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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7038-7048, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178190

RESUMO

Circular RNA (circRNA) have been suggested to contribute to regulating gene expression in various tissues and cells of eukaryotes. However, little is known regarding the expression pattern of circRNA and their potential function in the small intestine of neonatal calves that receive colostrum. In the current study, jejunum tissue samples were collected from control calves (2 h after birth; CT; n = 3) and neonatal calves that ingested colostrum (24 h after birth; CO; n = 3) or milk (24 h after birth; MK; n = 3) to compare the circRNA expression patterns using a high-throughput RNA sequencing approach. A total of 21,213, 17,861, and 21,737 circRNA were identified in the CT, CO, and MK groups, respectively. Only 13,254 of these circRNA were common to the 3 groups, suggesting high specificity of circRNA expression depending on nutrient type. In total, 243, 249, and 283 circRNA were differentially expressed in the CO versus CT, CO versus MK, and MK versus CT comparisons, respectively. Gene ontology analysis showed that the differentially expressed circRNA and their predicted or known target genes from the CO and MK groups were mainly involved in macromolecule metabolic process, response to stress, and vesicle-mediated transport. Moreover, pathway analysis showed that the Rap1 signaling pathway, focal adhesion, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction were the most significantly enriched pathways. These data collectively indicate that circRNA are abundant and dynamically expressed when calves receive colostrum and act as microRNA sponges to regulate their target genes for jejunum function during the early development of newborn calves.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Colostro/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA/genética , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Br Poult Sci ; 60(4): 366-372, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046426

RESUMO

1. In current breeding programmes, uniformity of end products and producing animals that are robust to environmental challenges are desirable. Several studies have provided evidence of the presence of genetic heterogeneity of residual variance and proposed that it could be possible to increase uniformity of livestock productions by selection. The present study aimed to define the micro environmental sensitivity of dual-purpose chickens for body weight at hatch. 2. The data set consisted of 24,321 female and 21,547 male chickens' records of hatch weight from 19 consecutive generations of Mazandaran fowl. The statistical analysis was carried out in a two-step approach: first, an animal model was fitted to the data and then, the impact of additive genetic effects on the residual variance of the studied trait was investigated. 3. The estimate of heritability for body weight at hatch was in the range of 0.23-0.25 for female and 0.14-0.16 for male offspring, respectively. The proportion of maternal environmental variance to phenotypic variance ranged from 0.24 to 0.27 for female and 0.17 to 0.24 for male offspring. Heritabilities in females were higher than males. Estimates of the heritability of residual variance ranged between 0.067 and 0.090. The genetic coefficients of variation were high ranging between 0.83 and 0.86. Genetic correlations between hatch weight and its residual variance estimates from bivariate analysis were -0.39 and -0.44 in females and males, respectively. 4. The results suggest that there is an opportunity to simultaneously improve body weight and the uniformity of body weight by selecting for lower residual variance in native chickens.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/genética , Galinhas/fisiologia , Heterogeneidade Genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 124: 256-262, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999161

RESUMO

Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are a family of proteins strongly induced downstream of type I interferon signaling. The function of IFITs has been investigated extensively in mammals. IFIT5 is the sole protein in this family found in birds and little information is available about the function of avian IFIT5. In this study, duck IFIT5 was cloned from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Multiple amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that duck IFIT5 is highly homologous to chicken IFIT5. Tissue specificity analysis demonstrated that duck IFIT5 was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues of five-day-old ducklings, with the highest expression levels in heart, followed by thymus, cerebrum, liver, and lung; kidney expressed the lowest. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that duck IFIT5 expression rapidly increased both in vitro and in vivo after stimulation with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] and infection with virulent duck hepatitis A virus type 3 (DHAV-3), respectively. Altogether, these results indicate that the expression of duck IFIT5 is positively correlated with viral load and may play an important role in the immune response to DHAV-3 infection. This study lays a foundation for further research into the innate antiviral immune responses of ducklings.


