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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 333: 71-79, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768651

RESUMO

All vitamin K antagonist active substances used as rodenticides were reclassified in 2016 by the European authorities as active substances "toxic for reproduction", using a "read-across" alternative method based on warfarin, a human vitamin K antagonist drug. Recent study suggested that all vitamin K antagonist active substances are not all teratogenic. Using a neonatal exposure protocol, warfarin evokes skeletal deformities in rats, while bromadiolone, a widely used second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide, failed to cause such effects. Herein, using a rat model we investigated the mechanisms that may explain teratogenicity differences between warfarin and bromadiolone, despite their similar vitamin K antagonist mechanism of action. This study also included coumatetralyl, a first-generation active substance rodenticide. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in rats to evaluate a potential difference in the transfer of vitamin K antagonists from mother to fetus. The data clearly demonstrate that warfarin is highly transferred from the mother to the fetus during gestation or lactation. In contrast, bromadiolone transfer from dam to the fetus is modest (5% compared to warfarin). This difference appears to be associated to almost complete uptake of bromadiolone by mother's liver, resulting in very low exposure in plasma and eventually in other peripheric tissues. This study suggests that the pharmacokinetic properties of vitamin K antagonists are not identical and could challenge the classification of such active substances as "toxic for reproduction".


Assuntos
4-Hidroxicumarinas/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Rodenticidas/toxicidade , Teratogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Teratogênios/toxicidade , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Varfarina/toxicidade , 4-Hidroxicumarinas/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Animais Lactentes , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/embriologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Rodenticidas/farmacocinética , Teratogênios/farmacocinética , Varfarina/farmacocinética
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20181058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491133

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two sub-periods of the calving season and two cow maturity stages on the efficiency of beef cows and their calves. A total of 159 cow-calf pairs were divided by calving time (early or late) within the calving season and maturity stage (young or adult). Calves were weaned at 42 or 63 days after birth and evaluated until 210 days of age. Cows and calves had their development examined based on their weight and body condition score at calving, at weaning, and at 210 days. Reproductive performance was evaluated on the basis of time to become pregnant again. Milk yield was assessed by the direct method on three occasions spaced 21 days apart. Adult cows were heavier than young cows, at calving (398.5 vs 327.5 kg, respectively), weaning (397.3 vs 324.1 kg, respectively) at the end breeding season (424.1 vs 342.1 kg, respectively). Reproductive performance was influenced by calving time. Adult cows had higher pregnancy rates (83.75 and 69.17%, for early and for late calving, respectively) than young cows (57.03 and 35.01% for early and for late-calving, respectively). Calves from early-calving young cows weighed 158.8 kg at 210 days of age vs. 123.7 kg for those born from late-calving adult cows. However, late-calving cows produced 10.7% more milk than those that calved early in the season (227.0 vs 205.0 liters, respectively). Early calving associated with non-requirement of growth determine higher productivity efficiency in beef cows.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactação/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Carne Vermelha , Estações do Ano
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233910, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502215

RESUMO

Farmers face difficulties in redeeming their investment in larger litter sizes since this comes with larger litter heterogenicity, lower litter resilience and risk of higher mortality. Dietary oligosaccharides, given to the sow, proved beneficial for the offspring's performance. However, giving oligosaccharides to the suckling piglet is poorly explored. Therefore, this field trial studied the effect of dietary short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS; 1g/day; drenched) supplementation to low (LBW, lower quartile), normal (NBW, two intermediate quartiles) and high (HBW, upper quartile) birth weight piglets from birth until 7 or 21 days of age. Performance parameters, gut microbiome and short-chain fatty acids profile of feces and digesta were assessed at birth (d 0), d 7, weaning (d 21.5) and 2 weeks post-weaning (d 36.5). Additional parameters reflecting gut health (intestinal integrity and morphology, mucosal immune system) were analysed at d 36.5. Most parameters changed with age or differed with the piglet's birth weight. Drenching with scFOS increased body weight by 1 kg in NBW suckling piglets and reduced the post-weaning mortality rate by a 100%. No clear difference in the IgG level, the microbiota composition and fermentative activity between the treatment groups was observed. Additionnally, intestinal integrity, determined by measuring intestinal permeability and regenerative capacity, was similar between the treatment groups. Also, intestinal architecture (villus lenght, crypt depth) was not affected by scFOS supplementation. The density of intra-epithelial lymphocytes and the expression profiles (real-time qPCR) for immune system-related genes (IL-10, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα and IFNγ) were used to assess mucosal immunity. Only IFNγ expression, was upregulated in piglets that received scFOS for 7 days. The improved body weight and the reduced post-weaning mortality seen in piglets supplemented with scFOS support the view that scFOS positively impact piglet's health and resilience. However, the modes of action for these effects are not yet fully elucidated and its potential to improve other performance parameters needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/imunologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Desmame
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6250-6257, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331876

