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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 95-101, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678400

RESUMO

Physiologically based kinetic (PBK) models for farm animals are of growing interest in food and feed safety with key applications for regulated compounds including quantification of tissue concentrations, kinetic parameters and the setting of safe exposure levels on an internal dose basis. The development and application of these models requires data for physiological, anatomical and chemical specific parameters. Here, we present the results of a structured data collection of anatomical and physiological parameters in three key farm animal species (swine, cattle and sheep). We performed an extensive literature search and meta-analyses to quantify intra-species variability and associated uncertainty of the parameters. Parameters were collected for organ weights and blood flows in all available breeds from 110 scientific publications, of which 29, 48 and 33 for cattle, sheep, and swine, respectively. Organ weights were available in literature for all three species. Blood flow parameter values were available for all organs in sheep but were scarcer in swine and cattle. Furthermore, the parameter values showed a large intra-species variation. Overall, the parameter values and associated variability provide reference values which can be used as input for generic PBK models in these species.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Farmacocinética , Carneiro Doméstico/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Carneiro Doméstico/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos/anatomia & histologia
2.
Arch Virol ; 165(1): 157-167, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748876

RESUMO

Endogenous retroviruses of domestic cats (ERV-DCs) are members of the genus Gammaretrovirus that infect domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). Uniquely, domestic cats harbor replication-competent proviruses such as ERV-DC10 (ERV-DC18) and ERV-DC14 (xenotropic and nonecotropic viruses, respectively). The purpose of this study was to assess invasion by two distinct infectious ERV-DCs, ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC14, in domestic cats. Of a total sample of 1646 cats, 568 animals (34.5%) were positive for ERV-DC10 (heterozygous: 377; homozygous: 191), 68 animals (4.1%) were positive for ERV-DC14 (heterozygous: 67; homozygous: 1), and 10 animals (0.6%) were positive for both ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC14. ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC14 were detected in domestic cats in Japan as well as in Tanzania, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, South Korea and Spain. Breeding cats, including Singapura, Norwegian Forest and Ragdoll cats, showed high frequencies of ERV-DC10 (60-100%). By contrast, ERV-DC14 was detected at low frequency in breeding cats. Our results suggest that ERV-DC10 is widely distributed while ERV-DC14 is maintained in a minor population of cats. Thus, ERV-DC10 and ERV-DC14 have invaded cat populations independently.


Assuntos
Gammaretrovirus/classificação , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Ásia , Cruzamento , Gatos , Gammaretrovirus/genética , Gammaretrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Noruega , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Espanha , Tanzânia
3.
Gene ; 729: 144282, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838250

RESUMO

The crested duck was a duck breed which features a topknot of feathers on the back of their head. In order to explain the reason of crest, we anatomy the head of some crested ducks. The anatomical structures showed that there was a fat body in the head and a hole in the skull. To determine the reason for the formation of the crest, we used whole genome re-sequencing to detect SNPs and InDels in three crested duck and three normal crested duck (without crest). There were 785,202 unique SNPs and 105,596 unique InDels include in crested duck. There were 14,591 SNPs containing genes and 13,784 InDels continuing genes were mapped on BGI_duck_1.0 by BWA 0.7.16a software. We use KEGG and GO to classification the SNP and InDel containing genes function. The PPI network of SNP containing genes and InDels containing genes was constructed by STRING. The result of PPI and KEGG analysis shown that the formation of crest might include feather development, fatty acid deposition, and skull hypoplasia. To determine the regulated of SNP containing genes and InDels containing genes, which related the different trait, of miRNA we used mirmap to predicted target miRNA of those genes. The miRNA-genes network constructed by Cytoscape. In conclusion, the formation of the crest was a complex process. The fatty acid metabolism block, feather growth and skull hypoplasia might lead crest formation. The tissue expression of four candidate genes showed that they were closely related to the formation of the trait, and could be used as important candidate genes to further elaborate the molecular mechanism of their function.


