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1.
Science ; 367(6484)2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193293

RESUMO

Scheele et al (Reports, 29 March 2019, p. 1459) bring needed attention to the effects of amphibian infectious disease. However, the data and methods implicating the disease chytridiomycosis in 501 amphibian species declines are deficient. Which species are affected, and how many, remains a critical unanswered question. Amphibians are imperiled; protective actions require public support and robust science.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Micoses , Anfíbios , Animais , Biodiversidade
2.
Science ; 367(6484)2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193294

RESUMO

Lambert et al question our retrospective and holistic epidemiological assessment of the role of chytridiomycosis in amphibian declines. Their alternative assessment is narrow and provides an incomplete evaluation of evidence. Adopting this approach limits understanding of infectious disease impacts and hampers conservation efforts. We reaffirm that our study provides unambiguous evidence that chytridiomycosis has affected at least 501 amphibian species.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Micoses , Anfíbios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 879-890, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926519

RESUMO

Between July 2007 and June 2017 there were 86 deaths in the populations of eight caecilian species at the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) London Zoo. The mortality rate (deaths per animal-year at risk) ranged from 0.03 in the Congo caecilian (Herpele squalostoma) to 0.85 in Kaup's caecilian (Potomotyphlus kaupii). Among the 73 individuals examined post mortem, no cause of death or primary diagnosis could be established in 35 cases, but of the others the most common cause of death was dermatitis (22 cases). When all significant pathological findings were considered, skin lesions of varying types were again the commonest (56 cases), particularly among the aquatic species: Typhlonectes compressicauda (18 out of 21 cases), T. natans (8/10) and P. kaupii (12/14). Other common findings were poor gut-fill (35 cases), kidney and gastrointestinal lesions (10 cases each), generalized congestion (8 cases) and poor body condition (6 cases). This review adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding the presentations and causes of disease in captive caecilians.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/classificação , Animais de Zoológico , Animais , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(3): 423-432, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734817

RESUMO

In the south of France, the so-called climate hiatus from 1998 to 2013 was associated with a late winter cooling which has affected the phenology of several reptiles and amphibian species, delaying their dates of first appearances in spring. This episode has been related to a period of frequently negative values of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAOi). The recent increase of this index after this episode marks the end of the "hiatus" and provides an opportunity to verify the impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the fauna of the North Mediterranean region. Most of the emergence dates of amphibians and reptiles in spring have rapidly advanced from 1983 to 1997 and then receded or stabilized from 1998 to 2010. They began to advance again since 2010. These phenological changes covary with the temperature of February-March in the study area, which is itself related to the variations of the NAO index. These changes confirm the influence of the NAO on the phenology of terrestrial organisms in northern Mediterranean where its influence is sometimes assumed to be attenuated.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Répteis , Animais , Clima , Mudança Climática , França , Região do Mediterrâneo , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 215-230, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759449

RESUMO

Amphibians are a remarkably diverse group of vertebrates with lifestyles ranging from fully aquatic to entirely terrestrial. Although some aspects of renal anatomy and physiology are similar among all amphibians, species differences in nitrogenous waste production and broad normal variation in plasma osmolality and composition make definitive antemortem diagnosis of renal disease challenging. Treatment is often empirical and aimed at addressing possible underlying infection, reducing abnormal fluid accumulation, and optimizing husbandry practices to support metabolic and fluid homeostasis. This article reviews amphibian renal anatomy and physiology, provides recommendations for diagnostic and therapeutic options, and discusses etiologies of renal disease.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/anatomia & histologia , Nefropatias/veterinária , Neoplasias/veterinária , Anfíbios/fisiologia , Animais , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/terapia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/terapia
6.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 285: 113269, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493395

