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1.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 539-548, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948300

RESUMO

In an in vitro screening for human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) inhibiting agents from higher plants, the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of Magydaris pastinacea seeds selectively inhibited hCA IX and hCA XII isoforms. The phytochemical investigation of the extracts led to the isolation of ten linear furocoumarins (1-10), four simple coumarins (12-15) and a new angular dihydrofurocoumarin (11). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on 1 D and 2 D NMR, MS, and ECD data analysis. All isolated compounds were inactive towards the ubiquitous cytosolic isoform hCA I and II (Ki > 10,000 nM) while they were significantly active against the tumour-associated isoforms hCA IX and XII. Umbelliprenin was the most potent coumarin inhibiting hCA XII isoform with a Ki of 5.7 nM. The cytotoxicity of the most interesting compounds on HeLa cancer cells was also investigated.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Cumarínicos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Sementes/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
2.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 549-554, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967484

RESUMO

A small series of 2,4-dioxothiazolidinyl acetic acids was prepared from thiourea, chloroacetic acid, aromatic aldehydes, and ethyl-2-bromoacetate. They were assayed for the inhibition of four physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms of human (h) origin, the cytosolic hCA I and II, and the transmembrane hCA IX and XII, involved among others in tumorigenesis (hCA IX and XII) and glaucoma (hCA II and XII). The two cytosolic isoforms were not inhibited by these carboxylates, which were also rather ineffective as hCA IX inhibitors. On the other hand, they showed submicromolar hCA XII inhibition, with KIs in the range of 0.30-0.93 µM, making them highly CA XII-selective inhibitors.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/classificação , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Acetatos/síntese química , Acetatos/química , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/síntese química , Tiazóis/química
3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 188: 112021, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901743

RESUMO

A series of novel sulfonamide derivatives bearing pyrrole and pyrrolopyrimidine scaffolds were synthesized and screened as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The inhibition activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated against the cytosolic human carbonic anhydrase isoforms I and II and the transmembranal isoforms IX and XII. Several candidates showed potent inhibitory activity against IX and XII isoforms. Furthermore, ex vivo screening of cytotoxic selectivity and activity of the most potent derivatives were carried out against normal cells (WI38) and cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) under normal and hypoxic conditions using acetazolamide as reference drug. Compound 11b potency was nearly three folds higher in hypoxic than normoxic condition whereas that of compound 11f was nearly four folds higher in hypoxic vs. normoxic HeLa cells. All the screened derivatives exhibited less potency on normal cells (WI38). Molecular docking was carried out to discover the possible binding mode of compounds within the active site of isoform CA IX.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/química , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Anidrase Carbônica IX/química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/toxicidade , Domínio Catalítico , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HeLa , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/toxicidade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade
4.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 506-510, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928252

RESUMO

The hypothesis that sulfocoumarin acting as inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) cancer-associated isoforms hCA IX and - hCA XII is being able to also inhibit thioredoxin reductase was verified and confirmed. The dual targeting of two cancer cell defence mechanisms, i.e. hypoxia and oxidative stress, may both contribute to the observed antiproliferative profile of these compounds against many cancer cell lines. This unprecedented dual anticancer mechanism may lead to a new approach for designing innovative therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/síntese química , Cumarínicos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
5.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 391-397, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865754

RESUMO

The emergence of tumour recurrence and resistance limits the survival rate for most tumour-bearing patients. Only, combination therapies targeting pathways involved in the induction and in the maintenance of cancer growth and progression might potentially result in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we provided a prospective combination treatment that includes suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a well-known inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), and SLC-0111, a novel inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX. We proved that HDAC inhibition with SAHA in combination with SLC-0111 affects cell viability and colony forming capability to greater extent than either treatment alone of breast, colorectal and melanoma cancer cells. At the molecular level, this therapeutic regimen resulted in a synergistically increase of histone H4 and p53 acetylation in all tested cell lines. Overall, our findings showed that SAHA and SLC-0111 can be regarded as very attractive combination providing a potential therapeutic strategy against different cancer models.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/síntese química , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos de Fenilureia/síntese química , Compostos de Fenilureia/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 185: 111811, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693947

