K antagonists or vitamin K deficiency results in increased vascular calcification, which has been associated with increased risk of symptomatic or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Insufficient activation of MGP leads to increased levels of undercarboxylated forms of MGP, measured as a dephosphorylated, undercarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) in plasma. This study aimed to investigate whether the level of inactivated MGP influenced the risk of having an AAA, the risk of AAA progression, and overall mortality. METHODS: This combined case control and cohort study was based on data from the randomised, clinically controlled Viborg Vascular (VIVA) screening trial. Cases (n = 487) with an AAA and controls (n = 189) with neither peripheral artery disease nor AAA, had their plasma quantified for dp-ucMGP. Plasma levels were compared with the presence of an AAA, AAA growth rate, need for repair, and overall mortality. dp-ucMGP was divided into tertiles in regression analyses. RESULTS: The plasma levels of dp-ucMGP were higher for AAA cases compared with controls (median of 517 pmol/L vs. 495 pmol/L, p = .036). Adjusted analyses regarding dp-ucMGP being predictive of AAA, AAA growth rate, and need for repair all failed to show correlation. Overall mortality for AAA cases exhibited a significant association for the third tertile of dp-ucMGP with a hazard ratio of 2.55 (95% CI 1.29 - 5.05) compared with the first tertile. Overall mortality for controls was not correlated with dp-ucMGP plasma levels. CONCLUSION: dp-ucMGP did not correlate with the risk of having an AAA, AAA growth rate, or risk of surgery. For people with an AAA, dp-ucMGP was correlated with an increased mortality risk for the highest tertile of dp-ucMGP. This could suggest a role for prophylactic measures with vitamin K2 supplements to people at risk of AAA.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/sangue , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/sangue , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores
18.
J Vasc Surg ; 74(3): 1024-1032, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The long-term success of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is limited by complications, most importantly endoleaks. In case of (persistent) type I endoleak (T1EL), secondary intervention is indicated to prevent secondary aneurysm rupture. Different treatment options are suggested for T1ELs, such as endo anchors, (fenestrated) cuffs, embolization, or open conversion. Currently, the treatment of T1EL with liquid embolic agents is available; however, results are not yet addressed. This review presents the safety and efficacy of embolization with liquid embolic agents for treatment of T1ELs after EVAR. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed for all studies reporting the use of liquid embolic agents as monotherapy for treatment of T1ELs after EVAR. Patient numbers, technical success (successful delivery of liquid embolics in the T1EL) and clinical success (absence of aneurysm related death, endoleak recurrence or additional interventions during follow-up) were examined. RESULTS: Of 1604 articles, 10 studies met the selection criteria, including 194 patients treated with liquid embolics; 73.2% of the patients were male with a median age of 71 years. The overall technical success was 97.9%. Clinical success was 87.6%. Because the median follow-up was only 13.0 months (range, 1-89 months), data on long-term success are almost absent. Four cases (2.1%) of secondary aneurysm rupture after embolization owing to endoleak recurrence were reported. All ruptures occurred in aneurysms exceeding initial treatment diameter of 70 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Initial technical success after liquid embolization for T1EL is high, although long-term clinical success rates are lacking. Within this review, the risk of secondary rupture is comparable with untreated T1EL at 2% with a median follow-up of 13 months, regardless of the initial success of embolization. In general, no decrease in secondary aneurysm rupture after embolization of T1EL after EVAR is demonstrated, although the results of late embolization are debated.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Embolização Terapêutica , Endoleak/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Dimetil Sulfóxido/administração & dosagem , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Embolização Terapêutica/mortalidade , Embucrilato/administração & dosagem , Endoleak/diagnóstico por imagem , Endoleak/etiologia , Endoleak/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polivinil/administração & dosagem , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Trombina/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 65: 34-43, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831398

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are prevalent among older adults and can cause significant morbidity and mortality if not addressed in a timely fashion. Their etiology remains the topic of continued investigation. Known causes include trauma, infection, and inflammatory disorders. Risk factors include cigarette smoking, advanced age, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. The pathophysiology of the disease is related to an initial arterial insult causing a cascade of inflammation and extracellular matrix protein breakdown by proteinases leading to arterial wall weakening. When identified early, aneurysms must be monitored for size, growth rate, and other factors which could increase the risk of rupture. Factors predisposing to rupture include size, active smoking, rate of growth, aberrant biomechanical properties of the aneurysmal sac, and female sex. Medical management includes the control of risk factors that may prevent growth, stabilize the aneurysm, and prevent rupture. Surgical management prevents rupture of high risk aneurysms, most commonly predicted by size. Less frequently, surgical management is required when the aneurysm has ruptured. Surgery involves a multidisciplinary approach to evaluate the patient's risk profile and to develop an operative plan involving either an endovascular or an open surgical repair. The patient must be carefully monitored post-operatively for complications and, in the case of endovascular repairs, for endoleaks. AAA management has evolved rapidly in recent years. Technical and technological advances have transformed the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Ruptura Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Ruptura Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura Aórtica/mortalidade , Ruptura Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Prótese Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Br J Surg ; 108(3): 286-295, 2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary infected aneurysms of the abdominal aorta and iliac arteries are potentially life-threatening. However, because of the rarity of the disease, its pathogenesis and optimal treatment strategy remain poorly defined. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective cohort study investigated patients who underwent surgical treatment for a primary infected abdominal aortic and/or common iliac artery (CIA) aneurysm between 2011 and 2017 using a Japanese clinical registry. The study evaluated the relationships between preoperative factors and postoperative outcomes including 90-day and 3-year mortality, and persistent or recurrent aneurysm-related infection. Propensity score matching was used to compare survival between patients who underwent in situ prosthetic grafting and those who had endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). RESULTS: Some 862 patients were included in the analysis. Preceding infection was identified in 30.2 per cent of the patients. The median duration of postoperative follow-up was 639 days. Cumulative overall survival rates at 30 days, 90 days, 1 year, 3 years and 5 years were 94.0, 89.7, 82.6, 74.9 and 68.5 per cent respectively. Age, preoperative shock and hypoalbuminaemia were independently associated with short-term and late mortality. Compared with open repair, EVAR was more closely associated with persistent or recurrent aneurysm-related infection (odds ratio 2.76, 95 per cent c.i. 1.67 to 4.58; P < 0.001). Propensity score-matched analyses demonstrated no significant differences between EVAR and in situ graft replacement in terms of 3-year all-cause and aorta-related mortality rates (P = 0.093 and P =0.472 respectively). CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing surgical intervention for primary infected abdominal aortic and CIA aneursyms, postoperative survival rates were encouraging. Eradication of infection following EVAR appeared less likely than with open repair, but survival rates were similar in matched patients between EVAR and in situ graft replacement.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Infectado/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Aneurisma Ilíaco/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Aneurisma Infectado/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Prótese Vascular , Estudos de Coortes , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipoalbuminemia/mortalidade , Aneurisma Ilíaco/mortalidade , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise por Pareamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque/mortalidade
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