RESUMO

It is often hypothesized that organisms exposed to environmental change may experience physiological stress, which could reduce individual quality and make them more susceptible to disease. Amphibians are amongst the most threatened taxa, particularly in the context of disease, but relatively few studies explore links between stress and disease in amphibian species. Here, we use the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and amphibians as an example to explore relationships between disease and glucocorticoids (GCs), metabolic hormones that comprise one important component of the stress response. While previous work is limited, it has largely identified positive relationships between GCs and Bd-infection. However, the causality remains unclear and few studies have integrated both baseline (GC release that is related to standard, physiological functioning) and stress-induced (GC release in response to an acute stressor) measures of GCs. Here, we examine salivary corticosterone before and after exposure to a stressor, in both field and captive settings. We present results for Bd-infected and uninfected individuals of three amphibian species with differential susceptibilities to this pathogen (Rana catesbeiana, R. clamitans, and R. sylvatica). We hypothesized that prior to stress, baseline GCs would be higher in Bd-infected animals, particularly in more Bd-susceptible species. We also expected that after exposure to a stressor, stress-induced GCs would be lower in Bd-infected animals. These species exhibited significant interspecific differences in baseline and stress induced corticosterone, though other variables like sex, body size, and day of year were usually not predictive of corticosterone. In contrast to most previous work, we found no relationships between Bd and corticosterone for two species (R. catesbeiana and R. clamitans), and in the least Bd-tolerant species (R. sylvatica) animals exhibited context-dependent differences in relationships between Bd infection and corticosterone: Bd-positive R. sylvatica had significantly lower baseline and stress-induced corticosterone, with this pattern being stronger in the field than in captivity. These results were surprising, as past work in other species has more often found elevated GCs in Bd-positive animals, a pattern that aligns with well-documented relationships between chronically high GCs, reduced individual quality, and immunosuppression. This work highlights the potential relevance of GCs to disease susceptibility in the context of amphibian declines, while underscoring the importance of characterizing these relationships in diverse contexts.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/metabolismo , Anfíbios/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos/fisiologia , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Micoses/metabolismo , Micoses/microbiologia , Animais , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Modelos Lineares , Fenótipo , Estresse Fisiológico
7.
Ecol Lett ; 23(1): 88-98, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637835

RESUMO

Symbiotic microbial communities are important for host health, but the processes shaping these communities are poorly understood. Understanding how community assembly processes jointly affect microbial community composition is limited because inflexible community models rely on rejecting dispersal and drift before considering selection. We developed a flexible community assembly model based on neutral theory to ask: How do dispersal, drift and selection concurrently affect the microbiome across environmental gradients? We applied this approach to examine how a fungal pathogen affected the assembly processes structuring the amphibian skin microbiome. We found that the rejection of neutrality for the amphibian microbiome across a fungal gradient was not strictly due to selection processes, but was also a result of species-specific changes in dispersal and drift. Our modelling framework brings the qualitative recognition that niche and neutral processes jointly structure microbiomes into quantitative focus, allowing for improved predictions of microbial community turnover across environmental gradients.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micoses , Anfíbios , Animais , Fungos , Pele
8.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(2): 437-457, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866683

RESUMO

The growth of aquaculture over the past 50 years has been accompanied by the emergence of aquatic animal diseases, many of which have spread to become pandemic in countries or continents. An analysis of 400 emerging disease events in aquatic animals that were logged by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science between 2002 and 2017 revealed that more than half were caused by viruses. However, in molluscs, most events were parasitic. Categorising these events indicated that the key processes underpinning emergence were the movement of live animals and host switching. Profiles of key pathogens further illustrate the importance of wild aquatic animals as the source of new infections in farmed animals. It is also clear that the spread of new diseases through the largescale movement of aquatic animals for farming, for food and for the ornamental trade has allowed many to achieve pandemic status. Many viral pathogens of fish (e.g. infectious salmon anaemia, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia) and shrimp (e.g. white spot syndrome virus) affect a large proportion of the global production of key susceptible species. Wild aquatic animal populations have also been severely affected by pandemic diseases, best exemplified by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a fungal infection of amphibians, whose emergence and spread were driven by the movement of animals for the ornamental trade. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is now widespread in the tropics and subtropics and has caused local extinctions of susceptible amphibian hosts. Given the rising demand for seafood, aquacultural production will continue to grow and diseases will continue to emerge. Some will inevitably achieve pandemic status, having significant impacts on production and trade, unless there are considerable changes in global monitoring and the response to aquatic animal diseases.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Pandemias/veterinária , Frutos do Mar , Animais , Aquicultura , Quitridiomicetos , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Frutos do Mar/parasitologia , Frutos do Mar/virologia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4567(1): zootaxa.4567.1.11, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716446

RESUMO

Between mid-May and early June of 1839, members of the United States Exploring Expedition collected diverse anurans in the environs of Valparaíso, Chile, later described by Girard in 1853. Of this set of species, Metaeus timidus, described there as a new genus and species, attracts attention because is a name that practically disappeared from the herpetological literature. Its identification, along with that of the other Chilean taxa collected by the USEE (Cystignathus nebulosus Girard, 1853, Pleurodema bibroni Tschudi, 1838, Pleurodema elegans Bell, 1843, Bufo lugubrosus Girard, 1853, Bufo thaul Lesson, 1826 and Metaeus timidus Girard, 1853) are the main objectives of this contribution.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Animais , Anuros , Chile , Expedições , Estados Unidos
10.
Biol Lett ; 15(11): 20190649, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744413