RESUMO

Functionalised aliphatic selenols, straightforwardly obtained through ring-opening reaction of strained heterocycles, represent a new chemotype acting as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs). These compounds showed pronounced selectivity towards the cytosolic human (h) isoforms such as the hCA I, II and VII rather than the membrane tumor associate hCA IX. In addition, we reported for the first time the X-ray crystal structure of an aliphatic selenol bound to the hCA I zinc ion, and that afforded the opportunity to decipher in detail the inhibition mechanism underpinning such a new class of CAIs. In this context selenols are interesting leads worth developing for the obtainment of novel and efficient selective CAIs potentially useful for the management of a variety of diseases including glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, epilepsy and arthritis.


Assuntos
Anidrase Carbônica II/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica I/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Compostos de Selênio/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Anidrase Carbônica I/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica II/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos de Selênio/síntese química , Compostos de Selênio/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 298-305, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809607

RESUMO

Pursuing on our efforts toward searching for efficient hCA IX and hCA XII inhibitors, herein we report the design and synthesis of new sets of benzofuran-based sulphonamides (4a,b, 5a,b, 9a-c, and 10a-d), featuring the zinc anchoring benzenesulfonamide moiety linked to a benzofuran tail via a hydrazine or hydrazide linker. All the target benzofurans were examined for their inhibitory activities toward isoforms hCA I, II, IX, and XII. The target tumour-associated hCA IX and XII isoforms were efficiently inhibited with KIs spanning in ranges 10.0-97.5 and 10.1-71.8 nM, respectively. Interestingly, arylsulfonehydrazones 9 displayed the best selectivity toward hCA IX and XII over hCA I (SIs: 39.4-250.3 and 26.0-149.9, respectively), and over hCA II (SIs: 19.6-57.1 and 13.0-34.2, respectively). Furthermore, the target benzofurans were assessed for their anti-proliferative activity, according to US-NCI protocol, toward a panel of sixty cancer cell lines. Only benzofurans 5b and 10b possessed selective and moderate growth inhibitory activity toward certain cancer cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Benzofuranos/química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química
8.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 255-260, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790601

RESUMO

Among the diagnostic techniques for the identification of tumour biomarkers, the liquid biopsy is considered one that offers future research on precision diagnosis and treatment of tumours in a non-invasive manner. The approach consists of isolating tumor-derived components, such as circulating tumour cells (CTC), tumour cell-free DNA (ctDNA), and extracellular vesicles (EVs), from the patient peripheral blood fluids. These elements constitute a source of genomic and proteomic information for cancer treatment. Within the tumour-derived components of the body fluids, the enzyme indicated with the acronym CA IX and belonging to the superfamily of carbonic anhydrases (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) is a promising aspirant for checking tumours. CA IX is a transmembrane-CA isoform that is strongly overexpressed in many cancers being not much diffused in healthy tissues except the gastrointestinal tract. Here, it is summarised the role of CA IX as tumour-associated protein and its putative relationship in liquid biopsyfor diagnosing and monitoring cancer progression.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Neoplasias/enzimologia
9.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 306-310, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797704

RESUMO

The differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) screening of 5.692 fragments in combination with benzenesulfonamide (BSA) against bovine carbonic anhydrase (bCA) delivered >100 hits that either caused, on their own, a significant thermal shift (ΔTm, °C) in the protein melting temperature or significantly influenced the thermal shift observed for BSA alone. Three hits based on 1,2,3-triazole moiety represent the periphery of the recently reported potent inhibitors of hCA II, IX and XII which were efficacious in vivo. Such a re-discovery of suitable BSA periphery essentially validates the new fragment-based approach to the discovery of future CAIs. Structures of other validated fragment hits are reported.