RESUMO

The use of alternative sources of protein to substitute for milk proteins in milk replacers (MR) can increase the synthesis of endogenous proteins and therefore alter ileal or total-tract digestibility calculations. Mucin is the main component of gastrointestinal mucus and represents the greatest contribution to total endogenous protein. Mucin is difficult to isolate and has not been extensively studied in dairy calves. We explored 3 different procedures to analyze and estimate mucin protein (MUP) in ileal digesta of young dairy calves. Ileal digesta samples were collected from nine 30-d-old ileal-cannulated calves that were enrolled in a 3 × 3 replicated Latin square with 5-d periods. The 3 diets were a control whey protein-based MR (WPC), an isonitrogenous MR in which 50% of the protein was from enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM), and an N-free MR (NFREE). Mucin protein concentration and flow were analyzed by fractionation of the digesta and ethanol precipitation; this process served as the reference method. Alternative methods to estimate MUP consisted of using commercial enzymatic kits to analyze glucosamine (N-acetylglucosamine, GlcNAc) and galactosamine (N-acetylgalactosamine, GalNAc), 2 amino-sugars that are highly enriched in mucin. Before GlcNAc determination, samples were processed using 3 different procedures: sample clarification (GLCL), clarification plus hydrolysis (GLCH), and hydrolysis alone (GLHL). The MUP was estimated by regression of the GlcNAc and GalNAc values using previously validated equations. According with the bias and agreement analysis, none of the methods yielded MUP values similar to the reference method. However, GLHL showed a strong association with the reference method (ρ = 0.73). It allowed identifying the smaller MUP flows with NFREE compared with the other 2 diets and detecting the greater flow of ESBM than WPC, as observed with the reference method. Using the GlcNAc values from GLHL and the MUP measured with the reference method, we were able to establish a linear relationship between both methods (adjusted R2 = 0.75). We found that the GLHL method enabled detecting differences in MUP ileal flows between diets differing in protein level and source. Inferences about MUP secretions must be done cautiously because many dietary and physiological factors are involved. The adoption of practical techniques to determine MUP can help to increase our knowledge about gastrointestinal tract function and to improve the accuracy of MR digestibility calculations.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Íleo/fisiologia , Mucinas/química , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Masculino , Leite/química , Mucinas/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
5.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13377, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342604

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to assess abortion risk (AR) and the number of piglets that died during suckling periods per litter (DP) in farms infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in relation to herd immunization procedures. Data were obtained from 91 farms in Japan that had PED infection during 2013 to 2014. The 91 PED-positive farms were asked the number of abortions that occurred and DP for 3 months (1 month before PED outbreak (previous month), 1 month after PED outbreak (the month of PED), and from 1 month after PED outbreak to 2 months after PED outbreak (following month)). AR in each month was calculated as the number of abortions divided by sow inventory. Both AR and DP in the month of PED were higher than those in the previous and following months (p < .05). Farms that performed a herd immunization procedure had higher AR and DP in the month of PED than those that did not perform the procedure (p < .05). In summary, PED occurrence increased AR and DP.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Imunização/efeitos adversos , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Medição de Risco , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/prevenção & controle , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fazendas , Feminino , Imunidade Coletiva , Imunização/veterinária , Japão/epidemiologia , Risco , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190366, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding or gestation in schistosomotic mothers can cause long-term alterations in the immune response of offspring. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) (all classes), the production of cytokines by T and B lymphocytes and macrophages, and the frequency of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+-cells in adult offspring born and/or suckled by schistosomotic mothers. METHODS: We harvested splenocytes from offspring born to (BIM), suckled by (SIM), or born to/suckled by (BSIM) schistosomotic mothers and animals from noninfected mothers (Control) at seven-weeks old and cultured them with/without Concanavalin A. HDAC expression was evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and cytokines and membrane markers were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). FINDINGS: Compared to Control, BIM mice showed increased expression of HDAC9 and frequency of CD4+IL-10+-cells. The SIM group had increased expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC6, HDAC7, HDAC10, Sirt2, Sirt5, Sirt6, and Sirt7. The BSIM group only had increased HDAC10 expression. The SIM and BSIM groups exhibited decreased frequencies of CD4+IL-4+-cells and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+-cells, along with a higher frequency of CD14+IL-10+-cells and an increase in CD45R/B220+IL-10+-cells. The BSIM group also showed a high frequency of CD4+IL10+-cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding induced the expression of HDACs from various classes involved in reducing inflammatory responses. However, gestation enhanced the expression of a single HDAC and breastfeeding or gestation appears to favour multiple IL-10-dependent pathways, but not cells with a regulatory phenotype.