RESUMO

Anthropogenic noise has become a major global pollutant and studies have shown that noise can affect animals. However, such single studies cannot provide holistic quantitative assessments on the potential effects of noise across species. Using a multi-level phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis, we provide the first holistic quantitative analysis on the effects of anthropogenic noise. We found that noise affects many species of amphibians, arthropods, birds, fish mammals, molluscs and reptilians. Interestingly, phylogeny contributes only little to the variation in response to noise. Thus, the effects of anthropogenic noise can be explained by the majority of species responding to noise rather than a few species being particularly sensitive to noise. Consequently, anthropogenic noise must be considered as a serious form of environmental change and pollution as it affects both aquatic and terrestrial species. Our analyses provide the quantitative evidence necessary for legislative bodies to regulate this environmental stressor more effectively.


Assuntos
Aves , Ruído , Anfíbios , Animais , Peixes , Mamíferos
11.
Zootaxa ; 4638(2): zootaxa.4638.2.7, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712479

RESUMO

Mexico contains a large number of amphibian and reptile species, and the states in the southeastern part of the country are the richest and most diverse. Although the study of species richness within Mexico's individual states has been increasing over the last two decades, herpetofaunal species lists for several states in the central region are incomplete. Herein, we provide a list of the herpetofauna of the state of Querétaro, a state that remains relatively unexplored. We also indicate the conservation status of the component species in the state, based on the national and international categorizations, as well as their Environmental Vulnerability Scores (EVS). Based on a review of literature and specimens in scientific collections, our results show that the herpetofauna of Querétaro currently is composed of 138 species, of which 34 are amphibians (27 anurans and seven caudates) and 104 are reptiles (three turtles, 34 lizards, and 67 snakes). The number of Mexican endemic species occurring in the state consists of 19 amphibians and 50 reptiles, representing 55.9% and 48.1%, respectively, of the total numbers in these groups. A total of 61 species (13 species of amphibians and 48 of reptiles) are listed in NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, within the categories of Special Protection (Pr) and Threatened (A). According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN 2019), 34 species of amphibians (100% of species) and 87 species of reptiles (83.65% of a total of 104) have been placed within a risk category, i.e., except for the DD and NE categories. The EVS results show that nine species of amphibians have high environmental vulnerability, 11 species medium vulnerability, and 14 low vulnerability, whereas among the reptiles, 22 species have high vulnerability, 43 medium vulnerability, and 37 species low vulnerability. The herpetofauna of Querétaro illustrates a high level of species richness, which is typical of central Mexico, as well as diverse groupings associated with the arid, temperate, and tropical environments found in the state. These types of studies are necessary for increasing our knowledge of the herpetofauna in the various states of Mexico, as well as for evaluating the conservation status and implementing management plans for species in both herpetofaunal groups.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Lagartos , Serpentes , Tartarugas , Anfíbios , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , México , Répteis
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4709, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624263

RESUMO

Parental care is extremely diverse across species, ranging from simple behaviours to complex adaptations, varying in duration and in which sex cares. Surprisingly, we know little about how such diversity has evolved. Here, using phylogenetic comparative methods and data for over 1300 amphibian species, we show that egg attendance, arguably one of the simplest care behaviours, is gained and lost faster than any other care form, while complex adaptations, like brooding and viviparity, are lost at very low rates, if at all. Prolonged care from the egg to later developmental stages evolves from temporally limited care, but it is as easily lost as it is gained. Finally, biparental care is evolutionarily unstable regardless of whether the parents perform complementary or similar care duties. By considering the full spectrum of parental care adaptations, our study reveals a more complex and nuanced picture of how care evolves, is maintained, or is lost.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Comportamento Paterno/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Anfíbios/classificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Zoo Biol ; 38(6): 471-480, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602677

RESUMO

Despite the global declines in the rate of amphibians, evaluation of public understanding of the crisis has not yet been carried out. We surveyed visitors (n = 1,293) at 15 zoos in Brazil, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, using a certainty-based assessment method to compare visitor knowledge of the global amphibian crisis. We further analyzed zoo educational material about amphibians to explore its potential to raise awareness through amphibian-focused environmental education. Visitors in the three countries had relatively little understanding of amphibians and the global amphibian crisis. When the degree of confidence in answering the questions (high, medium, and low) is accounted for, correct answers varied between 28% and 39%. This compared to scores of between 58% and 73% when the degree of confidence in responding was not accounted for. However, specific areas of knowledge (e.g., biology, conservation, biogeography, and conceptual ideas) varied significantly across the countries. Visitors had a weaker grasp of biogeographical and conservation issues than general amphibian biology. Zoo visitors in Brazil knew less about amphibian conservation than those in New Zealand or the United Kingdom. There was less amphibian-focused content in educational materials in zoos in Brazil than there was in the United Kingdom. Improving information about the global amphibian crisis may increase support for future conservation actions. Outreach education is one of the most important approaches in any strategic planning for conservation of species. Amphibian-focused environmental education at institutions such as zoos and aquaria can be a crucial intervention to support amphibian conservation worldwide.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Brasil , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Dinâmica Populacional , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(4): 571-578, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511915