Assuntos
Anidrase Carbônica II/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Fluorometria , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica II/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 183: 111698, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539777

RESUMO

A library of twenty two novel 1,2,3-triazole benzenesulfonamides incorporating thiosemicarbazide, 5(4H)-thione-1,2,4-triazole and variously substituted phenacyl appended 1,2,4-triazole as tail were designed, synthesized and assessed for their efficacy as inhibitors against carbonic anhydrase human (h) isoforms hCA I, II, IV and IX. The physiologically important and off-target cytosolic isoform hCA I was weakly inhibited by most of the newly synthesized sulfonamides while the glaucoma associated isoform hCA II was moderately inhibited with KIs spanning in low nanomolar range (KI = 8.0 nM-0.903 µM). The membrane bound isoform hCA IV, which is known to be involved in glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa among others, was strongly inhibited by all newly synthesized sulfonamides out of which nine compounds inhibited isoform hCA IV even more effectively as compared to standard drug acetazolamide (AAZ). The membrane bound isoform hCA IX, associated with growth of tumor cells, was moderately inhibited with KIs ranging between 51 nM-3.198 µM. The effect of appending variously substituted tails on heterocyclic moieties over inhibition potential of synthesized sulfonamides is also disclosed which can be of further interest in pharmacological studies for exploring synthesis of isoform selective inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica I/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica I/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica II/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica II/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IV/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica IV/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química , Triazóis/química
11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 183: 111702, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542715

RESUMO

Carbonic anhydrases isoforms CA IX, and XII are known to be highly expressed in various human tissues and malignancies. CA IX is a prominent target for especially colorectal cancers, because it is overexpressed in colorectal cancer and this overexpression leads poor prognosis. Inhibition of CA IX activity by small molecule CA inhibitors like sulfonamides, sulfonamide derivative or coumarins leads to inhibition of tumorigenesis. Novel twenty-seven compounds in three series (sulfonamide-based imines (6a-6i), coumarin-based aldehydes (7a-7i), and coumarin-sulfonamide-based target molecules (8a-8i)) were synthesized and characterized by means of IR, NMR, and mass spectra. All compounds were tested for their ability to inhibit CA I, CA II, CA IX, and CA XII isoforms. 4-((((2-((1-(3-((2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)oxy)propyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxy)naphthalen-1-yl)-methylene)amino)methyl)benzenesulfonamide (8i) exhibited the highest hCA IX inhibition with the Ki of 45.5 nM. In addition, 8i was found to be potent in inhibiting cancer cell proliferation as selective (IC50 = 17.01 ±â€¯1.35 µM for HT-29, IC50 = 118.73 ±â€¯1.19 µM for HEK293T). This novel compound inhibited the CA IX and CA XII protein expression in HT-29 cells. These findings indicate that 8i can inhibit cellular proliferation in human colon cancer cells by specifically targeting the CA IX and CA XII expression.


Assuntos
Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HEK293 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/química
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554283

RESUMO

The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is the crucial regulator of genes that are involved in metabolism under hypoxic conditions, but information regarding the transcriptional activity of HIF1 in normoxic metabolism is limited. Different tumor cells were treated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions with various drugs that affect cellular metabolism. HIF1α was silenced by siRNA in normoxic/hypoxic tumor cells, before RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analyses were performed while using the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 as a model. Differentially expressed genes were further analyzed and validated by qPCR, while the activity of the metabolites was determined by enzyme assays. Under normoxic conditions, HIF1 activity was significantly increased by (i) glutamine metabolism, which was associated with the release of ammonium, and it was decreased by (ii) acetylation via acetyl CoA synthetase (ACSS2) or ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), respectively, and (iii) the presence of L-ascorbic acid, citrate, or acetyl-CoA. Interestingly, acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, L-ascorbic acid, and citrate each significantly destabilized HIF1α only under normoxia. The results from the deep sequence analyses indicated that, in HIF1-siRNA silenced MDA-MB-231 cells, 231 genes under normoxia and 1384 genes under hypoxia were transcriptionally significant deregulated in a HIF1-dependent manner. Focusing on glycolysis genes, it was confirmed that HIF1 significantly regulated six normoxic and 16 hypoxic glycolysis-associated gene transcripts. However, the results from the targeted metabolome analyses revealed that HIF1 activity affected neither the consumption of glucose nor the release of ammonium or lactate; however, it significantly inhibited the release of the amino acid alanine. This study comprehensively investigated, for the first time, how normoxic HIF1 is stabilized, and it analyzed the possible function of normoxic HIF1 in the transcriptome and metabolic processes of tumor cells in a breast cancer cell model. Furthermore, these data imply that HIF1 compensates for the metabolic outcomes of glutaminolysis and, subsequently, the Warburg effect might be a direct consequence of the altered amino acid metabolism in tumor cells.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Glutamina/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Acetilação , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Estabilidade Proteica , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 181: 111573, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394463

