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1.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0213120, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881039

RESUMO

Based on notified cases of human rabies exposure and human deaths by rabies to Colombia public health surveillance system between 2007 and 2016, we conducted a spatiotemporal analysis to identify epidemiological scenarios of high human rabies exposure due to dogs, cats, bats, or farm animals (n = 666,411 cases). The incidence rate of human rabies exposures was analyzed by using geographical information system (spatiotemporal distribution and Cluster and Outlier Analysis (Anselin Local Moran's I)) data for all Colombian cities. The incidence rate of human rabies exposures due to dogs and cats showed an increasing trend, while aggression due bats and farm animals fluctuated throughout the analyzed period. Human deaths by rabies transmitted by cat and bat occurred in the Andean and Orinoquia regions, which had urban and rural scenarios. The urban scenario showed the highest exposure to human rabies due to cats and dogs in cities characterized with high human population density and greater economic development. In contrary, the highest human rabies exposure in the rural scenario was observed due to contact of mucosa or injured skin with the infected saliva of farm animals with the rabies virus, principally among workers in the agroforestry area. The inequality scenario showed some outlier cities with high human rabies exposure due to farm animals principally in the Pacific region (characterized by the highest poverty rates in Colombia), being Afro-descendant and indigenous population the most exposed. The highest exposure due to bats bite was observed among indigenous people residing in cities of the Amazon region as a dispersed population (Amazonian scenario). None of the high exposure scenarios were related to human deaths by rabies due to dogs aggression. The identified scenarios can help develop better surveillance systems with a differential approach to the vulnerable population and strengthening them in areas with rabies viral circulation.


Assuntos
Raiva/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Cães/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Populações Vulneráveis
2.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 234-242, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383307

RESUMO

During 2012-2015, six H5N1 avian influenza viruses were isolated from domestic birds and the environment around Qinghai Lake. Phylogenetic analysis of HA genes revealed that A/chicken/Gansu/XG2/2012 (CK/GS/XG2/12) belonged to clade 2.3.2.1a, while A/environment/Qinghai/1/2013 (EN/QH/1/13), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH1/2015 (CK/QH/QH1/15), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH2/2015 (CK/QH/QH2/15), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH3/2015 (CK/QH/QH3/15), and A/goose/Qinghai/QH6/2015 (GS/QH/QH6/15) belonged to clade 2.3.2.1c. Further analysis of the internal genes of the isolates found that the PB2 gene of EN/QH/1/13 had 99.6% nucleotide identity with that of A/tiger/Jiangsu/1/2013 (H5N1), which clustered into an independent branch with PB2 from multiple subtypes. PB2, PB1, and M genes of CK/QH/QH3/15 were from H9N2, suggesting it was a reassortant of H5N1 and H9N2. Animal studies of three selected viruses revealed that CK/GS/XG2/12, EN/QH/1/13, and CK/QH/QH3/15 were highly lethal to chickens, with intravenous pathogenicity indexes (IVPIs) of 2.97, 2.81, and 3.00, respectively, and systemically replicated in chickens. In a mouse study, three selected H5N1 viruses were highly pathogenic to mice and readily replicated in the lungs, nasal turbinates, kidneys, spleens, and brains. Therefore, isolates in this study appear to be novel reassortants that were circulating at the interface of wild and domestic birds around Qinghai Lake and are lethal to chickens and mice. These data suggest that more extensive surveillance should be implemented, and matched vaccines should be chosen for the domestic birds in this area.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Lagos/virologia , Células A549 , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Cães , Patos/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/mortalidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Replicação Viral
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(9): 1752-1753, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441752

RESUMO

Since its recent discovery, Bourbon virus has been isolated from a human and ticks. To assess exposure of potential vertebrate reservoirs, we assayed banked serum and plasma samples from wildlife and domestic animals in Missouri, USA, for Bourbon virus-neutralizing antibodies. We detected high seroprevalence in raccoons (50%) and white-tailed deer (86%).


