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1.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 425-438, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191366

RESUMO

La crisis sanitaria global que es la COVID-19 arroja al pensamiento hacia lugares incómodos. En el presente manuscrito sugiero que la filosofía pospandémica, de ahora en adelante, no puede ni podrá desentenderse del fenómeno de lo viviente, específicamente del viviente animal no humano. Precisamente, producto de la indiferencia de la cuestión animal, la filosofía ha creído por pretérita la tesis cartesiana del animal-máquina. Muy por el contrario, en este texto propongo que dicha comprensión del animal no tiene nada de arcaica, y que, provocada por el contexto pandémico, podría dar a lugar a lo que tentativamente es posible denominar "cartesianismo distópico". Ante esta consumación, cuya cristalización es el devenir (total) máquina del animal no humano, una bioética animal podría servir como vía para contravenir el cartesianismo distópico


The global health crisis that is the COVID-19 throws the thinking into uncomfortable places. In the present manuscript I suggest that post-pandemic philosophy, from now on, cannot and will not ignore the phenomenon of the living, specifically the living non-human animal. Precisely, as a result of the indifference of the animal question, philosophy has believed in the past the Cartesian thesis of the animal-machine. On the contrary, in this text we propose that such understanding of the animal is not archaic at all, and that, triggered by the pandemic context, could give rise to what can tentatively be called "dystopian Cartesianism". In front of this consummation, whose crystallization is the (total) machine becoming of the non-human animal, an animal bioethics could serve as a way to contravene the dystopian Cartesianism


La crisi sanitària global que és la COVID-19 llança el pensament cap a llocs incòmodes. En el present manuscrit suggereixo que la filosofia postpandèmica, d'ara endavant, no es pot ni es podrà desentendre del fenòmen del que és viu, específicament del vivent animal no humà. Precisament, producte de la indiferència de la qüestió animal, la filosofia ha cregut per pretèrita la tesi cartesiana de l'animal-màquina. Molt al contrari, en aquest text proposo que aquesta comprensió de l'animal no té res d'arcaica, I que, provocada pel context pandèmic, podria donar a lloc al que temptativament és possible anomenar "cartesianisme distòpic". Davant d'aquesta consumació, la cristal·lització del qual és l'esdevenir (total) màquina de l'animal no humà, una bioètica animal podria servir com a via per contravenir el cartesianisme distòpic


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Temas Bioéticos , Modelos Animais , Experimentação Animal/ética , Animais Domésticos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Comitês de Cuidado Animal
2.
Virol J ; 17(1): 143, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008410

RESUMO

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by a pathogen called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic. This ongoing pandemic has now been reported in 215 countries with more than 23 million confirmed cases and more than 803 thousand deaths worldwide as of August 22, 2020. Although efforts are undergoing, there is no approved vaccine or any specific antiretroviral drug to treat COVID-19 so far. It is now known that SARS-CoV-2 can affect not only humans but also pets and other domestic and wild animals, making it a one health global problem. Several published scientific evidence has shown that bats are the initial reservoir hosts of SARS-CoV-2, and pangolins are suggested as an intermediate hosts. So far, little is known concerning the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19. Therefore, updated knowledge about the potential role of pets in the current outbreak will be of paramount importance for effective prevention and control of the disease. This review summarized the current evidence about the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
3.
Zootaxa ; 4834(3): zootaxa.4834.3.1, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056112

RESUMO

Chigger mites of northern Iran were studied on the basis of field collections from rodent hosts. Thirty-five species were recorded. Two new species, Cheladonta afshari Stekolnikov and Shamsi sp. nov., collected on Apodemus sp. in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces, and Neotrombicula tehranensis Stekolnikov and Shamsi sp. nov., collected on Cricetulus migratorius and Chionomys sp. in Tehran Province, are described. One new synonym is established: Neotrombicula vernalis (Willmann, 1942) (= Neotrombicula kermani Kudryashova, 1977 syn. nov.). Seventeen species were recorded in Iran for the first time; thus, the number of known Iranian chiggers constitutes 104. The record of Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw, 1790) in Iran is important from the veterinarian and medical points of view, as this species attacks humans and domestic animals.