RESUMO

The carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitory activity of newly synthesized compounds 4-21 against the human CA (hCA) isoforms I, II, IX, and XII was measured and compared to that of standard sulfonamide inhibitors, acetazolamide (AAZ) and SLC-0111. Among this series; benzensulfonamides 6-11 gave the best potent hCA inhibitors with inhibition constants (KIs) ranging from 81.9 to 456.6 nM (AAZ and SLC-0111: KIs, 250.0 and 5080 nM, respectively). Compounds 6-11 proved to be effective hCA II inhibitors (KIs, 8.9-51.5 nM); they were almost equally potent to AAZ (KI, 12.0 nM) and had superior potency to SLC-0111 (KI, 960.0 nM). For hCA IX inhibition, compounds 6-11 proved to be potent inhibitors, with KI values of 3.9-36.0 nM, which were greater than or equal to that of AAZ and greater than that of SLC-0111 (KIs, 25.0 and 45.0 nM, respectively). For hCA XII inhibitory activity, compounds 6-11 displayed effective inhibition with KI values ranging from 4.6 to 86.3 nM and were therefore comparable to AAZ and SLC-0111 (KIs, 5.7 and 4.5 nM, respectively). Molecular docking studies of compounds 6, 7, 10, and 11 were conducted using the crystal structures of hCA isozymes I, II, IX, and XII to study their binding interactions for further lead optimization.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Derivados de Benzeno/síntese química , Derivados de Benzeno/química , Derivados de Benzeno/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica I/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica I/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica II/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica II/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Sulfonamidas/síntese química
14.
Redox Biol ; 26: 101297, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442913

RESUMO

Hypoxia and acidity provide microenvironment for selection under evolutionary pressure and proliferation in cancer cells. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a superfamily of metalloenzymes present in all life kingdoms, equilibrating the reactions among CO2, bicarbonate and H+. CA9, a membrane-associated α-CA, has been a drug target for various cancers. Whereas iron is essential not only for cancer cells but also for all the lives on earth, little is known on the association among hypoxia, iron metabolism, extracellular acidity and redox regulation. Malignant mesothelioma (MM), an aggressive tumor with poor prognosis, is an intriguing model in that asbestos-associated pathogenesis includes excess iron environment during carcinogenesis. Re-analysis of rat asbestos-induced MM model revealed an inverse association between high CA9 expression and survival. Here we used human MMs to identify the molecular events surrounding CA9 from the viewpoint of iron metabolism. CA9 expression was significantly higher in MM cells than in MeT-5A mesothelial cells, which was further amplified under hypoxia (1%O2) with increased catalytic Fe(II). CA9 suppression by inhibitors (S4 and U104) decreased viability and migration of MM cells, accompanied by overexpression of TFRC, IREB1/2 and FPN1(SLC40A1) and by downregulation of FTH/FTL. This expressional pattern was similar to that of erastin-induced ferroptosis in the same cells. Furthermore, we observed mitochondrial fission and enhanced autophagy with increased catalytic Fe(II) in both mitochondria and lysosomes after CA9 inhibition, accompanied by increased peroxides, mitochondrial O2- and lipid peroxidation. The eventual cell death was significantly inhibited by deferoxamine, ferrostatin-1 and Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting a mixed cell death of ferroptosis and apoptosis. Therefore, CA9 plays a role in equilibrating among hypoxia, iron metabolism and redox regulation in MM cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Apoptose/genética , Anidrase Carbônica IX/genética , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Mesotelioma/genética , Mesotelioma/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 181: 111586, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401537

