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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23148, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181686

RESUMO

To evaluate the perfusion of coronary circulation and its related factors and the difference in the peak filling times in aortic sinus and coronary sinus by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).From January 1 to August 1, 2018, 61 outpatients with angina pectoris were recruited, completed a questionnaire about risk factors and underwent CCTA, which was also used to assess the stenosis of different coronary artery segments.The duration of circulation was 9.50 ±â€Š2.43 seconds in patients with flat T wave, which was shorter than the duration in normal subjects (P = .021). However, other cardiovascular risk factors showed no effect on the duration of circulation. In addition, the duration of circulation was closely related to the peak filling time of coronary sinus [r(s) = 0.681]. We further divided the circulation time difference (delta) values into 3 levels (<6, 6-12, and ≥12 seconds).It showed that the circulation duration (Y) was associated with:Therefore, the cardiac circulation duration was negatively related to the degree of stenosis in the 1 diagonal and proximal LCA.It compensates for the inability of CCTA to assess circulation at rest simply by determining the peak filling time in the aortic sinus and the coronary sinus. Moderate cardiac microcirculation duration was related to a low incidence of clinical symptoms and electrocardiogram disorders, which was determined mainly by the diagonal and left circumflex branch 1 of LCA.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença das Coronárias , Vasos Coronários , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/fisiopatologia , Estenose Coronária/patologia , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e23031, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157953

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The evidence for outpatient pulmonary embolism (PE) management apart from hospitalization is expanding. The availability and ease of direct oral anticoagulants have facilitated this transition. The literature, however, is sparse on the topic of comprehensive management of pulmonary embolism in the primary care clinic setting. As such, the role of the primary care physician in the complete diagnosis, risk stratification for outpatient eligibility, and initiation of treatment is unclear. CASE PRESENTATIONS: Case 1: A 33-year-old man with known heterozygous Factor V Leiden mutation and a remote history of deep vein thrombosis presented to his primary care physician's office with 2 days of mild pleuritic chest pain and a dry cough after a recent transcontinental flight. Case 2: A 48-year-old man with a complex medical history including recent transverse myelitis presented to his primary care family physician with dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain for 6 days. DIAGNOSIS: Case 1: Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography that same afternoon showed multiple bilateral segmental and subsegmental emboli as well as several small pulmonary infarcts. Case 2: The patient's D-dimer was elevated at 1148 ng/mL. His physician ordered a computed tomographic pulmonary angiography, performed that evening, which showed segmental and subsegmental PE. INTERVENTIONS: Both patients were contacted by their respective physicians shortly after their diagnoses and, in shared decision-making, opted for treatment at home with 5 days of enoxaparin followed by dabigatran. OUTCOMES: Neither patient developed recurrence nor complications in the subsequent 3 months. LESSONS: These cases, stratified as low risk using the American College of Chest Physicians criteria and the PE Severity Index, are among the first in the literature to illustrate comprehensive primary care-based outpatient PE management. Care was provided within an integrated delivery system with ready, timely access to laboratory, advanced radiology, and allied health services. This report sets the stage for investigating the public health implications of comprehensive primary care-based PE management, including cost-savings as well as enhanced patient follow-up and patient satisfaction.


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/etiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Transferência de Pacientes/métodos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/normas , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mielite Transversa/complicações , Mielite Transversa/diagnóstico , Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico
3.
Radiol Med ; 125(11): 1135-1147, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047297