Assuntos
Patos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , Cruzamento , Patos/anatomia & histologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Plumas/metabolismo , Genótipo , Mutação INDEL/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Crânio/anormalidades , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
4.
Parasitol Int ; 74: 101998, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634630

RESUMO

Moniezia expansa and M. benedeni are two common tapeworm species of domestic ruminants over the world. However, their morphological and molecular data are available for limited specimens from a few countries. In the present study, we compared morphological characteristics of these two species collected from goats and cattle in northern Vietnam and analyzed their phylogenetic relationship based on the 5.8S and second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). The two species are clearly distinguishable from one another not only in the morphological appearance of the interproglottidal glands but also in the gross appearance of mature and gravid proglottids. Molecular analyses revealed that the 5.8S-ITS2 sequences of Vietnamese M. expansa were highly similar (99.7%) to the sequences from Japan and India, and made a common clade, which was clearly distinct from M. benedeni of Vietnam. For cox1 sequences, Vietnamese M. expansa showed a high similarity to and were grouped with the sequences from Ethiopia and some sequences from Senegal and China to make a common clade, which was separated from the remaining clades of Senegal and China. The cox1 sequences of M. benedeni from China, Vietnam, and Senegal were far distant (10.0-15.9%) from each other. The results of this study suggest that more sequence data of Moniezia species with details of morphological features from various geographical locations should be obtained to clarify the taxonomic status of Moniezia species.


Assuntos
Bovinos/parasitologia , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/classificação , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Cabras/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Geografia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Vietnã/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007793, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790399

RESUMO

This study describes changes in the prevalence of Leptospira interrogans infections among small mammals, including rats and larger domestic and wild mammals in Lviv Oblast, a region in western Ukraine from 2001-2015, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). A total of 439,948 domestic or wild animals were tested. We found the prevalence of Leptospira interrogans exposure varied among tested species and changed over the time. Infection was significantly less common in domestic animals, than in wild rodents. In swine the overall seroprevalence was 0.51%, while in cattle it was 0.19%. In dogs it was higher-2.75%. After 2006, evidence of infection was only observed in swine among domestic animals. The prevalence among large wild animals (0.25%) was similar to that among domestic animals. Among small mammals and rats, seroprevalence was most commonly observed among Rattus norvegicus (18.44%) and it was less common among other wild small mammals (8.74%). There were two dominant serogroups among large wild and domestic animals-L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L. hebdomadis while among wild small mammals the two most common were L. icterohaemorrhagiae and L. grippotyphosa. Wild animals with antibodies were found throughout the entire oblast.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Mamíferos , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007902, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834879

RESUMO

Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a Neglected Tropical Disease affecting 8 million people in the Americas. Triatomine hematophagous vectors feed on a high diversity of vertebrate species that can be reservoirs or dead-end hosts, such as avian species refractory to T. cruzi. To understand its transmission dynamics in synanthropic and domesticated species living within villages is essential to quantify disease risk and assess the potential of zooprophylaxis. We developed a SI model of T. cruzi transmission in a multi-host community where vector reproduction and parasite transmission depend on a triatomine blood-feeding rate accounting for vector host preferences and interference while feeding. The model was parameterized to describe T. cruzi transmission in villages of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, using the information about Triatoma dimidiata vectors and host populations accumulated over the past 15 years. Extensive analyses of the model showed that dogs are key reservoirs and contributors to human infection, as compared to synanthropic rodents and cats, while chickens or other domesticated avian hosts dilute T. cruzi transmission despite increasing vector abundance. In this context, reducing the number of dogs or increasing avian hosts abundance decreases incidence in humans by up to 56% and 39%, respectively, while combining such changes reduces incidence by 71%. Although such effects are only reached over >10-years periods, they represent important considerations to be included in the design of cost-effective Integrated Vector Management. The concomitant reduction in T. cruzi vector prevalence estimated by simulating these zooprophylactic interventions could indeed complement the removal of colonies from the peridomiciles or the use of insect screens that lower vector indoor abundance by ~60% and ~80%. These new findings reinforce the idea that education and community empowerment to reduce basic risk factors is a cornerstone to reach and sustain the key objective of interrupting Chagas disease intra-domiciliary transmission.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triatoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Incidência , México
7.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226088, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887111

