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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0230547, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986740

RESUMO

Hydra are freshwater polyps widely studied for their amazing regenerative capacity, adult stem cell populations, low senescence and value as ecotoxicological marker. Many wild-type strains of H. vulgaris have been collected worldwide and maintained effectively under laboratory conditions by asexual reproduction, while stable transgenic lines have been continuously produced since 2006. Efforts are now needed to ensure the genetic characterization of all these strains, which despite similar morphologies, show significant variability in their response to gene expression silencing procedures, pharmacological treatments or environmental conditions. Here, we established a rapid and reliable procedure at the single polyp level to produce via PCR amplification of three distinct microsatellite sequences molecular signatures that distinguish between Hydra strains and species. The TG-rich region of an uncharacterized gene (ms-c25145) helps to distinguish between Eurasian H. vulgaris-Pallas strains (Hm-105, Basel1, Basel2 and reg-16), between Eurasian and North American H. vulgaris strains (H. carnea, AEP), and between the H. vulgaris and H. oligactis species. The AT-rich microsatellite sequences located in the AIP gene (Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interaction Protein, ms-AIP) also differ between Eurasian and North American H. vulgaris strains. Finally, the AT-rich microsatellite located in the Myb-Like cyclin D-binding transcription factor1 gene (ms-DMTF1) gene helps to distinguish certain transgenic AEP lines. This study shows that the analysis of microsatellite sequences, which is capable of tracing genomic variations between closely related lineages of Hydra, provides a sensitive and robust tool for characterizing the Hydra strains.


Assuntos
Hydra/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Modelos Animais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Genético , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22805-22814, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839345

RESUMO

A Cas9/guide RNA-based gene drive strain, AgNosCd-1, was developed to deliver antiparasite effector molecules to the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae The drive system targets the cardinal gene ortholog producing a red-eye phenotype. Drive can achieve 98 to 100% in both sexes and full introduction was observed in small cage trials within 6 to 10 generations following a single release of gene-drive males. No genetic load resulting from the integrated transgenes impaired drive performance in the trials. Potential drive-resistant target-site alleles arise at a frequency <0.1, and five of the most prevalent polymorphisms in the guide RNA target site in collections of colonized and wild-derived African mosquitoes do not prevent cleavage in vitro by the Cas9/guide RNA complex. Only one predicted off-target site is cleavable in vitro, with negligible deletions observed in vivo. AgNosCd-1 meets key performance criteria of a target product profile and can be a valuable component of a field-ready strain for mosquito population modification to control malaria transmission.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Tecnologia de Impulso Genético/métodos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Alelos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Fenótipo , Transgenes/genética
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813739

RESUMO

Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus is the third most commonly farmed finfish species in the world, accounting for nearly 5% of global aquaculture production. In the past few decades much of the success of this species has been attributed to the development and distribution of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). Despite the increasing availability of GIFT, the productivity of small-scale farming remains highly variable, particularly in developing nations. Commercial fish-feed pellets can increase fish farm productivity; however, many small-scale farmers rely on other means of feeding fish due to the high cost and limited availability of commercial fish feed pellets. Therefore, understanding how locally-sourced feeds affect the production of GIFT is an important step towards improving feeding practices, particularly for farmers with low financial capital. This study used stable isotope analysis (SIA) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to compare the effects of a locally-sourced vegetable-based diet and commercial pellet-based diets on the relative condition, nutrient assimilation patterns and gastrointestinal microbiota of GIFT. GIFT fed a locally-sourced diet were smaller, and in a significantly poorer condition than those fed with commercial fish feeds. SIA showed no differences in dietary carbon between the two diets; however, δ13C, poor fish condition and the abundance of specific bacterial taxa (of such as Fusobacteria) were correlated. SIA revealed that GIFT fed locally-sourced diets that predominantly consisted of vegetables were significantly enriched in δ15N despite a perceived lack of dietary protein. This enrichment suggests that GIFT fed a locally-sourced diet may be supplementing their diet via cannibalism, a behaviour representative of poor farming practice. Overall this study highlights the need to increase the availability of suitable GIFT feeds in developing nations. The development a low-cost feed alternative could improve the success of small-scale GIFT farmers in PNG, increasing both food and income security within the region.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Aquicultura/métodos , Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/microbiologia , Aquicultura/economia , Aquicultura/organização & administração , Canibalismo , Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Eficiência Organizacional/economia , Fazendas/economia , Fazendas/organização & administração , New South Wales , Nutrientes/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235433, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726316