RESUMO

In the past decades, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has become a powerful tool in the management of coronary artery disease. The diagnostic and prognostic value of CCTA has been extensively demonstrated in both large observational studies and clinical trials among stable chest pain patients. The quantification of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is a well-established predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in asymptomatic subjects. Besides CACS, the main strength of CCTA is the accurate assessment of the individual total atherosclerotic plaque burden, which holds important prognostic information. In addition, CCTA, by providing detailed information on coronary plaque morphology and composition with identification of specific high-risk plaque features, may further improve the risk stratification beyond the assessment of coronary stenosis. The development of new CCTA applications, such as stress myocardial CT perfusion and computational fluids dynamic applied to standard CCTA to derive CT-based fractional flow reserve (FFR) values have shown promising results to guide revascularization, potentially improving clinical outcomes in stable chest pain patients. In this review, starting from the role of CACS and moving beyond coronary stenosis, we evaluate the existing evidence of the prognostic effectiveness of the CCTA strategy in real-world clinical practice.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Assintomáticas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Humanos , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
J Med Case Rep ; 14(1): 188, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is minimal data available highlighting the prevalence of venous thromboembolism in patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This case report with a literature review emphasizes a unique presentation of COVID-19 that is highly important for health care providers to consider when treating their patients. CASE REPORT: A 65-year-old Caucasian male patient presented to the emergency department with a 2-day history of dyspnea on exertion after his wife's recent diagnosis of COVID-19. He additionally had experienced a couple of episodes of self-resolving diarrhea a few days before presentation. Based on the patient's clinical presentation and the laboratory workup identifying an elevated D-dimer, a computed tomography angiogram of the chest was obtained, which was significant for moderately large, bilateral pulmonary emboli with a saddle embolus, and an associated small, left lower lobe, pulmonary infarct. Ultrasound of the lower extremity showed non-occlusive deep vein thrombosis at the distal left femoral vein to the left popliteal vein. The patient was additionally diagnosed with COVID-19 when the results of the COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test returned as positive. The patient was admitted to the COVID unit, and he was started on an intravenously administered, unfractionated heparin drip for management of his bilateral pulmonary emboli and deep vein thrombosis. The patient's clinical condition improved significantly with anticoagulation, and he was observed in the hospital for 3 days, after which he was discharged home on the enoxaparin bridge with warfarin. Post-discharge telephone calls at day 10 and week 4 revealed that the patient was appropriately responding to anticoagulation treatment and had no recurrence of his symptoms related to venous thromboembolism and COVID-19. CONCLUSION: As COVID-19 continues to lead to significant mortality, more data is emerging that is exposing its perplexing pathogenicity. Meanwhile, the presentation of venous thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19 remains an unusual finding. It is imperative for health care providers to be mindful of this unique association to make necessary diagnostic evaluations and provide appropriate treatment for the patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Veia Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239653, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007053

RESUMO

Rapid endovascular thrombectomy, which can only be delivered in specialist centres, is the most effective treatment for acute ischaemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion (LVO). Pre-hospital selection of these patients is challenging, especially in remote and rural areas due to long transport times and limited access to specialist clinicians and diagnostic facilities. We investigated whether combined transcranial ultrasound and clinical assessment ("TUCA" model) could accurately triage these patients and improve access to thrombectomy. We recruited consecutive patients within 72 hours of suspected stroke, and performed non-contrast transcranial colour-coded ultrasonography within 24 hours of brain computed tomography. We retrospectively collected clinical information, and used hospital discharge diagnosis as the "gold standard". We used binary regression for diagnosis of haemorrhagic stroke, and an ordinal regression model for acute ischaemic stroke with probable LVO, without LVO, transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) and stroke mimics. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and performed a sensitivity analysis. We recruited 107 patients with suspected stroke from July 2017 to December 2019 at two study sites: 13/107 (12%) with probable LVO, 50/107 (47%) with acute ischaemic stroke without LVO, 18/107 (17%) with haemorrhagic stroke, and 26/107 (24%) with stroke mimics or TIA. The model identified 55% of cases with probable LVO who would have correctly been selected for thrombectomy and 97% of cases who would not have required this treatment (sensitivity 55%, specificity 97%, positive and negative predictive values 75% and 93%, respectively). Diagnostic accuracy of the proposed model was superior to the clinical assessment alone. These data suggest that our model might be a useful tool to identify pre-hospital patients requiring mechanical thrombectomy, however a larger sample is required with the use of CT angiogram as a reference test.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Triagem/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22574, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019470

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pulmonary sequestration (PS) presenting with elevated serum tumor markers is rare, and it might be misdiagnosed as malignancy. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 26-year-old asymptomatic male patient was admitted because the x-ray showed an intrathoracic lesion. Meanwhile, the serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was elevated. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography revealed an isolated feeding vessel arising from the aorta. DIAGNOSES: Extralobular PS was confirmed by computed tomography angiography and postoperative pathological staining. INTERVENTIONS: Two-port thoracoscopic resection of the sequestrated lobe was performed. OUTCOMES: The serum NSE decreased to within the normal range and persisted during the follow up of 10 months. LESSONS: A thorough work-up should be considered for the PS patients presenting with abnormal serum NSE. Detailed knowledge regarding the relationship between NSE and PS necessitates further studies.