RESUMO

Feral pigeons, common wood pigeons and Eurasian collared doves are the most common representatives of the Columbidae family in Switzerland and are mostly present in highly populated, urban areas. Pigeons may carry various members of the obligate intracellular Chlamydiaceae family, particularly Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, a known zoonotic agent, and C. avium. The objective of the study was to identify the infection rates of common free-roaming pigeons for different Chlamydia species with the overall aim to assess the risk pigeons pose to public health. In this study, 431 pigeons (323 feral pigeons, 34 domestic pigeons, 39 Eurasian collared doves, 35 common wood pigeons) from several geographic locations in Switzerland were investigated for the presence of Chlamydiaceae. Samples consisted of pooled choanal-cloacal swabs (n = 174), liver samples (n = 52), and paired swab and liver samples from 205 pigeons (n = 410). All 636 samples were screened using a Chlamydiaceae family-specific 23S rRNA real-time PCR (qPCR). Subsequent species identification was performed by DNA-microarray assay, sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene fragment and a C. psittaci specific qPCR. In total, 73 of the 431 pigeons tested positive for Chlamydiaceae, of which 68 were positive for C. psittaci, four were C. avium-positive and one pigeon was co-infected with C. avium and C. psittaci. The highest infection rates were detected in feral (64/323) and domestic pigeons (5/34). Common wood pigeons (2/35) and Eurasian collared doves (2/39) revealed lower infection rates. Additionally, multilocus sequence typing of twelve selected C. psittaci-positive samples revealed closely related sequence types (ST) between and within different Swiss cities. Furthermore, liver and corresponding swab samples from the same bird were colonized by the same ST. Considering the high infection rates of C. psittaci in domestic and feral pigeons, close or frequent contact to these birds poses a human health risk.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydiaceae/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Psitacose/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/classificação , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Chlamydiaceae/classificação , Chlamydiaceae/isolamento & purificação , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Columbidae , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Psitacose/diagnóstico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Suíça
8.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0213120, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881039

RESUMO

Based on notified cases of human rabies exposure and human deaths by rabies to Colombia public health surveillance system between 2007 and 2016, we conducted a spatiotemporal analysis to identify epidemiological scenarios of high human rabies exposure due to dogs, cats, bats, or farm animals (n = 666,411 cases). The incidence rate of human rabies exposures was analyzed by using geographical information system (spatiotemporal distribution and Cluster and Outlier Analysis (Anselin Local Moran's I)) data for all Colombian cities. The incidence rate of human rabies exposures due to dogs and cats showed an increasing trend, while aggression due bats and farm animals fluctuated throughout the analyzed period. Human deaths by rabies transmitted by cat and bat occurred in the Andean and Orinoquia regions, which had urban and rural scenarios. The urban scenario showed the highest exposure to human rabies due to cats and dogs in cities characterized with high human population density and greater economic development. In contrary, the highest human rabies exposure in the rural scenario was observed due to contact of mucosa or injured skin with the infected saliva of farm animals with the rabies virus, principally among workers in the agroforestry area. The inequality scenario showed some outlier cities with high human rabies exposure due to farm animals principally in the Pacific region (characterized by the highest poverty rates in Colombia), being Afro-descendant and indigenous population the most exposed. The highest exposure due to bats bite was observed among indigenous people residing in cities of the Amazon region as a dispersed population (Amazonian scenario). None of the high exposure scenarios were related to human deaths by rabies due to dogs aggression. The identified scenarios can help develop better surveillance systems with a differential approach to the vulnerable population and strengthening them in areas with rabies viral circulation.