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças , Thogotovirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Missouri
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357451

RESUMO

The origin of the hepatitis B virus is a subject of wide deliberation among researchers. As a result, increasing academic interest has focused on the spread of the virus in different animal species. However, the sources of viral infection for many of these animals are unknown since transmission may occur from animal to animal, human to human, animal to human, and human to animal. The aim of this study was to evaluate hepadnavirus circulation in wild and farm animals (including animals raised under wild or free conditions) from different sites in Brazil and Uruguay using serological and molecular tools. A total of 487 domestic wild and farm animals were screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers and tested via quantitative and qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect viral DNA. We report evidence of HBsAg (surface antigen of HBV) and total anti-HBc (HBV core antigen) markers as well as low-copy hepadnavirus DNA among domestic and wild animals. According to our results, which were confirmed by partial genome sequencing, as the proximity between humans and animals increases, the potential for pathogen dispersal also increases. A wider knowledge and understanding of reverse zoonoses should be sought for an effective One Health response.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , DNA Viral/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/sangue , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Uruguai/epidemiologia
5.
Virol Sin ; 34(5): 501-507, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240618

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus (SFTSV) has a wide host range. Not only has it been found in humans, but also in many wild and domesticated animals. The infection of breeding deer on farms is a particularly worrisome public health concern due to the large amount of human contact and the diverse use of deer products, including raw blood. To investigate the prevalence of breeding domesticated deer, we examined the SFTSV infection rate on deer farms in South Korea from 2015 to 2017. Of the 215 collected blood samples, 0.9% (2/215) were found to be positive for viral RNA by PCR, and sequence analysis showed the highest homology with the KADGH human isolate. Both SFTSV-specific recombinant N and Gn protein-based ELISAs revealed that 14.0% (30/215) and 7.9% (17/215) of collected blood specimens were positive for SFTSV antibody. These results demonstrate that the breeding farm deer are exposed to SFTSV and could be a potential infection source for humans through direct contact or consumption of byproducts.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Cervos/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/sangue , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/transmissão , Fazendas , Phlebovirus/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217822, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242222

RESUMO

The decline of many bumblebee species (Bombus spp.) has been linked to an increased prevalence of pathogens caused by spillover from managed bees. Although poorly understood, RNA viruses are suspected of moving from managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) into wild bumblebees through shared floral resources. We examined if RNA viruses spillover from managed honeybees, the extent to which viruses are replicating within bumblebees, and the role of flowers in transmission. Prevalence and active infections of deformed wing virus (DWV) were higher in bumblebees collected near apiaries and when neighboring honeybees had high infection levels. We found no DWV in bumblebees where honeybee foragers and honeybee apiaries were absent. The prevalence of black queen cell virus (BQCV) was also higher in bumblebees collected near apiaries. Furthermore, we detected viruses on 19% of flowers, all of which were collected within apiaries. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that viruses are spilling over from managed honeybees to wild bumblebees and that flowers may be an important route for transmission.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Criação de Abelhas , Abelhas/virologia , Vírus de RNA/patogenicidade , Animais , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Replicação Viral
8.
Arch Virol ; 164(9): 2315-2320, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168750

RESUMO

Novel protoparvoviruses genetically related to human and non-human primate bufaviruses (BuVs) have been detected recently in respiratory and enteric specimens collected from dogs and cats. In this study, by molecular screening of archival collections of faecal samples from wolves and foxes, we detected BuVs with a rate of 17.1% (7/41) and 10.5% (9/86), respectively. Sequence analysis of a portion of the ORF2 gene region of nine positive samples showed that the viruses in these samples were closely related to BuVs (97.5-99.0% nucleotide sequence identity) found in domestic carnivores.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Raposas/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirinae/genética , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Lobos/virologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Carnívoros/virologia , Cães , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirinae/classificação , Filogenia
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 103-108, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866764