RESUMO

We have synthetized a novel series of ß-hydroxy tellurides bearing the benzenesulfonamide group as potent inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase enzymes. In a one pot procedure, we discovered both the ring opening reaction of the three-membered ring and the cleavage of the sulfonamide protecting moiety at the same time. Moreover, the first X-ray co-crystallographic structure of a ß-hydroxy telluride derivative with hCA II is reported. The potent effects of these compounds against the tumor-associated hCA IX with low nanomolar constant inhibition values give the possibility to evaluate their activity in vitro using a breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). Compounds 7e and 7g induced significant toxic effects against tumor cells after 48 h incubation in normoxic conditions killing over 50% of tumor cells at 3 µM, but their efficacy decreased in hypoxic conditions reaching the 50% of the tumor cell viability only at 30 µM. These unusual features make them interesting lead compounds to act as antitumor agents, not only as Carbonic Anhydrase IX inhibitors, but reasonably in different pathways, where hCA IX is not overexpressed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Telúrio/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/química , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica II/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica II/química , Anidrase Carbônica II/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica IX/química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química , Telúrio/química
16.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 547-556, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276899

RESUMO

Herein we report the design and synthesis of three different sets of novel benzenesulfonamides (5a-e, 7a-e and 10a-d) incorporating hydrophilic/hydrophobic tails by hydrazido or hydrazino linkers. The newly synthesized benzenesulfonamides were examined in vitro for their inhibitory activity towards four human (h) carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, hCA I, II, IX and XII using a stopped-flow CO2 hydrase assay. All these isoforms were inhibited by the sulfonamides (5a-e, 7a-e and 10a-d) with variable degrees in the following KI ranges: 76.8-357.4 nM for hCA I, 8.2-94.6 nM for hCA II, 2.0-46.3 nM for hCA XI, and 8.3-88.3 nM for hCA XII. The sulfonamide 7d exhibited potent anti-proliferative activity against breast MCF-7 cancer cell line under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions with IC50 values equal 3.32 ±â€¯0.06 and 8.53 ±â€¯0.32 µM, respectively, which are comparable to the reference drug doxorubicin (IC50 = 2.36 ±â€¯0.04 and 8.39 ±â€¯0.25 µM, respectively). Furthermore, 7d was screened for cell cycle disturbance and apoptosis induction in MCF-7 cells. It was found to persuade cell cycle arrest at G2-M stage as well as to alter the Sub-G1 phase, also, 7d resulted in a significant increase in the percent of annexinV-FITC positive apoptotic cells from 1.03 to 18.54%. Molecular docking study was carried out for 7d within the hCA IX and hCA XII active sites to rationalize the obtained inhibition results.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzeno/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzeno/química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Domínio Catalítico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Hidrazinas/síntese química , Hidrazinas/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/química
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311071

RESUMO

Upregulation of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) was found to be associated with unfavorable prognosis and resistance to treatment in a broad spectrum of malignancies, recently also in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL). As demonstrated, variable CAIX expression in a significant number of cHL cases was associated with poor treatment response. The current study focused on the quantification CAIX immunopositivity and its relative expression compared to the total CD30+ neoplastic pool using digital image analysis. One hundred and one lymph node samples featuring cHL histology were analyzed for both CD30 and CAIX by immunohistochemistry. Whole histological slides were scanned and immunopositivity was determined as the histoscore (H-score) using the DensitoQuant software module (3DHistech Kft., Budapest, Hungary). CAIX positivity was observed in the HRS-cells of 56/101 cases (55.44%) and frequently observed in the proximity of necrotic foci. CAIX H-scores were highly variable (range: 2.16-90.36, mean 18.7 ± 18.8). Individual CAIX values were independent of the much higher CD30 values (range 3.46-151.3, mean 52.37 ± 30.74). The CAIX/CD30 index proved to be the highest in the aggressive lymphocyte-depleted (LD) subtype (CAIX/CD30: 0.876). The CAIX expression and the CAIX/CD30 relative index can be precisely determined by image analysis, and values reflect the extent of a tumor mass undergoing hypoxic-stress-related adaptation in the most aggressive forms of cHL.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Doença de Hodgkin/metabolismo , Hipóxia Celular , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/classificação , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167468