Assuntos
Trombiculidae , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Arvicolinae , Irã (Geográfico) , Murinae
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238496, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941463

RESUMO

Lyme borreliosis and Relapsing fever are considered emerging and re-emerging diseases that cause major public health problems in endemic countries. Epidemiology and geographical distribution of these diseases are documented in the US and in Europe, yet in Mexico, studies are scarce and scattered. The aims of this study were (1) to present the first confirmatory evidence of an endemic case of Lyme disease in Mexico and (2) to analyze the epidemiological trend of these both diseases by compiling all the information published on Borrelia in Mexico. Two databases were compiled, one of human cases and another of wild and domestic animals in the country. The analysis included the evaluation of risk factors for the human population, the diversity of Borrelia species and their geographic distribution. Six Borrelia species were reported in a total of 1,347 reports, of which 398 were of humans. Women and children from rural communities were shown to be more susceptible for both Lyme borreliosis and Relapsing fever. The remaining reports were made in diverse mammalian species and ticks. A total of 17 mammalian species and 14 tick species were recorded as hosts for this bacterial genus. It is noteworthy that records of Borrelia were only made in 18 of the 32 states, mainly in northern and central Mexico. These results highlight the importance of performing further studies in areas where animal cases have been reported, yet no human studies have been done, in order to complete the epidemiological panorama for Lyme borreliosis and Relapsing fever. Finally, the search for Borrelia infections in other vertebrates, such as reptiles and amphibians is recommended to gain a more accurate view of Borrelia species and their distribution. The geographical approach presented herein justifies an intense sampling effort to improve epidemiological knowledge of these diseases to aid vector control and prevention programs.


Assuntos
Borrelia/classificação , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Febre Recorrente/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Borrelia/patogenicidade , Gerenciamento de Dados , Humanos , Ixodes/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , México/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia
5.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1008956, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911491

RESUMO

The genomic diversity of the domestic dog is an invaluable resource for advancing understanding of mammalian biology, evolutionary biology, morphologic variation, and behavior. There are approximately 350 recognized breeds in the world today, many established through hybridization and selection followed by intense breeding programs aimed at retaining or enhancing specific traits. As a result, many breeds suffer from an excess of particular diseases, one of many factors leading to the recent trend of "designer breed" development, i.e. crossing purebred dogs from existing breeds in the hope that offspring will be enriched for desired traits and characteristics of the parental breeds. We used a dense panel of 150,106 SNPs to analyze the population structure of the Australian labradoodle (ALBD), to understand how such breeds are developed. Haplotype and admixture analyses show that breeds other than the poodle (POOD) and Labrador retriever (LAB) contributed to ALBD formation, but that the breed is, at the genetic level, predominantly POOD, with all small and large varieties contributing to its construction. Allele frequency analysis reveals that the breed is enhanced for variants associated with a poodle-like coat, which is perceived by breeders to have an association with hypoallergenicity. We observed little enhancement for LAB-specific alleles. This study provides a blueprint for understanding how dog breeds are formed, highlighting the limited scope of desired traits in defining new breeds.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/genética , Cães/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Alelos , Animais , Austrália , Cruzamento/métodos , Frequência do Gene/genética , Testes Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Fenótipo , Filogenia
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(42): 26382-26388, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994343

RESUMO

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reached nearly every country in the world with extraordinary person-to-person transmission. The most likely original source of the virus was spillover from an animal reservoir and subsequent adaptation to humans sometime during the winter of 2019 in Wuhan Province, China. Because of its genetic similarity to SARS-CoV-1, it is probable that this novel virus has a similar host range and receptor specificity. Due to concern for human-pet transmission, we investigated the susceptibility of domestic cats and dogs to infection and potential for infected cats to transmit to naive cats. We report that cats are highly susceptible to infection, with a prolonged period of oral and nasal viral shedding that is not accompanied by clinical signs, and are capable of direct contact transmission to other cats. These studies confirm that cats are susceptible to productive SARS-CoV-2 infection, but are unlikely to develop clinical disease. Further, we document that cats developed a robust neutralizing antibody response that prevented reinfection following a second viral challenge. Conversely, we found that dogs do not shed virus following infection but do seroconvert and mount an antiviral neutralizing antibody response. There is currently no evidence that cats or dogs play a significant role in human infection; however, reverse zoonosis is possible if infected owners expose their domestic pets to the virus during acute infection. Resistance to reinfection holds promise that a vaccine strategy may protect cats and, by extension, humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Gatos , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
7.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(19): 2903-2905, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945160