RESUMO

Watershed acidification and poor water quality can deleteriously affect amphibian populations. Between 1990 and 2008, we sampled 333 small, permanent (inundated year round) waterbodies that drain forested areas in the Algoma, Muskoka and Sudbury regions of central Ontario, Canada to determine whether water chemistry parameters, fish presence, and waterbody area and depth predict amphibian presence or diversity. Amphibians were present in some low-pH waterbodies, contrasting earlier studies, and generally water chemistry was not a strong indicator of amphibian presence or diversity in central Ontario. We suspect that other biotic and abiotic factors have a stronger effect on amphibian presence, and that the relationships between chemical and physical attributes and amphibian presence are complex. Future research should focus on long-term habitat change in central Ontario waterbodies to determine how watershed degradation has affected amphibians.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Animais , Peixes , Florestas , Ontário , Qualidade da Água
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 413-463, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471805

RESUMO

Amphibians have experienced a catastrophic decline since the 1980s driven by disease, habitat loss, and impacts of invasive species and face ongoing threats from climate change. About 40% of extant amphibians are under threat of extinction and about 200 species have disappeared completely. Reproductive technologies and biobanking of cryopreserved materials offer technologies that could increase the efficiency and effectiveness of conservation programs involving management of captive breeding and wild populations through reduced costs, better genetic management and reduced risk of species extinctions. However, there are relatively few examples of applications of these technologies in practice in on-the-ground conservation programs, and no example that we know of where genetic diversity has been restored to a threatened amphibian species in captive breeding or in wild populations using cryopreserved genetic material. This gap in the application of technology to conservation programs needs to be addressed if assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and biobanking are to realise their potential in amphibian conservation. We review successful technologies including non-invasive gamete collection, IVF and sperm cryopreservation that work well enough to be applied to many current conservation programs. We consider new advances in technology (vitrification and laser warming) of cryopreservation of aquatic embryos of fish and some marine invertebrates that may help us to overcome factors limiting amphibian oocyte and embryo cryopreservation. Finally, we address two case studies that illustrate the urgent need and the opportunity to implement immediately ARTs, cryopreservation and biobanking to amphibian conservation. These are (1) managing the biosecurity (disease risk) of the frogs of New Guinea which are currently free of chytridiomycosis, but are at high risk (2) the Sehuencas water frog of Bolivia, which until recently had only one known surviving male.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/veterinária , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
16.
Ecol Appl ; 29(8): e01995, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483894

RESUMO

Streamside management zones (i.e., riparian buffers; SMZs) are commonly implemented within managed forests to protect water quality but may also provide habitat for riparian-associated wildlife. Yet, little research has rigorously addressed the value of SMZs for wildlife, particularly for cryptic species such as amphibians and reptiles. Previous studies of herpetofauna within SMZs have focused on one or a few stream-associated species, and questions remain regarding variation among species or guilds and what role SMZs serve toward conservation of herpetofaunal diversity in managed forests. However, recent statistical advances have improved our ability to analyze large multi-species presence-absence data sets, accounting for low detection rates typical for some herpetofaunal species. Our study represents an extensive landscape-scale examination of herpetofaunal communities within SMZs using a multi-species occupancy approach. We conducted four replicate surveys at 102 headwater streams, spanning a gradient of SMZ widths and adjacent forest stand ages, within the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA. We used a hierarchical Bayesian community occupancy model to estimate species richness and species-specific occupancy responses to SMZ and overstory characteristics, accounting for variation in occupancy and detection attributable to site and sampling covariates. We documented high richness (37 species) within SMZs. Across the herpetofaunal community, occupancy and species richness were consistently positively associated with SMZ width, with maximum predicted richness of 30 species occurring at sites with buffers extending 51 m on either side of the stream. However, we documented considerable variation among groups and species within groups, underscoring the potential for different responses to forest management among taxa. Reptile predicted richness increased more rapidly up to SMZs of ~35 m, whereas maximum salamander predicted richness was not seen until an SMZ width of 55 m. Estimated salamander richness was highest within SMZs embedded in mature managed pine stands and was higher in SMZs comprised of a deciduous or mixed overstory vs. a pine overstory. Compared to salamanders, more anuran species showed high mean estimated occupancy (>75%) at narrower SMZs (<30 m). Collectively, our results indicate that SMZs surrounding small first-order streams in intensively managed forests not only protect water quality, but also can support diverse amphibian and reptile communities.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Répteis , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , Tampões (Química) , Ecossistema , Florestas
17.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 367-385, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395320