Assuntos
Raiva/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Cães/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Populações Vulneráveis
9.
PLoS Genet ; 15(12): e1008536, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841508

RESUMO

Domestication and human selection have formed diverse goat breeds with characteristic phenotypes. This process correlated with the fixation of causative genetic variants controlling breed-specific traits within regions of reduced genetic diversity, so called selection signatures or selective sweeps. Using whole genome sequencing of DNA pools (pool-seq) from 20 genetically diverse modern goat breeds and bezoars, we identified 2,239 putative selection signatures. In two Pakistani goat breeds, Pak Angora and Barbari, we found selection signatures in a region harboring KIT, a gene involved in melanoblast development, migration, and survival. The search for candidate causative variants responsible for these selective sweeps revealed two different copy number variants (CNVs) downstream of KIT that were exclusively present in white Pak Angora and white-spotted Barbari goats. Several Swiss goat breeds selected for specific coat colors showed selection signatures at the ASIP locus encoding the agouti signaling protein. Analysis of these selective sweeps revealed four different CNVs associated with the white or tan (AWt), Swiss markings (Asm), badgerface (Ab), and the newly proposed peacock (Apc) allele. RNA-seq analyses on skin samples from goats with the different CNV alleles suggest that the identified structural variants lead to an altered expression of ASIP between eumelanistic and pheomelanistic body areas. Our study yields novel insights into the genetic control of pigmentation by identifying six functionally relevant CNVs. It illustrates how structural changes of the genome have contributed to phenotypic evolution in domestic goats.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Cabras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , Animais Domésticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Evolução Biológica , Cor , Feminino , Cabras/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007990, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease that causes reproductive losses and/or hepatorenal failure in a number of animal species. Wild reservoirs of the disease, such as rodents, harbor the causative bacterium, Leptospira spp., in their kidneys and contaminate the environment by excreting infected urine. In this study, we tested small wild mammals, environmental water, and livestock in the Cumberland Gap region of southeastern Appalachia for the presence of pathogenic Leptospira or leptospiral antibodies. METHODS/RESULTS: Small wild mammals (n = 101) and environmental water samples (n = 89) were screened by a real time quantitative PCR that targets the pathogenic Leptospira-specific lipl32 gene. Kidneys from 63 small wild mammals (62.37%) and two water sources (2.25%) tested positive for leptospiral DNA. To identify the infecting leptospiral species in qPCR-positive water and kidney samples, a fragment of leptospiral rpoB gene was PCR amplified and sequenced. L. kirschneri and L. interrogans were the leptospiral species carried by small wild mammals. Furthermore, sera from livestock (n = 52; cattle and horses) were screened for leptospiral antibodies using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Twenty sera (38.46%) from livestock had antibodies to one or more serovars of pathogenic Leptospira spp. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, results from our study show exposure to leptospiral infection in farm animals and the presence of this zoonotic pathogen in the environmental water and kidneys of a significant number of small wild mammals. The public health implications of these findings remain to be assessed.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Roedores , Microbiologia da Água , Animais , Região dos Apalaches/epidemiologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Rim/microbiologia , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Lipoproteínas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
11.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(4): 589-598, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867933

RESUMO

The carriage of pathogenic Leptospira was investigated by PCR in 51 wild carnivores, 20 domestic dogs with outdoor access, and 27 free-roaming domestic cats sampled in periurban Barcelona (NE Spain). Overall prevalence was 7.7%, with DNA confirmed in 3/30 common genets (Genetta genetta) (serovars Icterohaemorraghiae and Sejröe), 1/9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) (Canicola) and 2/27 cats (Icterohaemorraghiae). Though most of the dogs were vaccinated against Leptospira, DNA of the serovar Canicola was detected in the urine of 25% of the vaccinated animals, and the serovar Icterohaemorraghiae in one non-vaccinated dog.