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylhydrolase-like 1 (Adprhl1) is a pseudoenzyme expressed in the developing heart myocardium of all vertebrates. In the amphibian Xenopus laevis, knockdown of the two cardiac Adprhl1 protein species (40 and 23 kDa) causes failure of chamber outgrowth but this has only been demonstrated using antisense morpholinos that interfere with RNA-splicing. Transgenic production of 40 kDa Adprhl1 provides only part rescue of these defects. CRISPR/Cas9 technology now enables targeted mutation of the adprhl1 gene in G0-generation embryos with routine cleavage of all alleles. Testing multiple gRNAs distributed across the locus reveals exonic locations that encode critical amino acids for Adprhl1 function. The gRNA recording the highest frequency of a specific ventricle outgrowth phenotype directs Cas9 cleavage of an exon 6 sequence, where microhomology mediated end-joining biases subsequent DNA repairs towards three small in-frame deletions. Mutant alleles encode discrete loss of 1, 3 or 4 amino acids from a di-arginine (Arg271-Arg272) containing peptide loop at the centre of the ancestral ADP-ribosylhydrolase site. Thus despite lacking catalytic activity, it is the modified (adenosine-ribose) substrate binding cleft of Adprhl1 that fulfils an essential role during heart formation. Mutation results in striking loss of myofibril assembly in ventricle cardiomyocytes. The defects suggest Adprhl1 participation from the earliest stage of cardiac myofibrillogenesis and are consistent with previous MO results and Adprhl1 protein localization to actin filament Z-disc boundaries. A single nucleotide change to the gRNA sequence renders it inactive. Mice lacking Adprhl1 exons 3-4 are normal but production of the smaller ADPRHL1 species is unaffected, providing further evidence that cardiac activity is concentrated at the C-terminal protein portion.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , N-Glicosil Hidrolases/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Catálise , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Coração/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Morfolinos/genética , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos Antissenso/genética , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos Antissenso/farmacologia , Organogênese/genética , Xenopus laevis/genética , Xenopus laevis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236601, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730353

RESUMO

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), exhibit antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, diets rich in n-3 PUFAs are known to improve disease resistance and limit pathogen infection in commercial aquaculture fishes. In this study, we examined the effects of transgenic overexpression of n-3 PUFA biosynthesis genes on the physiological response to bacterial infection in tilapia. We first established tilapia strains with single or dual expression of salmon delta-5 desaturase and/or delta-6 desaturase and then challenged the fish with Vibrio vulnificus infection. Interestingly, our data suggest that n-3 PUFA-mediated alterations in gut microbiota may be important in determining disease outcome via effects on immune response of the host. Both liver- and muscle-specific single and dual expression of delta-5 desaturase and delta-6 desaturase resulted in higher n-3 PUFA content in transgenic fish fed with a LO basal diet. The enrichment of n-3 PUFAs in dual-transgenic fish is likely responsible for their improved survival rate and comparatively reduced expression of inflammation- and immune-associated genes after V. vulnificus infection. Gut microbiome analysis further revealed that dual-transgenic tilapia had high gut microbiota diversity, with low levels of inflammation-associated microbiota (i.e., Prevotellaceae). Thus, our findings indicate that dual expression of transgenic delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase in tilapia enhances disease resistance, an effect that is associated with increased levels of n-3 PUFAs and altered gut microbiota composition.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/metabolismo , Tilápia/microbiologia , Vibrio vulnificus/patogenicidade , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Análise Discriminante , Resistência à Doença/genética , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/genética , Tilápia/genética , Vibrioses/patologia , Vibrioses/veterinária
6.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(2): C359-C370, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520610