RESUMO

Dromedary camels are natural host of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). However, there are limited studies of MERS-CoV infection of other domestic mammals exposed to infected dromedaries. We expanded our surveillance among camels in Egypt, Tunisia, and Senegal to include other domestic mammalian species in contact with infected camels. A total of 820 sera and 823 nasal swabs from cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys, buffaloes, mules, and horses were collected. Swabs were tested using RT-PCR and virus RNA-positive samples were genetically sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. Sera were screened using virus microneutralization tests and positive sera (where available) were confirmed using plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). We detected 90% PRNT confirmed MERS-CoV antibody in 35 (55.6%) of 63 sera from sheep collected from Senegal, two sheep (1.8%) of 114 in Tunisia and a goat (0.9%) of 107 in Egypt, with titres ranging from 1:80 to ≥1:320. We detected MERS-CoV RNA in swabs from three sheep (1.2%) of 254 and five goats (4.1%) of 121 from Egypt and Senegal, as well as one cow (1.9%) of 53 and three donkeys (7.1%) of 42 from Egypt. Partial sequences of the RT-PCR amplicons confirmed specificity of the results. This study showed that domestic livestock in contact with MERS-CoV infected camels may be at risk of infection. We recommend expanding current MERS-CoV surveillance in animals to include other livestock in close contact with dromedary camels. The segregation of camels from other livestock in farms and live animal markets may need to be considered.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Nariz/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Animais , Animais Domésticos/sangue , Animais Domésticos/imunologia , Bovinos , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Egito , Cabras , Cavalos , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização , Filogenia , Vigilância da População , Senegal , Ovinos , Tunísia
10.
Virus Res ; 265: 127-131, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914299

RESUMO

Bufaviruses are small, nonenveloped, single-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the subfamily Parvovirinae. Human bufaviruses were first identified in 2012 in fecal samples from children with diarrhea. A new parvovirus of canines that was first detected in various samples from dogs with enteric and respiratory symptoms in Italy between 2014 and 2018 is closely related to the newly described human bufavirus. To explore the prevalence and genetic diversity of CBuV in Chinese dogs, 540 canine parvovirus (CPV)-positive serum and diarrhea samples were collected in Guangxi Province between 2016 and 2018. Among the samples, 6.25% (5/80) of rectal swabs and 2.5% (5/200) of CPV PCR-positive samples were positive for CBuV. However, the virus was not detected in CPV PCR-negative samples or nasal swabs. Two CBuV isolates were identified from CPV-positive fecal and serum samples by complete sequence analysis, with 99.8%-99.9% NS1 and VP2 protein identity to each another. Sequence analysis indicated that the CBuV GXNN01-2018 isolate VP2 protein shares 99.6% identity with the Italian CBuV ITA/2015/297 isolate and 62.3%-65.5% identity with human bufavirus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CBuV was significantly distinct from other known bufaviruses and was most closely related to CBuV ITA/2015/297. This is the first report of the existence of CBuV in China, and our findings will strengthen the understanding of the epidemiology of bufaviruses in different animals.


Assuntos
Diarreia/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/classificação , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência
11.
Virus Genes ; 55(3): 411-414, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895439

RESUMO

In 2017, an H7N8 avian influenza virus (AIV) was isolated from a domestic duck from a farm in Central China. Sequences analysis showed that this strain received its genes from H7, H1, H2, H3, H5, and H6 AIVs of domestic poultry and wild birds in Asia. It exhibited low pathogenicity in chickens and mild pathogenicity in mice. These results suggest the importance of continued surveillance of the H7N8 virus to better understand the ecology and evolution of the AIVs in poultry and wild birds and the potential threat to human health.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens , Galinhas/virologia , China , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Camundongos , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão
12.
Acta Trop ; 192: 87-90, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738024