Assuntos
Carnívoros/microbiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 929, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stages of taeniid cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. The two major types of infection in humans are cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatidosis and alveolar echinococcosis (AE). It is endemic in some parts of the world, such as the Middle East, with Iran being a part of it. This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to determine the prevalence of CE and AE echinococcosis and their epidemiological and clinical aspects in Iran. METHODS: Electronic databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed), SCOPUS, Web of Science, SID and Mag Iran (two Persian scientific search engines) were searched from 1 January 1990 to 8 August 2017. The prevalence of CE and AE echinococcosis was estimated using the random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was evaluated by subgroup analysis. Data were analyzed by STATA version 12. RESULTS: Of the 2051 records identified in the mentioned electronic databases, Seventy-eight articles met our eligibility criteria, with a total of 214124individuals. The meta-analysis was performed on only 37 out of 78 included studies. The pooled prevalence of CE and AE in Iran was 5% [95% confidence interval )CI(: 3-6%] and 2% [95% CI: 0-5%], respectively. Subgroup meta-analysis revealed that the prevalence of CE was significantly higher in North [9%, 95% CI: 4-18%] and West of Iran [6%, 95% CI: 3-11%], patients younger than 40 years of age [7%, 95% CI: 4-12%], villagers and nomads [6%, 95% CI: 2-12%], and studies that used the combination of serological, clinical, and imaging diagnostic methods [7%, 95% CI: 5-9%]. There were no significant differences between the prevalence of CE among low and high-quality studies. Housewives were the most affected group by hydatidosis (n=24/77, 31%), followed by illiterate people (n=11/77, 14%) and farmers (n= 9/77, 12%). Liver [55%, 95% CI: 46-65%] and lung [28%, 95% CI, 22-35%] were the most common sites of cyst formation. CONCLUSIONS: Given to the importance of echinococcosis on human health and domestic animals industry, it is necessary to implement monitoring and control measures in this regard.


Assuntos
Equinococose/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Equinococose/etiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
13.
Zootaxa ; 4638(2): zootaxa.4638.2.4, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712476

RESUMO

Eniacomorpha hermetiae Delvare sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae, Dirhininae), reared from pupae of black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera, Stratiomyidae), is described and illustrated from Africa and compared with other similar species newly considered as forming the ehrhorni species-group within Eniacomorpha Girault, 1915. The newly described parasitic wasp may have a negative impact on efforts to mass produce BSF in Africa as a feed supplement for domestic animals. Eniacomorpha is removed from synonymy under Dirhinus Dalman, 1818, revised status, for the Afrotropical species of Dirhininae previously placed in Dirhinus subgenus Pareniaca Crawford, 1913. A checklist of the 10 recognized species of Afrotropical Eniacomorpha is given, of which 9 are new generic combinations.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Simuliidae , Vespas , África , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Larva , Pupa
14.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 655-669, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638018

RESUMO

Child stunting is associated with poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), partly due to the effect of infection on intestinal nutrient absorption. WASH interventions, however, show little effect on growth. A hypothesis is that bacterial contamination of hands and floors from domestic animals and their faeces, and subsequent ingestion via infant hand-to-mouth behaviours, may explain this. This formative study used microbial testing and survey and observational data from 20 households in Ethiopia to characterise principle bacterial transmission pathways to infants, considering WASH facilities and practices, infant behaviours and animal exposure. Microbial swabbing showed the contamination of hands and floor surfaces from thermotolerant coliform bacteria. Animal husbandry practices, such as keeping animals inside, contributed significantly (all p < 0.005). There was no evidence that latrine facilities mitigated contamination across infant (p = 0.76) or maternal (p = 0.86) hands or floor surfaces (p = 0.36). This small study contributes to the evidence that animal faeces are an important source of domestic bacterial contamination. The results imply that interventions aiming to reduce pathogen transmission to infants should think beyond improving WASH and also consider the need to separate infants and animals in the home. Intervention studies will be required to determine whether this reduces infant infection and improves linear growth.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais Domésticos , Higiene , Saneamento , Animais , Criança , Etiópia , Humanos , Lactente , Toaletes
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4892, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653849