Assuntos
Animais Lactentes/parasitologia , Aleitamento Materno , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Esquistossomose mansoni/metabolismo , Baço/química , Animais , Animais Lactentes/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Camundongos , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez
7.
Zoolog Sci ; 37(1): 1-6, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068368

RESUMO

Suckling behaviors are useful to better understand mother-offspring relationships. However, in many species, knowledge about nighttime suckling behavior is sparse. In the present study, we investigated suckling behavior in four calves of the reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) and their mother in the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan, by analyzing video clips of 9614 h. The relation between a calf's age and the mean duration and frequency of suckling were consistent with the results of previous daytime studies: the longest duration (80 ± 4 s) and highest frequency (0.41/h) of suckling occurred when the calves were young, and decreased thereafter. Suckling frequency was lower at night than during the day, probably because the mother spent much of the time resting at night. The mother initiated suckling behavior in offspring until six months of age. Most often, the mother terminated suckling except during the first few weeks after birth. Additionally, we reported that the average weaning period was 448 days (n = 5) and that the last born (sixth) continued to suckle for more than 750 days, which is a rare phenomenon. We believe the present report helps to fill the lack of knowledge about nighttime suckling behavior in giraffe.


Assuntos
Animais Lactentes/fisiologia , Girafas/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Desmame , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Masculino , Gravação em Vídeo
8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910258

RESUMO

Phytogenic actives (PA) are plant-derived natural bioactive compounds that may promote livestock health and well-being, as well as improve growth performance and production efficiency. The current study aims to evaluate their effects on sows and their offspring. Eighty-one hyperprolific sows (up to parity 7) were assigned to 3 experimental treatments. Control sows were offered a nonsupplemented diet during gestation and lactation, and treated sows were fed the control diet supplemented with 1 g/kg of a blend of PA (BPA) in lactation (L) or during gestation and lactation (GL). An evaluation was made of placental and milk maternal transfer of these BPA and colostrum-milk features, sows and piglets antioxidant status, reproductive performance (litter size), body weight (BW) changes, weaning-estrus interval, and litter performance. Finally, piglet´s jejunum gene expression was measured. The BPA supplementation during gestation (GL) increased the number of piglets born alive (P = 0.020) and reduced (P < 0.05) the newborn piglets BW, while there were no differences among treatments on the suckling (day 20) and weaned (day 7) piglets BW (P > 0.05). Dietary phytogenic volatile compounds reached GL placental fluid, and milk of L and GL sows (P < 0.05). Moreover, colostrum protein in GL and milk fat content in L and GL were increased (P < 0.05). Milk of GL showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (P < 0.05). Antioxidant status of GL sows showed an enhanced (P < 0.05) of catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacity levels at early gestation (day 35), whereas higher levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymes at late gestation (day 110). Likewise, GL newborn piglets showed higher CAT levels, whereas both CAT and SOD levels in suckling piglets, as well as CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px in weaned piglets, were increased in L and GL (P < 0.05). Jejunum messenger ribonucleic acid abundance of suckling piglets in L and GL groups showed overexpression of barrier function MUC2, digestive enzyme IDO, and immune response PPARGC-α, TNF-α, TGF-ß1, and IL-10 genes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary BPA supplementation in hyperprolific sows increased the litter size (born alive) and improved the composition and bioactivity of colostrum and milk, besides, modified the antioxidant status of sows and their offspring, as well as the suckling piglets gut health gene expression. Several BPA volatile compounds were prenatal and postnatal maternally transferred (placental fluid and milk).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Colostro/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Leite/química , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Animais Lactentes/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Líquidos Corporais/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Colostro/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Jejuno/enzimologia , Jejuno/metabolismo , Lactação/fisiologia , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Leite/metabolismo , Paridade , Gravidez , Desmame
9.
Gene ; 731: 144354, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Maternal obesity predispose offspring to metabolic disorders and obesity, but the mechanisms are not fully understood, especially during early life. Circular RNA (circRNA) can regulate the expression of target genes through the regulatory pathways of competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA). We hypothesized that the offspring of obese dams exhibit impaired metabolic health through the dysregulated expression of hepatic circRNA. METHODS AND RESULTS: A high-fat diet (HFD) or standard chow diet (CD) were randomized to dams for 12 weeks before mating. Specific diets continued for each dam throughout pregnancy and lactation. Then, lipid metabolic parameters were assessed in dams and female offspring. We performed liver RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) for the offspring of HFD- and CD-dams to comprehensively identify differentially expressed (DE) circRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA). Further, ceRNA networks combining DE circRNA, mRNA, and microRNA were predicted based on MiRanda and TargetScan databases combined with the lipid metabolism-related pathway. As a result, the circRNA_0000660-miR_693-Igfbp1 regulatory pathway was selected from liver and AML12 cell line. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, dual luciferase reporter gene system, and Small interfering RNA for circRNA_0000660 transfection experiment were applied to validate. CONCLUSIONS: Our work investigated new mechanisms of the effect of maternal obesity on offspring's lipid metabolism. Several novel targets were uncovered to reverse the effect.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Obesidade Materna/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , RNA Circular/genética , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Obesidade Materna/complicações , Obesidade Materna/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Desmame
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(4): 1683-1694, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900553