RESUMO

SLC4A11 is the only member of the SLC4 family that transports protons rather than bicarbonate. SLC4A11 is expressed in corneal endothelial cells, and its mutation causes corneal endothelial dystrophy, although the mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. We previously demonstrated that the magnitude of the H+ conductance (Gm) mediated by SLC4A11 is increased by rises in intracellular as well as extracellular pH (pHi and pHe). To better understand this feature and whether it is altered in disease, we studied the pH dependence of wild-type and mutant mouse Slc4a11 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using voltage-clamp circuitry in conjunction with a H+-selective microelectrode and a microinjector loaded with NaHCO3, we caused incremental rises in oocyte pHi and measured the effect on Gm. We find that the rise of Gm has a steeper pHi dependence at pHe =8.50 than at pHe =7.50. Data gathered at pHe =8.50 can be fit to the Hill equation enabling the calculation of a pK value that reports pHi dependence. We find that mutation of lysine residues that are close to the first transmembrane span (TM1) causes an alkaline shift in pK. Furthermore, two corneal-dystrophy-causing mutations close to the extracellular end of TM1, E399K and T401K (E368K and T370K in mouse), cause an acidic shift in pK, while a third mutation in the fourth intracellular loop, R804H (R774H in mouse), causes an alkaline shift in pK. This is the first description of determinants of SLC4A11 pH dependence and the first indication that a shift in pH dependence could modify disease expressivity in some cases of corneal dystrophy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/genética , Transporte Biológico/genética , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/genética , Lisina/genética , Simportadores/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/metabolismo , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitélio Posterior/metabolismo , Epitélio Posterior/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Transporte de Íons/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Oócitos/metabolismo , Oócitos/patologia , Sódio , Xenopus/genética
7.
Gene ; 754: 144854, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525045

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of neurodegenerative diseases. Aggregation of Aß42 and hyperphosphorylated tau are two major hallmarks of AD. Whether different forms of tau (soluble or hyperphosphorylated) or Aß are the main culprit in the events observed in AD is still under investigation. Here, we examined the effect of wild-type, prone to hyperphosphorylation and hyperphosphorylated tau, and also Aß42 peptide on the brain antioxidant defense system and two mitochondrial genes, Marf (homologous to human MFN2) and Drp1 involved in mitochondrial dynamics in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster. AD is an age associated disease. Therefore, the activity of antioxidant agents, CAT, SOD, and GSH levels and the mRNA levels of Marf and Drp1 were assessed in different time points of the flies lifespan. Reduction in cognitive function and antioxidant activity was observed in all transgenic flies at any time point. The most and the least effect on the eye phenotype was exerted by hyperphosphorylated tau and Aß42, respectively. In addition, the most remarkable alteration in Marf and Drp1 mRNA levels was observed in transgenic flies expressing hyperphosphorylated tau when pan neuronal expression of transgenes was applied. However, when the disease causing gene expression was confined to the mushroom body, Marf and Drp1 mRNA levels alteration was more prominent in tauWT and tauE14 transgenic flies, respectively. In conclusion, in spite of antioxidant deficiency caused by different types of tau and Aß42, it seems that tau exerts more toxic effect on the eye phenotype and mitochondrial genes regulation (Marf and Drp1). Moreover, different mechanisms seem to be involved in mitochondrial genes dysregulation when Aß or various forms of tau are expressed.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Dinaminas/metabolismo , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Dinaminas/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Fosforilação , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas tau/genética
8.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 399: 115039, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407928

RESUMO

The clearance of many drugs from the blood into the liver, such as the statins, is dependent on the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). Patients with *5 and *15 polymorphisms of OATP1B1 remove less of the statin as it traverses the liver and thus more reaches the rest of the body, including the skeletal muscle where it can cause myalgia, myopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. OATP1B1 polymorphisms also affect the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs (methotrexate, taxanes, and doxorubicin) and numerous anti-hypertensive drugs. In contrast to OATP1B1, OATP1B3 does not appear to have polymorphisms of known physiological and pharmacological significance, except for Rotor patients, who have both defective OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 transport function. OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 also play important roles in the hepatic uptake of many endogenous molecules, such as bile acids, bilirubin, and coproporphyrins. However, the transport of individual bile acids is not well understood. Complete deficiency of OATP1B1 and 1B3 function in Rotor syndrome disrupts the hepatic reuptake of conjugated bilirubin with a corresponding clinical presentation as mild hyperbilirubinemia. Interestingly, cholecystokinin is only transported into the liver by OATP1B3. Hepatotoxicants such as the mushroom toxin phalloidin and the cyanobacterias toxin microcystin-LR are transported by the OATP1Bs as they are not hepatotoxic in Oatp1b2 "knock-out" mice. In conclusion, the OATP1Bs are important in the hepatic uptake of endogenous chemicals, drugs, and toxicants. Because there are polymorphisms of OATP1B1, knowledge of the genotype/phenotype is of importance in diagnosing and treatment of patients.