RESUMO

Hypoxia occurs naturally at high-altitudes and pathologically in hypoxic solid tumors. Here, we report that genes involved in various human cancers evolved rapidly in Tibetans and six Tibetan domestic mammals compared to reciprocal lowlanders. Furthermore, m6A modified mRNA binding protein YTHDF1, one of evolutionary positively selected genes for high-altitude adaptation is amplified in various cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We show that YTHDF1 deficiency inhibits NSCLC cell proliferation and xenograft tumor formation through regulating the translational efficiency of CDK2, CDK4, and cyclin D1, and that YTHDF1 depletion restrains de novo lung adenocarcinomas (ADC) progression. However, we observe that YTHDF1 high expression correlates with better clinical outcome, with its depletion rendering cancerous cells resistant to cisplatin (DDP) treatment. Mechanistic studies identified the Keap1-Nrf2-AKR1C1 axis as the downstream mediator of YTHDF1. Together, these findings highlight the critical role of YTHDF1 in both hypoxia adaptation and pathogenesis of NSCLC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Altitude , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Hipóxia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Ciclina D1/genética , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Cães , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genoma , Cabras , Cavalos , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ovinos , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Tibet , Hipóxia Tumoral/genética
16.
J Vet Sci ; 20(5): e40, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565887

RESUMO

Misuse and abuse of veterinary antimicrobial agents have led to an alarming increase in bacterial resistance, clinical treatment failure, and drug residues. To address these problems, consistent and appropriate dosage regimens for veterinary antimicrobial agents are needed. Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) models have been widely used to establish rational dosage regimens for veterinary antimicrobial agents that can achieve effective prevention and treatment of bacterial diseases and avoid the development of bacterial resistance. This review introduces building methods for PK/PD models and describes current PK/PD research progress toward rational dosage regimens for veterinary antimicrobial agents. Finally, the challenges and prospects of PK/PD models in the design of dosage regimens for veterinary antimicrobial agents are reviewed. This review will help to increase awareness of PK/PD modeling among veterinarians and hopefully promote its development and future use.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Modelos Biológicos
17.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 405-429, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590895

RESUMO

Infectious diseases are the outcome of complex interactions between the host, pathogen, and environment. After exposure to a pathogen, the host immune system uses various mechanisms to remove the pathogen. However, environmental factors and characteristics of pathogens can compromise the host immune responses and subsequently alter the outcome of infection. In this article, genetic and epigenetic factors that shape the individual variation in mounting protective responses are reviewed. Different approaches that have been used by researchers to investigate the genetic regulation of immunity in ruminants and various sources of genetic information are discussed.