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the most acid-unstable virus among picornaviruses, tends to disassemble into pentamers at pH values slightly below neutrality. However, the structural integrity of intact virion is one of the most important factors that influence the induction of a protective antibody response. Thus, improving the acid stability of FMDV is required for the efficacy of vaccine preparations. According to the previous studies, a single substitution or double amino acid substitutions (VP1 N17D, VP2 H145Y, VP2 D86H, VP3 H142D, VP3 H142G, and VP1 N17D + VP2 H145Y) in the capsid were introduced into the full-length infectious clone of type O FMDV vaccine strain O/HN/CHN/93 to develop seed FMDV with improved acid stability. After the transfection into BSR/T7 cells of constructed plasmids, substitution VP1 N17D or VP2 D86H resulted in viable and genetically stable FMDVs, respectively. However, substitution VP2 H145Y or VP1 N17D + VP2 H145Y showed reverse mutation and additional mutations, and substitution VP3 H141G or VP3 H141D prevented viral viability. We found that substitution VP1 N17D or VP2 D86H could confer increased acid resistance, alkali stability, and thermostability on FMDV O/HN/CHN/93, whereas substitution VP1 N17D was observed to lead to a decreased replication ability in BHK-21 cells and mildly impaired virulence in suckling mice. In contrast, substitution VP2 D86H had no negative effect on viral infectivity. These results indicated that the mutant rD86H carrying substitution VP2 D86H firstly reported by us could be more adequate for the development of inactivated FMD vaccines with enhanced acid stability.


Assuntos
Ácidos/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/fisiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/normas , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Viabilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Vírion/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírion/genética , Virulência
11.
J Neurosci ; 40(7): 1514-1526, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911459