Assuntos
Sequestro Broncopulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/sangue , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Aorta/anormalidades , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Sequestro Broncopulmonar/patologia , Sequestro Broncopulmonar/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Eur J Radiol ; 132: 109336, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To define the prevalence of pulmonary thromboembolic (PTE) disease diagnosed on CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in COVID-19 patients. To assess distribution of PTE and to evaluate for association between severity of COVID-19 disease, D-dimer values and incidence of PTE. METHODS: Patients with diagnosis of COVID-19 presenting to 5 different hospitals across Greater Manchester between 1st March 2020 and 30th April 2020 who had CTPA were included. CTPA images were evaluated for presence of PTE, distribution of PTE (in small and/or large vessels) and distribution of PTE within lungs with or without COVID-19 CT changes. Severity of COVID lung changes were graded. D-dimer values within 72 h of CTPA were obtained. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate for any significant association between variables. p values of ≤0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 974 patients presented across five hospital sites with COVID-19 infection. Eighty-four (n = 84) COVID-19 patients underwent CTPA. Of these, 38 % (32/84) had PTE. PTE was seen in small vessels in 75 % (24/32) and in lungs demonstrating COVID-19 changes in 72 % (23/32). 84 % (27/32) of PTE positive patients had disease severity of moderate or higher score (p = 0.005). D-dimer values were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.001) in PTE patients, median value in PTE group was 6441mcg/L (range 219-90925). A D-dimer cut off value of 2247mcg/L provides sensitivity of 0.72 and specificity of 0.74. CONCLUSION: There is increased prevalence of PTE in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 disease. D-dimer values may have potential in guiding anticoagulation therapy and prognostication.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prevalência , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 587, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no published cases of tonic-clonic seizures and posterior bilateral blindness during pregnancy and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus (COV) 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection. We do not just face new and unknown manifestations, but also how different patient groups are affected by SARS-COV-2 infection, such as pregnant women. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), preeclampsia, eclampsia and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy share endothelium damage and similar pathophysiology. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old pregnant woman was admitted for tonic-clonic seizures and SARS-COV-2 infection. She had a normal pregnancy control and no other symptoms before tonic-clonic seizures development. After a Caesarean section (C-section) she developed high blood pressure, and we initiated antihypertensive treatment with labetalol, amlodipine and captopril. Few hours later she developed symptoms of cortical blindness that resolved in 72 h with normal brain computed tomography (CT) angiography. CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that SARS COV-2 infection could promote brain endothelial damage and facilitate neurological complications during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cegueira Cortical , Cesárea/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Eclampsia , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Convulsões , Adulto , Cegueira Cortical/diagnóstico , Cegueira Cortical/virologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eclampsia/diagnóstico , Eclampsia/terapia , Eclampsia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Radiol Med ; 125(11): 1024-1039, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930945

RESUMO

Computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) has become a cornerstone in the diagnostic process of the heart disease. Although the cardiac imaging with interventional procedures is responsible for approximately 40% of the cumulative effective dose in medical imaging, a relevant radiation dose reduction over the last decade was obtained, with the beginning of the sub-mSv era in CTCA. The main technical basis to obtain a radiation dose reduction in CTCA is the use of a low tube voltage, the adoption of a prospective electrocardiogram-triggering spiral protocol and the application of the tube current modulation with the iterative reconstruction technique. Nevertheless, CTCA examinations are characterized by a wide range of radiation doses between different radiology departments. Moreover, the dose exposure in CTCA is extremely important because the benefit-risk calculus in comparison with other modalities also depends on it. Finally, because anatomical evaluation not adequately predicts the hemodynamic relevance of coronary stenosis, a low radiation dose in routine CTCA would allow the greatest use of the myocardial CT perfusion, fractional flow reserve-CT, dual-energy CT and artificial intelligence, to shift focus from morphological assessment to a comprehensive morphological and functional evaluation of the stenosis. Therefore, the aim of this work is to summarize the correct use of the technical basis in order that CTCA becomes an established examination for assessment of the coronary artery disease with low radiation dose.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , Índice de Massa Corporal , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/instrumentação , Circulação Coronária , Feminino , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Radiol Med ; 125(11): 1102-1113, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964325