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and influenza A virus (IAV) are two important pathogens which can infect humans and various animals causing public health problems. In this study, the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with HEV and IAV infection in farmed wild boars were investigated in China. A total of 758 serum samples were collected from farmed wild boars between 2015 and 2016, and antibodies against HEV and IAV were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using commercially available kits. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies was 24.54% (186/758, 95% CI 21.48-27.60) in farmed wild boars. There were statistically significant differences in the HEV seroprevalence in farmed wild boars of different ages (<22 days: 8.33%; 22-66 days: 18.89%; >66 days: 26.36%) (P < 0.05) and different genders (50.00% in male and 23.49% in female) (P < 0.01). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the HEV seroprevalence in farmed wild boars of different regions and different years. The overall IAV seroprevalence was 5.80% (44/758, 95% CI 4.14-7.46), and there was no statistically significant difference in the IAV seroprevalence in farmed wild boars of different ages and genders, collected from different regions and different years. Our results indicate that HEV and IAV infections in farmed wild boars may pose a potential risk for human infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HEV and IAV seroprevalence in farmed wild boars in China, which provides baseline data for further studies and for control of HEV and IAV infection in farmed wild boars.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Sus scrofa/virologia , Animais , China , Feminino , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos/virologia
13.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(2): 454-461, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611724

RESUMO

This study reports the etiological identification, clinical diagnosis, and the results of the local epidemiological surveillance of the first case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection in 2014 in Hunan Province, China. The infected patient was isolated and closely monitored. The virus is a member of the Bunyaviridae sandfly family and is characterized by real-time PCR, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and whole-genome sequencing. We also detected IgG and IgM antibodies against SFTSV among the local human population and domestic animals in a serological surveillance. Prevalence of SFTSV-specific antibodies was monitored in the local population for two years after the identification of the first SFTS case. Approximately 5% (4/77) of the people who had direct contact with the patient were seropositive, which is significantly higher than the seropositivity of the general local population [1.57% (44/2800), P < 0.05]. Furthermore, the percentage of the general population who were seropositive was higher in 2015 than in 2014 (χ2 = 7.481, P = 0.006). The epidemiological investigation found that the SFTSV is epidemic in goats, cattle, and chickens in Hunan Province. The risk of infection of domestic animals can be minimized by feeding in pens rather than allowing foraging.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/diagnóstico , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Phlebovirus/genética , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(2): 481-485, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178438

RESUMO

As in most of the African continent, the status of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in domestic animals in São Tomé and Príncipe, an archipelago off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa, is also completely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the presence of HEV among domestic animals in São Tomé and Príncipe. A total of 93 stool samples from different animal species (goat, cow, pig, chicken, duck, and monkey) were tested for HEV RNA using two real-time RT-PCR assays, followed by a nested RT-PCR assay for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of six samples (1 cow stool and 5 pig stools) were found to be positive for HEV RNA of which one pig stool was positive by broad spectrum nested RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the retrieved sequence clustered within HEV subgenotype 3f, similar to zoonotic strains of European countries and posing interesting questions on past introduction of European HEV into São Tomé and Príncipe archipelago. This is the first report describing the presence and molecular characterization of HEV in São Tomé and Príncipe.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , São Tomé e Príncipe , Suínos
15.
J Wildl Dis ; 55(2): 473-476, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226803

RESUMO

Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease of global importance. Rabies virus is shed in the saliva of infected hosts and is primarily transmitted through bite contact. Canine rabies has been eliminated from the US, but wildlife constitutes more than 90% of the reported cases of animal rabies in the US each year. In the US, several wild carnivore species are reservoirs of distinct variants of rabies virus (RV). After decades of apparent absence, the south-central skunk (SCSK) RV variant was detected in Colorado in 2007 and resulted in a large-scale epizootic in striped skunk ( Mephitis mephitis) populations in northern Colorado starting in 2012. We attempted isolation of RV from salivary gland tissues from confirmed rabid carnivores, comprising 51 striped skunks and seven other wild and domestic carnivores collected during 2013 through 2015 in northern Colorado. We isolated RV from 84.0% (158/188; 95% confidence interval=78.1-88.6%) of striped skunk and 71% (17/24; 95% confidence interval =51-85%) of other carnivore salivary glands. These data suggested that infected reservoir and vector species were equally likely to shed the SCSK RV variant and posed a secondary transmission risk to humans and other animals.