RESUMO

Over the last 10 years, exotic animal clinical pathology has been evolving, improving health assessment in avian, mammal, fish, reptile, and amphibian patients. These advances are reviewed in this article. Species-specific reference intervals for blood parameters are becoming more available (eg, for ionized calcium, endocrine panels, and vitamin D plasmatic concentrations). In addition, new technologies are being developed to facilitate targeted metabolite detection and result acquisition by veterinarians. Novel techniques, biomarkers, and clinical changes related to disease have been described in avian, mammal, fish, reptile and amphibian species. The use of mobile applications may also be helpful.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Patologia Clínica/tendências , Medicina Veterinária/tendências , Anfíbios , Animais , Aves , Peixes , Mamíferos , Répteis , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 387-396, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395321

RESUMO

Technology plays a vital role in herpetoculture because ectothermic animals rely on their environment to carry out basic physiologic functions. Controlling the environment appropriately ensures the health and welfare of captive reptiles and amphibians. This article summarizes some of the technological advances and products currently available, including lighting, climate control, and recordkeeping.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/fisiologia , Répteis/fisiologia , Medicina Veterinária/tendências , Animais , Umidade , Raios Infravermelhos , Luz , Iluminação , Registros/normas , Registros/veterinária , Mídias Sociais/normas , Mídias Sociais/tendências , Temperatura Ambiente , Raios Ultravioleta , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Qualidade da Água/normas
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 693: 133570, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369889

RESUMO

Environmental contamination contributes to the threatened status of many amphibian populations. Many contaminants alter behaviour at concentrations commonly experienced in the environment, with negative consequences for individual fitness, populations and communities. A comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of the behavioural sensitivity of amphibians is warranted to better understand the population-level and resultant ecological impacts of contaminants. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating behavioural changes following exposure to contaminants. Most studies were conducted in North America and Europe on larval stages, and 64% of the 116 studies focussed on the effects of insecticides. We found that a suite of contaminants influence a wide range of behaviours in amphibians, with insecticides typically invoking the strongest responses. In particular, insecticides increased rates of abnormal swimming, and reduced escape responses to simulated predator attacks. Our analysis identified five key needs for future research, in particular the need: (1) for researchers to provide more details of experimental protocols and results (2) to develop a strong research base for future quantitative reviews, (3) to broaden the suite of contaminants tested, (4) to better study and thus understand the effects of multiple stressors, and (5) to establish the ecological importance of behavioural alterations. Behavioural endpoints provide useful sub-lethal indicators of how contaminants influence amphibians, and coupled with standard ecotoxicological endpoints, can provide valuable information for population models assessing the broader ecological consequences of environmental contamination.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecotoxicologia , Europa (Continente) , Inseticidas , Larva , América do Norte
20.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112999, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404734

RESUMO

Drugs are excreted from the human body as both original substances and as metabolites and enter aquatic environment through waste water. The aim of this study was to widen the current knowledge considering the effects of waterborne antidepressants with different modes of action-amitriptyline, venlafaxine, sertraline-on embryos of non-target aquatic biota-fish (represented by Danio rerio) and amphibians (represented by Xenopus tropicalis). The tested concentrations were 0.3; 3; 30; 300 and 3000 µg/L in case of amitriptyline and venlafaxine and 0.1; 1; 10; 100 and 1000 µg/L for sertraline. Test on zebrafish embryos was carried out until 144 h post fertilization, while test on Xenopus embryos was terminated after 48 h. Lethal and sublethal effects as well as swimming alterations were observed at higher tested concentrations that are not present in the environment. In contrast, mRNA expression of genes related to heart, eye, brain and bone development (nkx2.5, otx 2, bmp4 and pax 6) seems to be impacted also at environmentally relevant concentrations. In a wider context, this study reveals several indications on the ability of antidepressants to affect non target animals occupying environments which may be contaminated by such compounds.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/fisiologia , Antidepressivos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Alimentos Marinhos , Natação , Testes de Toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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