RESUMO

Several lines of evidence suggest the presence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater. The use of sewage water for irrigation is common in many developing countries, and it is only partially treated in the majority of countries with less than 10% of collected wastewater receiving any form of treatment globally. Wastewater is unsafe for human and animal consumption and contains impurities and microbial pathogens. Here, we pose the question of whether the reuse of untreated or partially treated wastewater for irrigation can expose susceptible populations and pets, leading to COVID-19 disease recurrence in the community? It is imperative to study the ecological relationships between humans, animals, and environmental health in relation to COVID-19 to contribute to a "One Health Concept" to design preventative strategies and attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Humanos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Esgotos/virologia , Purificação da Água/métodos
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 602, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine for the first time, in Morocco, the nasal carriage rate, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and virulence genes of Staphylococcus. aureus isolated from animals and breeders in close contact. METHODS: From 2015 to 2016, 421 nasal swab samples were collected from 26 different livestock areas in Tangier. Antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes were determined by disk diffusion according to EUCAST 2015. The presence of nuc, mecA, mecC, lukS/F-PV, and tst genes were determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for all isolates. RESULTS: The overall S. aureus nasal carriage rate was low in animals (9.97%) and high in breeders (60%) with a statistically significant difference, (OR = 13.536; 95% CI = 7.070-25.912; p < 0.001). In general, S. aureus strains were susceptible to the majority of antibiotics and the highest resistance rates were found against tetracycline (16.7% in animals and 10% in breeders). No Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in animals and breeders. A high rate of tst and lukS/F-PV genes has been recovered only from animals (11.9 and 16.7%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Despite the lower rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus and the absence of MRSA strains in our study, S. aureus strains harbored a higher frequency of tst and lukS/F-PV virulence genes, which is associated to an increased risk of infection dissemination in humans. This highlights the need for further larger and multi-center studies to better define the transmission of the pathogenic S. aureus between livestock, environment, and humans.


Assuntos
Nariz/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Leucocidinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nuclease do Micrococo/genética , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Virulência/genética
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008519, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776936

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonosis caused by infection with the cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. We carried out a systematic literature review on E. granulosus s.l. human and animal (cattle, sheep, dog) infection in European Mediterranean and Balkan countries in 2000-2019, to provide a picture of its recent epidemiology in this endemic area. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar and Open Grey databases were searched. Included cases were: i) for humans, data from hospital records and imaging studies; ii) for dogs, data from necropsy and coprological studies; iii) for ruminants, cases based on slaughter inspection. The NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) classification was used to categorize extracted data in epidemiological units, defined as data referred to one NUTS2 (basic region) in one year time. Data were then aggregated to NUTS1 level (major regions), calculating the average incidence value of included epidemiological units. For prevalence studies covering different epidemiological units, the pooled prevalence was estimated. Data were extracted from 79 publications, 25 on human infection (covering 437 epidemiological units), and 54 on animal infection (52 epidemiological units for cattle, 35 for sheep and 25 for dogs). At NUTS1 level, average annual incidence rates of human CE ranged from 0.10-7.74/100,000; pooled prevalence values ranged from 0.003-64.09% in cattle, 0.004-68.73% in sheep, and 0-31.86% in dogs. Southern and insular Italy, central Spain, Romania and Bulgaria reported the highest values. Bovine data showed a more similar pattern to human data compared to sheep and dogs. Limitation of evidence included the paucity of human prevalence studies, data heterogeneity, and the patchy geographical coverage, with lack of data especially for the Balkans. Our results confirm Italy, Spain, and Eastern Europe being the most affected areas, but data are extremely heterogeneous, geographical coverage very patchy, and human prevalence studies extremely scant. Results also highlight the notorious problem of underreporting of E. granulosus s.l. infection in both humans and animals.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus granulosus , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Cães , Equinococose/parasitologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , Ovinos , Zoonoses/parasitologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845922

RESUMO

Modeling the behavior of zoonotic pandemic threats is a key component of their control. Many emerging zoonoses, such as SARS, Nipah, and Hendra, mutated from their wild type while circulating in an intermediate host population, usually a domestic species, to become more transmissible among humans, and this transmission route will only become more likely as agriculture and trade intensifies around the world. Passage through an intermediate host enables many otherwise rare diseases to become better adapted to humans, and so understanding this process with accurate mathematical models is necessary to prevent epidemics of emerging zoonoses, guide policy interventions in public health, and predict the behavior of an epidemic. In this paper, we account for a zoonotic disease mutating in an intermediate host by introducing a new mathematical model for disease transmission among three species. We present a model of these disease dynamics, including the equilibria of the system and the basic reproductive number of the pathogen, finding that in the presence of biologically realistic interspecies transmission parameters, a zoonotic disease with the capacity to mutate in an intermediate host population can establish itself in humans even if its R0 in humans is less than 1. This result and model can be used to predict the behavior of any zoonosis with an intermediate host and assist efforts to protect public health.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109225, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795450