Assuntos
Carnívoros/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/veterinária , Glândulas Salivares/virologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(1): 537-545, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394662

RESUMO

Competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) is the most widely used serological test for the detection of Bluetongue virus (BTV) viral protein 7 (VP7) antibodies (Ab). However, these BTV c-ELISAs cannot to distinguish between IgG and IgM. IgM Ab are generated shortly after the primary immune response against an infectious agent, indicating a recent infection or exposure to antigens, such as after vaccination. Because the BTV genome or anti-VP7 Ab can be detected in ruminant blood months after infection, BTV diagnostic tools cannot discriminate between recent and old infections. In this study, we evaluated an IgM-capture ELISA prototype to detect ruminant anti-BTV VP7 IgM on 1,650 serum samples from cattle, sheep, or goats. Animals were BTV-naive, infected, or/and vaccinated with BTV-1, -2, -4, -8, -9, -16, or -27, and we also included 30 sera from cattle infected with the Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotype 6. Results demonstrated that this ELISA kit is specific and can detect the presence of IgM with satisfactory diagnostic specificity and sensitivity from 1 to 5 weeks after BTV infection in domestic ruminants (for goats and cattle; for sheep, at least up to 24 days). The peak of anti-VP7 IgM was reached when the level of infectious viruses and BTV RNA in blood were the highest. The possibility of detecting BTV-RNA in IgM-positive sera allows the amplification and sequencing of the partial RNA segment 2 (encoding the serotype specific to VP2) to determine the causative BTV serotype/strain. Therefore, BTV IgM ELISA can detect the introduction of BTV (or EHDV) in an area with BTV-seropositive domestic animals regardless of their serological BTV status. This approach may also be of particular interest for retrospective epidemiological studies on frozen serum samples.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus Bluetongue/imunologia , Bluetongue/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Proteínas do Core Viral/imunologia , Animais , Bluetongue/imunologia , Bluetongue/virologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruminantes , Sorogrupo , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(1): 552-561, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407742

RESUMO

Rotaviruses are well-known causative agents of enteric disorders in humans and other mammals, but little is known about their virulence and pathogenic role in pigeons and other birds. Starting in summer 2017, a series of outbreaks of an acute disease with high mortalities was reported in domestic pigeons in Germany, Belgium and Denmark. The clinical picture was characterized by diarrhoea, vomiting, hepatic necrosis and sudden fatalities. From these severe outbreaks, we discovered several previously unknown group A rotavirus (RVA) lineages of genotype G18P[17]-I4-R4-C4-M4-A4-T4-N4-E19-H4, which were closely related but not identical to an RVA variant identified in cases of fatal hepatic necrosis in Australian pigeon lofts in 2016. Retrospective analysis demonstrated that the predecessors of the highly virulent variants have circulated in Europe since at least 2010. Our data indicate that reassortment and intercontinental spread has led to the emergence of novel RVA variants, which may constitute a major threat to animal welfare and health of domestic pigeon populations worldwide.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Columbidae/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Europa (Continente) , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
18.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(2): 216-222, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593734

RESUMO

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is recognized as the most important zoonotic tick-transmitted virus in Europe. TBEV is mainly transmitted to humans through bites from TBEV-infected ticks (Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus). However, alimentary infection after consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese from domestic ruminants has been reported. There is little information about TBEV in ruminants in Norway. The objectives of this study were to analyse unpasteurized cow milk for TBEV RNA and to study the presence of IgG antibodies to TBEV in the same animals. A total of 112 milk and blood samples were collected from cows from five different farms spread from southern to northern Norway. The milk samples were analysed by an in-house reverse transcription (RT) real-time polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by pyrosequencing. Serum samples were screened by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and verified by a TBEV-specific serum neutralization test. We found TBEV RNA in unpasteurized milk collected from farms in the municipalities of Mandal, Skedsmo and Brønnøy in 5.4% of the tested animals. Specific antibodies to TBEV were only detected in Arendal, where 88.2% of the tested animals were positive. Further studies on milk containing TBEV RNA should be performed to conclude if TBEV found in unpasteurized milk in Norway is infectious, which could be of great importance in a One Health perspective.