RESUMO

The neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene Mecp2 Misexpression of the protein MECP2 is thought to contribute to neuropathology by causing dysregulation of plasticity. Female heterozygous Mecp2 mutants (Mecp2het ) failed to acquire a learned maternal retrieval behavior when exposed to pups, an effect linked to disruption of parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons (PV) in the auditory cortex. Nevertheless, how dysregulated PV networks affect the neural activity dynamics that underlie auditory cortical plasticity during early maternal experience is unknown. Here we show that maternal experience in WT adult female mice (WT) triggers suppression of PV auditory responses. We also observe concomitant disinhibition of auditory responses in deep-layer pyramidal neurons that is selective for behaviorally relevant pup vocalizations. These neurons further exhibit sharpened tuning for pup vocalizations following maternal experience. All of these neuronal changes are abolished in Mecp2het , suggesting that they are an essential component of maternal learning. This is further supported by our finding that genetic manipulation of GABAergic networks that restores accurate retrieval behavior in Mecp2het also restores maternal experience-dependent plasticity of PV. Our data are consistent with a growing body of evidence that cortical networks are particularly vulnerable to mutations of Mecp2 in PV neurons. Moreover, our work links, for the first time, impaired in vivo cortical plasticity in awake Mecp2 mutant animals to a natural, ethologically relevant behavior.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Rett syndrome is a genetic disorder that includes language communication problems. Nearly all Rett syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene that produces the protein MECP2, which is important for changes in brain connectivity believed to underlie learning. We previously showed that female Mecp2 mutants fail to learn a simple maternal care behavior performed in response to their pups' distress cries. This impairment appeared to critically involve inhibitory neurons in the auditory cortex called parvalbumin neurons. Here we record from these neurons before and after maternal experience, and we show that they adapt their response to pup calls during maternal learning in nonmutants, but not in mutants. This adaptation is partially restored by a manipulation that improves learning.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiopatologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Animais Lactentes , Córtex Auditivo/patologia , Feminino , Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Glutamato Descarboxilase/deficiência , Glutamato Descarboxilase/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Vocalização Animal
12.
Vet Microbiol ; 241: 108549, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928698

RESUMO

Nipah virus (NiV) is a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes high mortality in humans and pigs. Oral immunization in free-roaming animals is one of the most practical approaches to prevent NiV pandemics. We previously generated a recombinant rabies viruses (RABV) Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA) strain, rERAG333E, which contains a mutation from arginine to glutamic acid at residue 333 of glycoprotein (G333E) and serves as an oral vaccine for dog rabies. In this study, we generated two recombinant RABVs, rERAG333E/NiVG and rERAG333E/NiVF, expressing the NiV Malaysian strain attachment glycoprotein (NiV-G) or fusion glycoprotein (NiV-F) gene based on the rERAG333E vector platform. Both rERAG333E/NiVG and rERAG333E/NiVF displayed growth properties similar to those of rERAG333E and caused marked syncytia formation after co-infection in BSR cell culture. Adult and suckling mice intracerebrally inoculated with the recombinant RABVs showed NiV-G and NiV-F expression did not increase the virulence of rERAG333E. Oral vaccination with rERAG333E/NiVG either singularly or combined with rERAG333E/NiVF induced significant NiV neutralizing antibody against NiV and RABV, and IgG to NiV-G or NiV-F in mice and pigs. rERAG333E/NiVG and rERAG333E/NiVF thus appeared to be suitable candidates for further oral vaccines for potential animal targets in endemic areas of NiV disease and rabies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/normas , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Vetores Genéticos , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Neutralização , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Suínos , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/normas , Proteínas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Virulência , Zoonoses
13.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 30(1): 35-41, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heavy metals including Cr VI are present in inadequately treated effluents that contaminate drinking water. Hence, Cr VI exposure can affect children through intake of breast milk from an exposed mother or bottle-feeding formula prepared with contaminated water. To date, there are no reports on the effects of Cr VI exposure on tooth formation processes concomitant to tooth eruption. AIM: To study the effect of Cr VI exposure on tooth tissue formation in suckling Wistar rats by assessing dental tissues at different stages of tooth eruption. DESIGN: Experimental animals received 12.5 mg/kg body weight/day of a potassium dichromate solution by gavage; control animals were similarly administered an equivalent volume of saline solution. Each group was divided into three subsets according to age at euthanasia: 9, 15, and 23 days. Dental formation was analysed histologically and histomorphometrically. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student's t test; P < .05. RESULTS: Cr VI-exposed animals showed a delay in mineralized crown and root tissue formation. These findings are directly associated with the observed delay in tooth eruption. CONCLUSION: Our findings show the importance of monitoring drinking water levels of toxic substances, since exposure during early childhood can alter tooth formation, growth, and development.