RESUMO

The world of cardiac imaging is proposing to physicians an ever-increasing spectrum of options and tools with the disadvantages of patients presently submitted to multiple, sequential, time-consuming, and costly diagnostic procedures and tests, sometimes with contradicting results. In the last two decades, the CCTA has evolved into a valuable diagnostic test in today's patient care, changing the official existing guidelines and clinical practice with a pivotal role to exclude significant CAD, in the referral of patients to the Cath-Lab, in the follow-up after coronary revascularization, and finally in the cardiovascular risk stratification.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Angina Estável/diagnóstico por imagem , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Medição de Risco
11.
Radiol Med ; 125(11): 1013-1023, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964326

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview on the role of CT scan and MRI according to selected guidelines by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA). ESC and ACC/AHA guidelines were systematically reviewed for recommendations to CT and MRI use in specific cardiovascular (CV) clinical categories. All recommendations were collected in a dataset, including the class of recommendation, the level of evidence (LOE), the specific imaging technique, the clinical purpose of the recommendation and the recommending Society. Among the 43 included guidelines (ESC: n = 18, ACC/AHA: n = 25), 26 (60.4%) contained recommendations for CT scan or MRI (146 recommendations: 62 for CT and 84 for MRI). Class of recommendation IIa (32.9%) was the most represented, followed by I (28.1%), IIb (24%) and III (11.9%). MRI recommendations more frequently being of higher class (I: 36.9%, IIa: 29.8%, IIb: 21.4%, III: 11.9%) as compared to CT (I: 16.1%, IIa: 37.1%, IIb: 27.4%, III: 19.4%). Most of recommendation (55.5%) were based on expert opinion (LOE C). The use of cardiac CT and cardiac MR in the risk assessment, diagnosis, therapeutic and procedural planning is in continuous development, driven by an increasing need to evolve toward an imaging-guided precision medicine, combined with cost-effectiveness and healthcare sustainability. These developments must be accompanied by an increased availability of high-performance scanners in healthcare facilities and should emphasize the need of increasing the number of radiologists fully trained in cardiac imaging.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Europa (Continente) , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Prevenção Primária , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) and assessment of collateral flow with multiphase computed tomography angiography (CTA) have been investigated as predictors of clinical outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This study assessed the value of multiphase CTA ASPECTS in predicting final infarction core and clinical outcome in patients undergoing endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We retrospectively studied consecutive patients who underwent multiphase CTA prior to endovascular treatment of acute stroke due to anterior circulation large artery occlusion. Multiphase CTA and final diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) scans were evaluated by two independent observers for NCCT ASPECTS, acute phase CTA (CTA-AP) ASPECTS, delayed phase CTA (CTA-DP) ASPECTS, and final DWI ASPECTS. Modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 at 3 months was considered a favorable outcome. RESULTS: A total of 74 patients were analyzed. We found that CTA-DP ASPECTS (r = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.91; p < 0.001) correlated with final DWI ASPECTS better than NCCT ASPECTS (r = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.39-0.59) and CTA-AP ASPECTS (r = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64-0.78). Interobserver agreement was higher for CTA-DP ASPECTS (k = 0.84). Good CTA-DP ASPECTS was an independent predictor of favorable outcome (odds ratio, 8.71; 95% CI, 3.71-17.3; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: CTA-DP ASPECTS is a reliable predictor of final infarction core and neurological outcome.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Infarto/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(5): 708-713, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assessing collateral status is important in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The purpose of this study was to establish an easy and rapid method for evaluating collateral flow. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with AIS were enrolled. The patients were aged 18 to 85 years with endovascular therapy treatment within 10 hours after the appearance of stroke symptoms, prestroke modified Rankin Scale ≤1, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score ≥6, and the occlusion of large vessels in anterior circulation. We reformed imaging strategies by conducting a small-dose group-injection test before normal computed tomography angiography (CTA) scanning and selected the visual collateral score and the regional leptomeningeal score scales as the single-phase CTA collateral flow assessment scales with the replacement of the parasagittal anterior cerebral artery territory by anterior cerebral artery regions adjacent to the longitudinal fissure and then verified, respectively, the consistencies between the 2 single-phase CTA-based collateral scales and the digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-based American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology scale and compared the prognosis of endovascular therapy between the AIS patients in the poor-collateral-flow group and the other patients' group assessed by 2 single-phase CTA-based collateral scales. RESULTS: There was a high consistency between the 2 single-phase CTA-based collateral flow scales with DSA-based American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology scale. The assessment by using CTA-based collateral flow assessment methods generated consistent results. CONCLUSION: The single-phase CTA-based visual collateral score scale and regional leptomeningeal score scale can be used as the imaging evidence for the evaluation of collateral flow in AIS patients in the majority of grassroots hospitals where DSA is difficult to carry out.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Circulação Colateral/fisiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Angiografia Digital/métodos , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
15.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(5): 790-795, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The state-of-art motion correction algorithm is inadequate for correcting motion artifacts in coronary arteries in cardiovascular computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for children with high heart rates, and even less effective for heart structures beyond coronary arteries. PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a second-generation, whole-heart motion correction algorithm in improving the heart image quality of CCTA for children with high heart rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two consecutive symptomatic cardiac patients with high heart rates (122.6 ± 18.8 beats/min) were enrolled. All patients underwent CCTA on a 256-row CT using a prospective electrocardiogram-triggered single-beat protocol. Images were reconstructed using a standard algorithm (STD), state-of-the-art first-generation coronary artery motion correction algorithm (MC1), and second-generation, whole-heart motion correction algorithm (MC2). The image quality of the origin of left coronary, right coronary, aortic valve, pulmonary valve, mitral valve, tricuspid valve, aorta root, pulmonary artery root, ventricular septum (VS), and atrial septum (AS) was assessed by 2 experienced radiologists using a 4-point scale (1, nondiagnostic; 2, detectable; 3, measurable; and 4, excellent); nonparametric test was used to analyze and compare the differences among 3 groups; and post hoc multiple comparisons were used between different methods. RESULTS: There were group differences for cardiac structures except VS and AS, with MC2 having the best image quality and STD having the worst image quality. Post hoc multiple comparisons showed that MC2 was better than MC1 and STD in all structures except VS and AS where all 3 algorithms performed equally, whereas MC1 was better than STD only in the origin of left coronary, right coronary, and mitral valve. CONCLUSIONS: A second-generation, whole-heart motion correction algorithm further significantly improves cardiac image quality beyond the coronaries in CCTA for pediatric patients with high heart rates.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Respir Med ; 172: 106135, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947171