Assuntos
Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Roedores/genética , Membro 1B3 da Família de Transportadores de Ânion Orgânico Carreador de Soluto/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Humanos
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1195: 169-176, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468474

RESUMO

Public experimental embryology opens a relationship between an embryo and an amateur transgenic designer. Artists produce real-world effects by forcing hereditary aesthetics on developing bodies. This lab was meant to aid in public understanding of the relationship between transgenics and aesthetics. How do we to take an active and hands-on tactical stance on the role of hereditary designer and how does this help in public analysis of the bioethics of genetic engineering. Through naming and funeral rites, we assign the embryos an uncertain amount of clout or cultural worth. This lab is an example of how to understand the relationship between institutional oversight in pre-animal experimentation, embryonic dignity, and the problem of humane sacrifice. The intention is to make a hands-on wet bioart lab meant to aid in public comprehension of the range of politics and responsibilities involved in play at the level of heredity. The Developmental Biology and Transgenic Avian Embryology Bioart Wet Lab was held in Gorlaeus Laboratories, LIC, University of Leiden, Leiden, Netherlands, 2007.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Aves/embriologia , Aves/genética , Embriologia/métodos , Laboratórios , Animais , Arte , Países Baixos , Universidades
10.
Zool Res ; 41(3): 281-291, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274905

RESUMO

Recent advances in avian transgenic studies highlight the possibility of utilizing lentiviral vectors as tools to generate transgenic chickens. However, low rates of gonadal chimerism and germ line transmission efficiency still limit the broad usage of this method in creating transgenic chickens. In this study, we implemented a simple strategy using modified lentiviral vectors targeted to chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) to generate transgenic chickens. The lentiviral vectors were pseudotyped with a modified Sindbis virus envelope protein (termed M168) and conjugated with an antibody specific to PGC membrane proteins. We demonstrated that these optimized M168-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors conjugated with SSEA4 antibodies successfully targeted transduction of PGCs in vitro and in vivo. Compared with the control, 50.0%-66.7% of chicken embryos expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) in gonads transduced by the M168-pseudotyped lentivirus. This improved the targeted transduction efficiency by 30.0%-46.7%. Efficient chimerism of exogenous genes was also observed. This targeting technology could improve the efficiency of germ line transmission and provide greater opportunities for transgenic poultry studies.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Galinhas/genética , Vetores Genéticos/fisiologia , Células Germinativas/fisiologia , Lentivirus/fisiologia , Animais
11.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 120: 103360, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126276

RESUMO

Ammonia is one of the principal kairomones originating from human and other animal emanations and in that context, plays an essential role in the host-seeking behaviors of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Nevertheless, despite its importance in directing host-seeking, the mechanisms underlying ammonia detection in the mosquito olfactory system remains largely unknown. In addition to ongoing efforts to identify and characterize the molecular receptors that underlie ammonia sensitivity, previous studies have revealed a prominent role for ammonium transporters (Amt) in modulating antennal and behavioral responses in Drosophila melanogaster and An. gambiae. In the former, localization of DmAmt in antennal sensilla to auxiliary cells surrounding the ammonia sensory neurons led to the hypothesis that its role was to clear excess ammonium ions in the sensillar lymph. In the latter, RT-PCR and heterologous expression have been used to examine the expression and functional characteristics of the An. gambiae ammonium transporter, AgAmt. We now employ advanced transgenic tools to comprehensively examine AgAmt spatial localization across the peripheral chemosensory appendages in larvae and adult female An. gambiae. In the larval antennae, AgAmt appears localized in both neuronal and auxiliary cells. In contrast to D. melanogaster, in the adult antennae, AgAmt-derived signals are observed in both non-neuronal auxiliary cells and in sensory neurons in ammonia-responsive basiconic and coeloconic sensilla. In the maxillary palps, labella, and tarsi, AgAmt appears restricted to sensory neurons. We have also characterized the responses to ammonia of adult antennal coeloconic sensilla and maxillary palp capitate pegs revealing a correlation between sensillar AgAmt expression and ammonia sensitivity. Taken together, these data suggest that AgAmt may play heterogeneous roles in the adult and larval chemosensory apparatus and potentially broad utility as a supra-receptor target in mosquito control.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Anopheles/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anopheles/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Malária , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/metabolismo , Sensilas/metabolismo
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1688, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015391