Assuntos
Odontogênese , Erupção Dentária , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Criança , Cromo , Feminino , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Acta Virol ; 63(4): 423-432, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802685

RESUMO

Rabies virus is an enveloped negative-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae. It can be successfully controlled by vaccination however, there are still tens of thousands of deaths each year caused by rabies virus due to its mutations and complexity. A better understanding of the interaction between the rabies virus and the host might help solve this problem. Therefore, in this study, we used two-dimensional electrophoresis to investigate the protein expression of rabies virus-infected mice. This can help us to understand the impact of rabies virus on host protein expression during infection. For our experiment, two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to analyze the differential proteomics of the brain of 10- and 20-day-old suckling mice infected with attenuated rabies virus strain SRV9. The results showed that the expression levels of 10 protein spots had been up- or down-regulated at least 2-fold. Using MALDI-TOF-MS, we identified 8 differentially expressed proteins. We have identified proteins, namely hnRNP L, DPYSL3, NECAPs, and transaldolase that might be closely related to the susceptibility of SRV9 in suckling mice. Keywords: rabies virus; attenuated strain; suckling mouse; two-dimensional electrophoresis; proteomics.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Proteômica , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/virologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Raiva/fisiopatologia , Vírus da Raiva/metabolismo , Vírus da Raiva/fisiologia
15.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 84, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640807

RESUMO

Rotavirus C (RVC) has been detected increasingly in humans and swine in different countries, including the US. It is associated with significant economic losses due to diarrheal disease in nursing piglets. In this study we aimed: (1) to determine the prevalence of RVC in healthy and diarrheic suckling piglets on US farms; and (2) to evaluate if maternal antibody (Ab) levels were associated with protection of newborn suckling piglets against RVC. There was a significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.0002) of litters with diarrhea born to gilts compared with those born to multiparous sows. Of 113 nursing piglet fecal samples tested, 76.1% were RVC RNA positive. Fecal RVC RNA was detected in significantly (p = 0.0419) higher quantities and more frequently in piglets with diarrhea compared with healthy ones (82.5 vs. 69.9%). With the exception of the historic strain Cowden (G1 genotype), field RVC strains do not replicate in cell culture, which is a major impediment for studying RVC pathogenesis and immunity. To circumvent this, we generated RVC virus-like particles (VLPs) for Cowden (G1), RV0104 (G3) and RV0143 (G6) and used them as antigens in ELISA to detect swine RVC Abs in serum and milk from the sows. Using RVC-VLP Ab ELISA we demonstrated that sows with diarrheic litters had significantly lower RVC IgA and IgG Ab titers in milk compared to those with healthy litters. Thus, our data suggest that insufficient lactogenic protection provided by gilts plays a key role in the development of and the increased prevalence of clinical RVC disease.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Ohio/epidemiologia , Paridade , Prevalência , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180509, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644641

RESUMO

In order to evaluate iron chelate in diets for sows during gestation and lactation and its effects on iron supplementation for piglets, a total of 50 pregnant sows in the third parity order were distributed according to a randomized block design with two treatments: diet without iron chelate supplementation (n=20); diet supplemented with 0.15% of iron chelate (n=30). The litters of sows were distributed into five different treatments: sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets without iron supplementation. No influence of dietary supplementation of iron chelate was verified on the productive parameters of the sows. For the piglets, iron-dextran supplementation promoted higher weaning weight in comparison to non-supplemented piglets, although not differing to those received oral iron supplementation. Thus, iron chelate supplementation did not improve the productive parameters of sows, but it increased iron excretion in the feces, thus requiring iron supplementation for the piglets after birth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Animais Lactentes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Quelantes de Ferro/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Quelantes de Ferro/análise , Lactação , Gravidez
17.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590415

RESUMO

In preterm newborns the immaturity of the immune system is remarkable, with reduced innate and adaptive immune responses. Many bioactive compounds in breast milk, such as growth factors and adipokines, contribute to the immune system's maturation in early life. However, studies on the immunoregulatory activity in preterm neonates are practically nonexistent. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a nutritional supplementation in early life with leptin or epidermal growth factor (EGF) was able to promote the maturation of the systemic and intestinal immune system in preterm conditions. For this purpose, premature rats were daily supplemented by oral gavage with leptin or EGF. Term and Preterm groups receiving vehicle were used as controls. Preterm rats showed deficiencies compared to full-term ones, such as lower body weights, erythrocyte counts, plasma IgG and IgM concentrations and B cell percentages, and higher values of Th and Tc TCRαß+ cells in mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestinal permeability, among others. However, leptin and EGF supplementation were able to revert some of these deficiencies and to improve the premature immune system's development. These results suggest that leptin and EGF are involved in enhancing the maturation of the systemic and intestinal immune system in preterm conditions.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/farmacologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação , Leptina/farmacologia , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nascimento Prematuro , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Linfonodos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linfonodos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Permeabilidade , Fagócitos/imunologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 120: 109515, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600642