Assuntos
/veterinária , Ruminantes/genética , Ruminantes/imunologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Resistência à Doença , Epigênese Genética , /imunologia
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 876, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal protozoa in human faecal samples with uncertain impact on public health. Studies on the prevalence of Blastocystis in HIV-positive patients are limited and dated. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 156 HIV-positive patients to evaluate the prevalence of Blastocystis-subtypes by molecular amplification and sequencing the small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA), to identify the risk factors for its transmission, to examine the relationship between the presence of the protist and gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, the evaluation of the faecal calprotectin by immunoassay from a sample of subjects was performed to evaluate the gut inflammation in Blastocystis-carriers. RESULTS: Blastocystis-subtypes ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4 were identified in 39 HIV-positive patients (25%). No correlation was found between the presence of the protist and virological or epidemiological risk factors. Blastocystis was more frequently detected in homosexual subjects (p = 0.037) infected by other enteric protozoa (p = 0.0001) and with flatulence (p = 0.024). No significant differences in calprotectin level was found between Blastocystis-carriers and free ones. CONCLUSIONS: Blastocystis is quite common in HIV-positive patients on ART showing in examined patients 25% prevalence. Homosexual behaviour may represent a risk factor for its transmission, while CD4 count and viremia didn't correlate with the presence of the protist. The pathogenetic role of Blastocystis remains unclear and no gut inflammation status was detected in Blastocystis-carriers. The only symptom associated with Blastocystis was the flatulence, evidencing a link between the presence of the protist and the composition and stability of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Blastocystis/patogenicidade , Soropositividade para HIV/parasitologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/parasitologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/etiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 495, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to assess the diversity of the species of Anaplasmataceae in Senegal that infect animals and ticks in three areas: near Keur Momar Sarr (northern region), Dielmo and Diop (Sine Saloum, central region of Senegal), and in Casamance (southern region of Senegal). METHODS: A total of 204 ticks and 433 blood samples were collected from ruminants, horses, donkeys and dogs. Ticks were identified morphologically and by molecular characterization targeting the 12S rRNA gene. Molecular characterization of species of Anaplasmataceae infecting Senegalese ticks and animals was conducted using the 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, rpoB and groEL genes. RESULTS: Ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (84.3%), Hyalomma rufipes (8.3%), Hyalomma impeltatum (4.9%), R. bursa (1.5%) and R. muhsamae (0.9%). The overall prevalence of Anaplasmataceae infection in ticks was 0.9%, whereas 41.1% of the sampled animals were found infected by one of the species belonging to this family. We identified the pathogen Anaplasma ovis in 55.9% of sheep, A. marginale and A. centrale in 19.4% and 8.1%, respectively, of cattle, as well as a putative new species of Anaplasmataceae. Two Anaplasma species commonly infecting ruminants were identified. Anaplasma cf. platys, closely related to A. platys was identified in 19.8% of sheep, 27.7% of goats and 22.6% of cattle, whereas a putative new species, named here provisionally "Candidatus Anaplasma africae", was identified in 3.7% of sheep, 10.3% of goats and 8.1% of cattle. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys were identified only from dogs sampled in the Keur Momar Sarr area. Ehrlichia canis was identified in 18.8% of dogs and two R. e. evertsi ticks removed from the same sheep. Anaplasma platys was identified in 15.6% of dogs. Neither of the dogs sampled from Casamance region nor the horses and donkeys sampled from Keur Momar Sarr area were found infected by an Anaplasmataceae species. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a summary of Anaplasmataceae species that infect animals and ticks in three areas from the northern, central and southern regions of Senegal. To our knowledge, our findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of multiple Anaplasmataceae species that infect ticks and domestic animals in Senegal. We recorded two potentially new species commonly infecting ruminants named here provisionally as Anaplasma cf. platys and "Candidatus Anaplasma africae". However, E. canis was the only species identified and amplified from ticks. None of the other Anaplasmataceae species identified in animals were identified in the tick species collected from animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/veterinária , Anaplasmataceae/classificação , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Bovinos , Chaperonina 60/genética , DNA Ribossômico/sangue , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/isolamento & purificação , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equidae/microbiologia , Equidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Cabras , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Senegal , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Ovinos , Infestações por Carrapato/complicações , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
20.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 188, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hybridization has been widely practiced in plant and animal breeding as a means to enhance the quality and fitness of the organisms. In domestic equids, this hybrid vigor takes the form of improved physical and physiological characteristics, notably for strength or endurance. Because the offspring of horse and donkey is generally sterile, this widely recognized vigor is expressed in the first generation (F1). However, in the absence of recombination between the two parental genomes, F1 hybrids can be expected to be phenotypically intermediate between their parents which could potentially restrict the possibilities of an increase in overall fitness. In this study, we examine the morphology of the main limb bones of domestic horses, donkeys and their hybrids to investigate the phenotypic impact of hybridization on the locomotor system. We explore bone shape variation and covariation to gain insights into the morphological and functional expressions of the hybrid vigor commonly described in domestic equids. RESULTS: Our data reveal the occurrence of transgressive effects on several bones in the F1 generation. The patterns of morphological integration further demonstrate that the developmental processes producing covariation are not disrupted by hybridization, contrary to functional ones. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that an increase in overall fitness could be related to more flexibility in shape change in hybrids, except for the main forelimb long bones of which the morphology is strongly driven by muscle interactions. More broadly, this study illustrates the interest of investigating not only bone shape variation but also underlying processes, in order to contribute to better understanding how developmental and functional mechanisms are affected by hybridization.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/genética , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Cavalos/genética , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Hibridização Genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Teóricos , Análise de Componente Principal , Tamanho da Amostra
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