RESUMO

Mirtrons are non-canonical miRNAs arising by splicing and debranching from short introns. A plethora of introns have been inferred by computational analyses as potential mirtrons. Yet, few have been experimentally validated and their functions, particularly in relation to their host genes, remain poorly understood. Here, we found that Drosophila larvae lacking either the mirtron miR-1010 or its binding site in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ß2 (nAcRß2) 3'UTR fail to grow properly and pupariate. Increase of cortical nAcRß2 mediated by neural activity elevates the level of intracellular Ca2+, which in turn activates CaMKII and, further downstream, the transcription factor Adf-1. We show that miR-1010 downregulates nAcRß2. We reveal that Adf-1 initiates the expression of SKIP, the host gene of miR-1010. Preventing synaptic potentials from overshooting their optimal range requires both SKIP to temper synaptic potentials (incoherent feedforward loop) and miR-1010 to reduce nAcRß2 mRNA levels (negative feedback loop). Our results demonstrate how a mirtron, in coordination with its host gene, contributes to maintaining appropriate receptor levels, which in turn may play a role in maintaining homeostasis.


Assuntos
Dípteros/genética , Drosophila/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Íntrons/genética , Larva/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046209

RESUMO

Transgenic technology has huge application potential in agriculture and medical fields, such as producing new livestock varieties with new valuable features and xenotransplantation. However, how an exogenous gene affects the host animal's gene regulation networks and their health status is still poorly understood. In the current study, Fat-1 transgenic sheep were generated, and the tissues from 100-day abnormal (DAF_1) and normal (DAF_2) fetuses, postnatal lambs (DAF_4), transgenic-silencing (DAFG5), and -expressing (DAFG6) skin cells were collected and subjected to transcriptome sequencing, and their gene expression profiles were compared in multiple dimensions. The results were as follows. For DAF_1, its abnormal development was caused by pathogen invasion but not the introduction of the Fat-1 gene. Fat-1 expression down-regulated the genes related to the cell cycle; the NF-κB signaling pathway and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were down-regulated, and the PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) biosynthesis pathway was shifted toward the biosynthesis of high-level n-3 LC-PUFAs (long-chain PUFAs). Four key node genes, FADS2, PPARA, PRKACA, and ACACA, were found to be responsible for the gene expression profile shift from the Fat-1 transgenic 100-day fetus to postnatal lamb, and FADS2 may play a key role in the accumulation of n-3 LC-PUFAs in Fat-1 transgenic sheep muscle. Our study provides new insights into the FUFAs synthesis regulation in Fat-1 transgenic animals.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Ovinos/genética , Transcriptoma , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Subunidades Catalíticas da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/genética , Subunidades Catalíticas da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
14.
Biochem J ; 477(4): 833-852, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108870