RESUMO

The process of absorption and permeation of PRL through the small intestine of 1-day-old piglet from the different compositions of solutions prepared for oral administration was investigated. This was achieved by determining the effect of hormone concentration (0.25 mg / ml or 0.5 mg / ml or 0.75 mg / ml), the concentration of stabilizing substances - trehalose (6 mg / ml or 12 mg / ml or 18 mg / ml) and mannitol (6 mg / ml or 12 mg / ml or 18 mg / ml) and the pH of the solution (2.5 or 3.0 or 3.5) on the degree of absorption and permeation of the PRL. The conditions for the absorption and penetration of PRL from solutions of various compositions for oral administration through the natural membrane (small intestine of the 1-day-old sucking piglet) in the in vivo conditions were simulated. The studies used an in vivo model in which the enzymatic profile in the body is not yet fully developed (no pepsin). It was found that in the studied range the absorption of PRL in the small intestine of the 1-day-old sucking piglet is significantly related to the concentration of the hormone and trehalose in the solution from which it is absorbed. In contrast, all factors studied (hormone concentration, trehalose and mannitol concentration, pH value of the solution) influence the process of penetration of the PRL in the studied range. It was also found that the hormone concentration significantly influences the rate of its absorption and permeation (the fastest occurs at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL). The results suggest possibility of oral prolactin administration in order to ensure proper growth, development and increase the resistance and survival of sucking piglets.


Assuntos
Intestino Delgado/fisiologia , Prolactina/administração & dosagem , Prolactina/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Suínos
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 171: 104752, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479849

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a serious concern for sheep producers worldwide. However, there is a paucity of evidence describing the epidemiology of GIN on modern UK sheep farms. The aim of this paper was to understand whether expected seasonal variations of infection are still found in ewes and lambs under varying management strategies in temperate climates. Faecal egg counts (FEC) were conducted on freshly voided samples collected from groups of ewes and lambs every third week for twelve months on three farms in southeast Scotland. The patterns of egg output have been described here in relation to management practices undertaken on the farms. Despite changes in farming practice and climatic conditions, the findings complement historical studies detailing the epidemiology of GIN. Findings include a periparturient rise in ewe FEC on two of the farms, while lambing time treatment appeared to suppress this on the third farm. On the same two farms lamb FEC increased during the summer, reaching a peak in the autumn. The work also highlights how the ad hoc use of anthelmintics does little to impact these patterns.


Assuntos
Animais Lactentes/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Escócia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Prev Vet Med ; 171: 104746, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491708

RESUMO

In numerous species, low birth weight is a risk factor for neonatal mortality. In the canine species, definition of a low birth weight is complex due to the huge interbreed variability in size. To identify puppies at higher risk of neonatal death, data from 6,694 puppies were analysed. The data were collected from 75 French breeding kennels, examining 27 breeds and totaling 1,202 litters of puppies. Generalised linear mixed models allowed to identify birth weight, birth weight heterogeneity within the litter, and size of the breeding kennel as significant risk factors for neonatal mortality. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were combined to define breed specific thresholds for birth weight allowing the identification of puppies at higher risk of neonatal mortality. Due to differences in birth weights between breeds, including when belonging to the same breed size, analyses were conducted at the breed level. First, ROC analysis thresholds were successfully established for 12 breeds (area under the ROC ≥ 0.70; sensitivity ≥ 75%; specificity: 45-68%) and they ranged from 162 g in the Maltese to 480 g in the Bernese Mountain dog. Secondly, CART analysis thresholds from 22 breeds ranged from 105 g in the Maltese and 436 g in the Boxer. Puppies were grouped into three categories according to birth weight: low, moderate and high risk of neonatal mortality (higher than the ROC threshold, between ROC and CART thresholds, and lower than the CART threshold respectively). In the current study, 44% of the puppies were classified as at moderate risk and 5.3% for a high risk of neonatal mortality. Thresholds defined by CART analysis (and not ROC analysis) were used to define low birth weight puppies and were sometimes quite different between breeds with similar birth weight distributions suggesting a variable relationship between birth weight reduction and neonatal death. These results allow the identification of puppies at an increased risk of neonatal death, thus requiring specific nursing to improve their chances of survival. With these high risk puppies identified, both animal welfare and kennel productivity is predicted to improve.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Animais Lactentes , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Cães , Mortalidade , Animais , Cruzamento , Cães/classificação , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
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