RESUMO

Two types of cholinesterases (ChEs) are present in mammalian blood and tissues: acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). While AChE regulates neurotransmission by hydrolyzing acetylcholine at the postsynaptic membranes and neuromuscular junctions, BChE in plasma has been suggested to be involved in detoxifying toxic compounds. This study was undertaken to establish the identity of circulating ChE activity in plasmas from domestic animals (bovine, ovine, caprine, porcine and equine) by assessing sensitivity to AChE-specific inhibitors (BW284c51 and edrophonium) and BChE-specific inhibitors (dibucaine, ethopropazine and Iso-OMPA) as well as binding to anti-FBS AChE monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Based on the inhibition of ChE activity by ChE-specific inhibitors, it was determined that bovine, ovine and caprine plasma predominantly contain AChE, while porcine and equine plasma contain BChE. Three of the anti-FBS AChE MAbs, 4E5, 5E8 and 6H9, inhibited 85-98% of enzyme activity in bovine, ovine and caprine plasma, confirming that the esterase in these plasmas was AChE. These MAbs did not bind to purified recombinant human or mouse AChE, demonstrating that these MAbs were specific for AChEs from ruminant species. These MAbs did not inhibit the activity of purified human BChE, or ChE activity in porcine and equine plasma, confirming that the ChE in these plasmas was BChE. Taken together, these results demonstrate that anti-FBS AChE MAbs can serve as useful tools for distinguishing between AChEs from ruminant and non-ruminant species and BChEs.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/sangue , Butirilcolinesterase/imunologia , Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Animais , Animais Domésticos/imunologia , Butirilcolinesterase/sangue , Bovinos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Ruminantes/imunologia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17710-17719, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661161

RESUMO

Cat remains from Poland dated to 4,200 to 2,300 y BCE are currently the earliest evidence for the migration of the Near Eastern cat (NE cat), the ancestor of domestic cats, into Central Europe. This early immigration preceded the known establishment of housecat populations in the region by around 3,000 y. One hypothesis assumed that NE cats followed the migration of early farmers as synanthropes. In this study, we analyze the stable isotopes in six samples of Late Neolithic NE cat bones and further 34 of the associated fauna, including the European wildcat. We approximate the diet and trophic ecology of Late Neolithic felids in a broad context of contemporary wild and domestic animals and humans. In addition, we compared the ecology of Late Neolithic NE cats with the earliest domestic cats known from the territory of Poland, dating to the Roman Period. Our results reveal that human agricultural activity during the Late Neolithic had already impacted the isotopic signature of rodents in the ecosystem. These synanthropic pests constituted a significant proportion of the NE cat's diet. Our interpretation is that Late Neolithic NE cats were opportunistic synanthropes, most probably free-living individuals (i.e., not directly relying on a human food supply). We explore niche partitioning between studied NE cats and the contemporary native European wildcats. We find only minor differences between the isotopic ecology of both these taxa. We conclude that, after the appearance of the NE cat, both felid taxa shared the ecological niches.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Arqueologia , Dieta , Fósseis , Animais , Gatos , Colágeno , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Geografia , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo
16.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 71-83, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596356

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses that include human epidemic pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome virus (MERS-CoV), and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus (SARS-CoV), among others (e.g., COVID-19, the recently emerging coronavirus disease). The role of animals as potential reservoirs for such pathogens remains an unanswered question. No systematic reviews have been published on this topic to date. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV infection in animals and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: 6,493articles were retrieved (1960-2019). After screening by abstract/title, 50 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of them, 42 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From a total of 34 studies (n=20,896 animals), the pool prevalence by RT-PCR for MERS-CoV was 7.2% (95%CI 5.6-8.7%), with 97.3% occurring in camels, in which pool prevalence was 10.3% (95%CI 8.3-12.3). Qatar was the country with the highest MERS-CoV RT-PCR pool prevalence: 32.6% (95%CI 4.8-60.4%). From 5 studies and 2,618 animals, for SARS-CoV, the RT-PCR pool prevalence was 2.3% (95%CI 1.3-3.3). Of those, 38.35% were reported on bats, in which the pool prevalence was 14.1% (95%CI0.0-44.6%). DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of infected animals tested positive, particularly by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT). This essential condition highlights the relevance of individual animals as reservoirs of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In this meta-analysis, camels and bats were found to be positive by RT-PCR in over 10% of the cases for both; thus, suggesting their relevance in the maintenance of wild zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Primatas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas/virologia , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Zoonoses
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 659-664, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524955