RESUMO

Prion diseases are fatal transmissible neurodegenerative conditions of humans and animals that arise through neurotoxicity induced by PrP misfolding. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of prion-induced neurotoxicity remain undefined. Understanding these processes will underpin therapeutic and control strategies for human and animal prion diseases, respectively. Prion diseases are difficult to study in their natural hosts and require the use of tractable animal models. Here we used RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of prion-exposed Drosophila to probe the mechanism of prion-induced neurotoxicity. Adult Drosophila transgenic for pan neuronal expression of ovine PrP targeted to the plasma membrane exhibit a neurotoxic phenotype evidenced by decreased locomotor activity after exposure to ovine prions at the larval stage. Pathway analysis and quantitative PCR of genes differentially expressed in prion-infected Drosophila revealed up-regulation of cell cycle activity and DNA damage response, followed by down-regulation of eIF2 and mTOR signalling. Mitochondrial dysfunction was identified as the principal toxicity pathway in prion-exposed PrP transgenic Drosophila. The transcriptomic changes we observed were specific to PrP targeted to the plasma membrane since these prion-induced gene expression changes were not evident in similarly treated Drosophila transgenic for cytosolic pan neuronal PrP expression, or in non-transgenic control flies. Collectively, our data indicate that aberrant cell cycle activity, repression of protein synthesis and altered mitochondrial function are key events involved in prion-induced neurotoxicity, and correlate with those identified in mammalian hosts undergoing prion disease. These studies highlight the use of PrP transgenic Drosophila as a genetically well-defined tractable host to study mammalian prion biology.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Mitocôndrias/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Doenças Priônicas/patologia , Príons/toxicidade , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclo Celular , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Fenótipo , Doenças Priônicas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Priônicas/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Transcriptoma
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 97: 656-668, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891812

RESUMO

AquAdvantage Salmon (growth hormone transgenic female triploid Atlantic salmon) are a faster-growing alternative to conventional farmed diploid Atlantic salmon. To investigate optimal rearing conditions for their commercial production, a laboratory study was conducted in a freshwater recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) to examine the effect of rearing temperature (10.5 °C, 13.5 °C, 16.5 °C) on their antiviral immune and stress responses. When each temperature treatment group reached an average weight of 800 g, a subset of fish were intraperitoneally injected with either polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (pIC, a viral mimic) or an equal volume of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Blood and head kidney samples were collected before injection and 6, 24 and 48 h post-injection (hpi). Transcript abundance of 7 antiviral biomarker genes (tlr3, lgp2, stat1b, isg15a, rsad2, mxb, ifng) was measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on head kidney RNA samples. Plasma cortisol levels from blood samples collected pre-injection and from pIC and PBS groups at 24 hpi were quantified by ELISA. While rearing temperature and treatment did not significantly affect circulating cortisol, all genes tested were significantly upregulated by pIC at all three temperatures (except for tlr3, which was only upregulated in the 10.5 °C treatment). Target gene activation was generally observed at 24 hpi, with most transcript levels decreasing by 48 hpi in pIC-injected fish. Although a high amount of biological variability in response to pIC was evident across all treatments, rearing temperature significantly influenced transcript abundance and/or fold-changes comparing time- and temperature-matched pIC- and PBS-injected fish for several genes (tlr3, lgp2, stat1b, isg15a, rsad2 and ifng) at 24 hpi. As an example, significantly higher fold-changes of rsad2, isg15a and ifng were found in fish reared at 10.5 °C when compared to 16.5 °C. Multivariate analysis confirmed that rearing temperature modulated antiviral immune response. The present experiment provides novel insight into the relationship between rearing temperature and innate antiviral immune response in AquAdvantage Salmon.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Salmo salar/imunologia , Temperatura , Triploidia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/imunologia , Aquicultura/métodos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Indutores de Interferon/administração & dosagem , Indutores de Interferon/imunologia , Poli I-C/administração & dosagem , Poli I-C/imunologia , Salmo salar/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/veterinária
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1091, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974430

RESUMO

The CRISPR/Cas9 system is widely used to generate gene-edited animals. Here, we developed an efficient system for generating genetically modified mice using maternal Cas9 from Cas9 transgenic mice. Using this system, we achieved lower mosaicism and higher rates of knock-in success, gene-editing, and birth compared to the similar parameters obtained using exogenously administered Cas9 (mRNA/protein) system. Furthermore, we successfully induced simultaneous mutations at multiple loci (a maximum of nine). Our novel gene-editing system based on maternal Cas9 could potentially facilitate the generation of mice with single and multiple gene modifications.