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients hospitalized for infection with SARS-CoV-2 typically present with pneumonia. The respiratory failure is frequently complicated by pulmonary embolism in segmental pulmonary arteries. The distribution of pulmonary embolism in regard to lung parenchymal opacifications has not been investigated yet. METHODS: All patients with COVID-19 treated at a medical intensive care unit between March 8th and April 15th, 2020 undergoing computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) were included. All CTPA were assessed by two radiologists independently in respect to parenchymal changes and pulmonary embolism on a lung segment basis. RESULTS: Out of 22 patients with severe COVID-19 treated within the observed time period, 16 (age 60.4 ± 10.2 years, 6 female SAPS2 score 49.2 ± 13.9) underwent CT. A total of 288 lung segment were analyzed. Thrombi were detectable in 9/16 (56.3%) patients, with 4.4 ± 2.9 segments occluded per patient and 40/288 (13.9%) segments affected in the whole cohort. Patients with thrombi had significantly worse segmental opacifications in CT (p < 0.05) and all thrombi were located in opacitated segments. There was no correlation between d-dimer level and number of occluded segmental arteries. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombi in segmental pulmonary arteries are common in COVID-19 and are located in opacitated lung segments. This might suggest local clot formation.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto , Trombose , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coagulação Sanguínea , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Radiografia Torácica/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/etiologia
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(8)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747596
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(8)2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747597