RESUMO

There is a paucity of data on Francisella tularensis in the Middle East and North Africa. This is the first countrywide study to determine the seroprevalence, spatial distribution, and risk factors for F. tularensis in Jordan. A total of 828 Jordanians were serologically tested for F. tularensis by ELISA. These individuals filled out a self-administered questionnaire to collect demographic and risk factor information. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to determine which variables are associated with seropositivity. The overall seroprevalence of F. tularensis was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.10-9.75). The bivariate analyses showed that age, region of residence, small ruminant ownership, and practicing horticulture were significantly associated with seropositivity, and these variables were controlled for in the multivariate analysis. The multivariate analysis showed an increased odds of seropositivity among individuals living in northern desert, middle, and northern highland areas, compared with individuals living in the drier southern area, as 7.27 (95% CI: 2.49-21.19), 3.79 (95% CI: 1.53-9.39), and 3.52 (95% CI: 1.45-388.55), respectively. Individuals owning a small ruminant had 1.86 (95% CI: 1.02-3.40) greater odds for seropositivity than individuals who do not own a small ruminant. Individuals practicing horticulture had 2.10 (95% CI: 1.20-3.66) greater odds for seropositivity than individuals who do not practice horticulture. This is the first study to address the seroprevalence of F. tularensis in Jordan and the Middle East. Further research is needed to identify clinical cases of tularemia in Jordan and to determine the circulating F. tularensis subspecies.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Tularemia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Camelus , Gatos , Bovinos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Cães , Água Potável , Feminino , Cabras , Horticultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Análise Multivariada , Alimentos Crus , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Carneiro Doméstico , Análise Espacial , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 735-744, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524965

RESUMO

Chagas disease is a lethal, neglected tropical disease. Unfortunately, aggressive insecticide-spraying campaigns have not been able to eliminate domestic infestation of Triatoma dimidiata, the native vector in Guatemala. To target interventions toward houses most at risk of infestation, comprehensive socioeconomic and entomologic surveys were conducted in two towns in Jutiapa, Guatemala. Given the exhaustively large search space associated with combinations of risk factors, traditional statistics are limited in their ability to discover risk factor interactions. Two recently developed statistical evolutionary algorithms, specifically designed to accommodate risk factor interactions and heterogeneity, were applied to this large combinatorial search space and used in tandem to identify sets of risk factor combinations associated with infestation. The optimal model includes 10 risk factors in what is known as a third-order disjunctive normal form (i.e., infested households have chicken coops AND deteriorated bedroom walls OR an accumulation of objects AND dirt floors AND total number of occupants ≥ 5 AND years of electricity ≥ 5 OR poor hygienic condition ratings AND adobe walls AND deteriorated walls AND dogs). Houses with dirt floors and deteriorated walls have been reported previously as risk factors and align well with factors currently targeted by Ecohealth interventions to minimize infestation. However, the tandem evolutionary algorithms also identified two new socioeconomic risk factors (i.e., households having many occupants and years of electricity ≥ 5). Identifying key risk factors may help with the development of new Ecohealth interventions and/or reduce the survey time needed to identify houses most at risk.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Materiais de Construção/estatística & dados numéricos , Abrigo para Animais , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Insetos Vetores , Triatoma , Algoritmos , Animais , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Galinhas , Cães , Instalação Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Higiene , Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200600. 25 p. ilus, graf.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1100736

RESUMO

El documento contiene las disposiciones que permitan mitigar el riesgo de transmisión de COVID-19 en establecimientos veterinarios durante la atención de animales de compañía a nivel nacional.


Assuntos
Atenção , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estado de Alerta em Emergências , Animais Domésticos
20.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020034, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Regions with limited sanitation facilities have higher rates of infections with various enteric pathogens. It is therefore important to identify different hosts and their relative contribution to pathogen shedding into the environment, and to assess the subsequent health risks to humans. METHODS: In this study, human faecal (n=310), animal faecal (n=150), and environmental (soil) samples (n=40) were collected from the same locality and screened for selected enteric pathogens by immunochromatography and/or polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: At least 1 microbial agent was detected in 49.0%, 44.7%, and 40.0% of the samples from human, animals, and soil, respectively. Among humans, rotavirus was predominantly detected (17.4%) followed by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) (15.4%), Shigella (13.8), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (9.7%). Among animals, STEC was detected most frequently (28.0%), and EPEC was the major enteric pathogen detected in soil (30.0%). The detection rate of rotavirus was higher among younger children (≤2 years) than among older children. Single infections were more commonly detected than multiple infections in humans (p<0.01), unlike the observations in animal and soil samples. For diarrhoeagenic E. coli and Shigella, most of the human and animal isolates showed close relatedness, suggesting possible cross-infection between humans and domesticated animals in the area studied. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides an improved understanding of the distribution of major enteric pathogens coexisting in humans and animals in the region, thereby suggesting a high potential for possible transmission among livestock and communities residing in the studied locality.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/transmissão , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/transmissão , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Prevalência , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/transmissão , Zoonoses
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