Assuntos
Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/metabolismo , Edição de Genes/métodos , Camundongos/genética , Mosaicismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Feminino , Marcação de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Transgênicos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227822, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940417

RESUMO

Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) modifies peptidylarginine and converts it to peptidylcitrulline in the presence of elevated calcium. Protein modification can lead to severe changes in protein structure and function, and aberrant PAD activity is linked to human pathologies. While PAD homologs have been discovered in vertebrates-as well as in protozoa, fungi, and bacteria-none have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, a simple and widely used animal model for human diseases. Here, we describe the development of a human PAD overexpression model in Drosophila. We established fly lines harboring human PAD2 or PAD4 transgenes for ectopic expression under control of the GAL4/UAS system. We show that ubiquitous or nervous system expression of PAD2 or PAD4 have minimal impact on fly lifespan, fecundity, and the response to acute heat stress. Although we did not detect citrullinated proteins in fly homogenates, fly-expressed PAD4-but not PAD2-was active in vitro upon Ca2+ supplementation. The transgenic fly lines may be valuable in future efforts to develop animal models of PAD-related disorders and for investigating the biochemistry and regulation of PAD function.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Proteína-Arginina Desiminase do Tipo 2/genética , Proteína-Arginina Desiminase do Tipo 4/genética , Transgenes , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Regulação para Cima
18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995598

RESUMO

Most of the approved monoclonal antibodies used in the clinic were initially discovered in mice. However, many targets of therapeutic interest are highly conserved proteins that do not elicit a robust immune response in mice. There is a need for non-mammalian antibody discovery platforms which would allow researchers to access epitopes that are not recognized in mammalian hosts. Recently, we introduced the OmniChicken®, a transgenic animal carrying human VH3-23 and VK3-15 at its immunoglobulin loci. Here, we describe a new version of the OmniChicken which carries VH3-23 and either VL1-44 or VL3-19 at its heavy and light chain loci, respectively. The Vλ-expressing birds showed normal B and T populations in the periphery. A panel of monoclonal antibodies demonstrated comparable epitope coverage of a model antigen compared to both wild-type and Vκ-expressing OmniChickens. Kinetic analysis identified binders in the picomolar range. The Vλ-expressing bird increases the antibody diversity available in the OmniChicken platform, further enabling discovery of therapeutic leads.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Galinhas/genética , Cadeias lambda de Imunoglobulina/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Região Variável de Imunoglobulina/genética , Cadeias lambda de Imunoglobulina/imunologia , Progranulinas/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transgenes/genética
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(4): 2108-2112, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964810

RESUMO

Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an important concern for the poultry industry. Replication of ALV-J depends on a functional cellular receptor, the chicken Na+/H+ exchanger type 1 (chNHE1). Tryptophan residue number 38 of chNHE1 (W38) in the extracellular portion of this molecule is a critical amino acid for virus entry. We describe a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of W38 in chicken primordial germ cells and the successful production of the gene-edited birds. The resistance to ALV-J was examined both in vitro and in vivo, and the ΔW38 homozygous chickens tested ALV-J-resistant, in contrast to ΔW38 heterozygotes and wild-type birds, which were ALV-J-susceptible. Deletion of W38 did not manifest any visible side effect. Our data clearly demonstrate the antiviral resistance conferred by precise CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in the chicken. Furthermore, our highly efficient CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in primordial germ cells represents a substantial addition to genotechnology in the chicken, an important food source and research model.


Assuntos
Vírus da Leucose Aviária/genética , Leucose Aviária/imunologia , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Trocador 1 de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/imunologia , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/virologia , Leucose Aviária/genética , Leucose Aviária/virologia , Vírus da Leucose Aviária/classificação , Vírus da Leucose Aviária/fisiologia , Proteínas Aviárias/imunologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Galinhas , Resistência à Doença , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Trocador 1 de Sódio-Hidrogênio/imunologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940967

RESUMO

Recent decades have seen groundbreaking advances in cancer research. Genetically engineered animal models, mainly in mice, have contributed to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in cancer. However, mice are not ideal for translating basic research into studies closer to the clinic. There is a need for complementary information provided by non-rodent species. Pigs are well suited for translational biomedical research as they share many similarities with humans such as body and organ size, aspects of anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology and can provide valuable means of developing and testing novel diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Porcine oncology is a new field, but it is clear that replication of key oncogenic mutation in pigs can usefully mimic several human cancers. This review briefly outlines the technology used to generate genetically modified pigs, provides an overview of existing cancer models, their applications and how the field may develop in the near future.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Neoplasias Experimentais , Suínos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Suínos/genética , Suínos/metabolismo
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