RESUMO

Tumor metastasis is tightly linked with invasive membrane protrusions, invadopodia, formed by actively invading tumor cells. Hypoxia and pH modulation play a role in the invadopodia formation and in their matrix degradation ability. Tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), induced by hypoxia, is essential for pH regulation and migration, predisposing it as an active component of invadopodia. To investigate this assumption, we employed silencing and inhibition of CA9, invadopodia isolation and matrix degradation assay. Quail chorioallantoic membranes with implanted tumor cells, and lung colonization assay in murine model were used to assess efficiency of in vivo invasion and the impact of CAIX targeting antibodies. We showed that CAIX co-distributes to invadopodia with cortactin, MMP14, NBCe1, and phospho-PKA. Suppression or enzymatic inhibition of CAIX leads to impaired invadopodia formation and matrix degradation. Loss of CAIX attenuated phosphorylation of Y421-cortactin and influenced molecular machinery coordinating actin polymerization essential for invadopodia growth. Treatment of tumor cells by CAIX-specific antibodies against carbonic or proteoglycan domains results in reduced invasion and extravasation in vivo. For the first time, we demonstrated in vivo localization of CAIX within invadopodia. Our findings confirm the key role of CAIX in the metastatic process and gives rationale for its targeting during anti-metastatic therapy.


Assuntos
Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Podossomos/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Fosforilação , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais , Simportadores de Sódio-Bicarbonato/metabolismo
19.
Biochem J ; 476(10): 1497-1513, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072911

RESUMO

The most aggressive and invasive tumor cells often reside in hypoxic microenvironments and rely heavily on rapid anaerobic glycolysis for energy production. This switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, along with up-regulation of the glucose transport system, significantly increases the release of lactic acid from cells into the tumor microenvironment. Excess lactate and proton excretion exacerbate extracellular acidification to which cancer cells, but not normal cells, adapt. We have hypothesized that carbonic anhydrases (CAs) play a role in stabilizing both intracellular and extracellular pH to favor cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we show that proton efflux (acidification) using the glycolytic rate assay is dependent on both extracellular pH (pHe) and CA IX expression. Yet, isoform-selective sulfonamide-based inhibitors of CA IX did not alter proton flux, which suggests that the catalytic activity of CA IX is not necessary for this regulation. Other investigators have suggested the CA IX co-operates with the MCT transport family to excrete protons. To test this possibility, we examined the expression patterns of selected ion transporters and show that members of this family are differentially expressed within the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The most aggressive form of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer, appears to co-ordinately express the monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX). This supports a possible mechanism that utilizes the intramolecular H+ shuttle system in CA IX to facilitate proton efflux through MCT4.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Glicólise , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/enzimologia , Animais , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083645

RESUMO

Novel sulfonamidoindole-based hydrazones with a 2-(hydrazinocarbonyl)-3-phenyl-1H-indole-5-sulfonamide scaffold were synthesized and tested in enzyme inhibition assays against the tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms, hCA IX and XII, and the off-targets, hCA I and II. The compounds showed selectivity against hCA IX and XII over hCA I and II. Six compounds showed KI values lower than 10 nM against hCA IX or XII. Molecular modeling studies were performed to suggest binding interactions between the ligand and the hCA active sites.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Anidrase Carbônica IX/química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrazonas/química , Indóis/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Sulfonamidas/química
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