RESUMO

We describe a patient with COVID-19 who developed simultaneous pulmonary, intracardiac and peripheral arterial thrombosis. A 58-year-old man, without major comorbidity, was admitted with a 14-day history of breathlessness. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was confirmed by laboratory testing. Initial imaging revealed COVID-19 pneumonia but no pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) on CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The patient subsequently developed respiratory failure and left foot ischaemia associated with a rising D-dimer. Repeat CTPA and lower limb CT angiography revealed simultaneous bilateral PTE, biventricular cardiac thrombi and bilateral lower limb arterial occlusions. This case highlights a broad range of vascular sequalae associated with COVID-19 and the fact that these can occur despite a combination of prophylactic and treatment dose anticoagulation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Cardiopatias , Pandemias , Doença Arterial Periférica , Pneumonia Viral , Embolia Pulmonar , Trombose , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Deterioração Clínica , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/etiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21434, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756153

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Intracranial aneurysm with the first manifestation of acute subdural hematoma (aSDH) is rare in the field of neurosurgery. Usually subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracranial hematoma happens after the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, whereas trauma is the primary cause of aSDH. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we present the case of a 71-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous aSDH with progressive headache and vomiting. DIAGNOSIS: Urgent head computed tomography (CT) identified an aSHD, but the patient had no history of trauma. CT angiography (CTA) identified the cause of the aSDH as rupture of an intracranial aneurysm in the left middle cerebral artery. INTERVENTIONS: Emergent craniotomy with hematoma evacuation was performed. OUTCOMES: Due to prompt diagnosis and appropriate intervention, the patient recovered fully with no disability. LESSONS: This unique case demonstrates that aSDH caused by intracranial aneurysm rupture requires timely identification and appropriate action to prevent adverse outcomes. We performed a comprehensive systematic literature review to examine the etiology and pathogenesis of non-traumatic aSDH. Furthermore, digital subtraction angiography should be considered in patients diagnosed with an aSDH with no known cause.


Assuntos
Angiografia Digital/métodos , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/etiologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/patologia , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia Digital/normas , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Craniotomia/métodos , Feminino , Cefaleia/etiologia , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma Subdural Agudo/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/etiologia
20.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1115): 20200078, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Qualitative and quantitative image analysis between Iopamidol-370 and Ioversol-320 in stents´ evaluation by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: Sixty-five patients with low-risk stable angina undergoing stent follow-up with coronary CTA were assigned to Iopamidol I-370 (n = 33) or Ioversol I-320 (n = 32) in this prospective, double-blind, non-inferiority, randomized trial. Stent lumen image quality was graded by 5-point Likert Scale. Lumen mean attenuation was measured at native coronary segments: pre-stent, post-stent, distal segments and at coronary plaques. Lumen attenuation increase (LAI) ratio was calculated for all stents. Heart rate (HR) variation, premature heart beats (PHB), heat sensation (HS), blooming and beam hardening were also assessed. RESULTS: Image quality was similar between groups, with no significant difference (Likert score 4.48 ± 0.75 vs 4.54 ± 0.65, p = 0.5). There were similarities in LAI ratio between I-370 and I-320 (0.39 ± 0.42 vs 0.48 ± 0.44 HU, p = 0.08). Regarding lumen mean attenuation at native coronary segments, a significant difference was observed, with I-320 presenting lower values, including contrast mean attenuation in distal segments. After statistical multivariate analysis, three variables correlated with stent image quality: 1) stent diameter, 2) HR variation and 3) stent lumen LAI ratio. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference between Iopamidol-370 mgI ml-1 and Ioversol-320 mgI ml-1 contrasts regarding overall stent lumen image quality, which was mainly influenced by stent diameter, HR and LAI ratio.Advances in knowledge:Coronary CTA allows adequate stents' visualization and image quality is influenced by stent diameter, HR variation and LAI ratio.Stents' image quality showed no difference between different concentration contrasts (I-370 vs. I-320); however, higher concentration contrasts may provide an improved overall visualization, especially regarding coronary distal segments.


Assuntos
Angina Estável/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Meios de Contraste , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Iopamidol , Stents , Ácidos Tri-Iodobenzoicos , Angina Estável/terapia , Artefatos , Complexos Cardíacos Prematuros , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/efeitos adversos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/normas , Angiografia Coronária/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária/normas , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Stents/estatística & dados numéricos
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