Assuntos
Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Leite/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bovinos , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Ixodes/virologia , Noruega/epidemiologia , Ninfa , Saúde Única , Pasteurização , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estações do Ano
19.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209005, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562373

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis is one of the main causes of mortality in humans and young animals. Domestic and mainly wild animals such as bats, small rodents and birds are highly diversified animals in relation to their habitats and ecological niches and are widely distributed geographically in environments of forest fragmentation in some areas of the Amazon, being considered important sources for viruses that affect humans and other animals. Due to the anthropical activities, these animals changed their natural habitat and adapted to urbanized environments, thus representing risks to human and animal health. Although the knowledge of the global diversity of enteric viruses is scarce, there are reports demonstrating the detection of rotavirus in domestic animals and animals of productive systems, such as bovines and pigs. The present study investigated the prevalence of Rotavirus A in 648 fecal samples of different animal species from the northeastern mesoregion of the state of Pará, Brazil, which is characterized as an urbanized area with forest fragments. The fecal specimens were collected from October 2014 to April 2016 and subjected to a Qualitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR), using the NSP3 gene as a target. It was observed that 27.5% (178/648) of the samples presented positive results for RVA, with 178 samples distributed in birds (23.6%), canines (21.35%), chiropterans (17.98%), bovines (14.6%), horses (8.43%), small rodents (6.74%), pigs (3.93%) and felines (3.37%), demonstrating the circulation of RVA in domestic animals and suggesting that such proximity could cause transmissions between different species and the occurrence of rearrangements in the genome of RVA as already described in the literature, associated to the traces of environmental degradation in the studied areas.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Florestas , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus , Animais , Brasil , Cidades , Fezes/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Urbanização
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 227: 143-147, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473345

RESUMO

Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary (RBV) is a protected area of Itaipu Binacional, a hydroelectric power company located on the border of Brazil and Paraguay. A captive population of Brazilian dwarf brocket deer (Mazama nana, Cervidae, Artiodactyla) is maintained for conservation purposes. Despite the reproductive success of the animals, outbreaks of a fatal hemorrhagic disease have been registered over the years, compromising conservation efforts. In order to identify the etiological agents of these hemorrhagic diseases, 32 captive Brazilian dwarf brockets were sampled to investigate bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD), and adenovirus hemorrhagic disease (AHD), in 2015. Only one deer (1/32; 3.12%) was seropositive for BTV. After this survey, five animals died in the early autumn of 2015 and 2016, again presenting clinical signs of hemorrhagic disease. Using RT-qPCR, RT-PCR and DNA sequencing, five BTV serotypes (3, 14, 18, 19, and 22) were identified in blood and tissues collected during necropsies. These BTV serotypes had not been previously described or isolated in Brazil, either in wild or domestic ruminants. Additionally, differential diagnosis was performed for EHD and AHD, but all samples were negative for both diseases. The multiple distinct BTV serotypes identified in these outbreaks resulted in a high lethality (100%) of Brazilian dwarf brockets and indicated that various BTV serotypes are circulating in the area.


Assuntos
Vírus Bluetongue/imunologia , Vírus Bluetongue/patogenicidade , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Cervos/virologia , Sorogrupo , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Bluetongue/sangue , Bluetongue/mortalidade , Bluetongue/virologia , Vírus Bluetongue/genética , Vírus Bluetongue/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/genética , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica Epizoótica/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
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