Assuntos
Patos/genética , Patos/imunologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Proteínas Aviárias/química , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/fisiologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/imunologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/química , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência
4.
PLoS Genet ; 15(3): e1007810, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893341

RESUMO

Spermatogenesis is the process by which male gametes are formed from a self-renewing population of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) residing in the testis. SSCs represent less than 1% of the total testicular cell population in adults, but must achieve a stable balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Once differentiation has occurred, the newly formed and highly proliferative spermatogonia must then enter the meiotic program in which DNA content is doubled, then halved twice to create haploid gametes. While much is known about the critical cellular processes that take place during the specialized cell division that is meiosis, much less is known about how the spermatocytes in the "first-wave" in juveniles compare to those that contribute to long-term, "steady-state" spermatogenesis in adults. Given the strictly-defined developmental process of spermatogenesis, this study explored the transcriptional profiles of developmental cell stages during testis maturation. Using a combination of comprehensive germ cell sampling with high-resolution, single-cell-mRNA-sequencing, we have generated a reference dataset of germ cell gene expression. We show that discrete developmental stages of spermatogenesis possess significant differences in the transcriptional profiles from neonates compared to juveniles and adults. Importantly, these gene expression dynamics are also reflected at the protein level in their respective cell types. We also show differential utilization of many biological pathways with age in both spermatogonia and spermatocytes, demonstrating significantly different underlying gene regulatory programs in these cell types over the course of testis development and spermatogenic waves. This dataset represents the first unbiased sampling of spermatogonia and spermatocytes during testis maturation, at high-resolution, single-cell depth. Not only does this analysis reveal previously unknown transcriptional dynamics of a highly transitional cell population, it has also begun to reveal critical differences in biological pathway utilization in developing spermatogonia and spermatocytes, including response to DNA damage and double-strand breaks.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Espermatogênese/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Diferenciação Sexual , Espermatócitos/fisiologia , Espermatogônias/fisiologia , Testículo/embriologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(8): 3262-3267, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728295

RESUMO

Patterned spontaneous activity periodically displays in developing retinas termed retinal waves, essential for visual circuit refinement. In neonatal rodents, retinal waves initiate in starburst amacrine cells (SACs), propagating across retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), further through visual centers. Although these waves are shown temporally synchronized with transiently high PKA activity, the downstream PKA target important for regulating the transmission from SACs remains unidentified. A t-SNARE, synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25/SN25), serves as a PKA substrate, implying a potential role of SN25 in regulating retinal development. Here, we examined whether SN25 in SACs could regulate wave properties and retinogeniculate projection during development. In developing SACs, overexpression of wild-type SN25b, but not the PKA-phosphodeficient mutant (SN25b-T138A), decreased the frequency and spatial correlation of wave-associated calcium transients. Overexpressing SN25b, but not SN25b-T138A, in SACs dampened spontaneous, wave-associated, postsynaptic currents in RGCs and decreased the SAC release upon augmenting the cAMP-PKA signaling. These results suggest that SN25b overexpression may inhibit the strength of transmission from SACs via PKA-mediated phosphorylation at T138. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous SN25b increased the frequency of wave-associated calcium transients, supporting the role of SN25 in restraining wave periodicity. Finally, the eye-specific segregation of retinogeniculate projection was impaired by in vivo overexpression of SN25b, but not SN25b-T138A, in SACs. These results suggest that SN25 in developing SACs dampens the spatiotemporal properties of retinal waves and limits visual circuit refinement by phosphorylation at T138. Therefore, SN25 in SACs plays a profound role in regulating visual circuit refinement.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Retina/metabolismo , Proteína 25 Associada a Sinaptossoma/genética , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/genética , Células Amácrinas/metabolismo , Células Amácrinas/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica , Retina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Retina/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Potenciais Sinápticos/genética
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(29): 7684-7691, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974734

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on glucose metabolism, hormone concentration, and the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in breast muscle of embryos and neonatal broilers. The three treatments were noninjected control, 0.75% NaCl treatment, and 12 mg CrPyr/egg treatment. The solution was injected on the 17.5 day of incubation. At hatch, 120 male broilers from each treatment were chosen for a 7 day feeding trial. Compared with other treatments, CrPyr treated broilers enhanced insulin and thyroxine levels in plasma, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration, hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activities, glucose transporter protein mRNA expressions, as well as protein abundances of phosphor-liver kinase B1 and phosphor-AMPK in breast muscle at hatch. In conclusion, IOF of CrPyr improved the energy status, increased the gene expression of glucose transporter proteins, and facilitated glycolysis in breast muscle, which may be associated with the activated AMPK pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Creatina/metabolismo , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Glicólise , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosforilação , Tiroxina/metabolismo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(15): 3840-3849, 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29584425

RESUMO

Leucine (Leu) plays an important role in protein synthesis and metabolism. The present study tested whether Leu supplementation in the diet for sows during late pregnancy could improve piglet birth weight, and it also investigated the possible underlying mechanism. Two hundred sows at day 70 of pregnancy were selected and assigned to four groups fed with following four diets until farrowing, respectively: corn and soybean meal-based diet group (CON), CON + 0.40% Leu, CON + 0.80% Leu, and CON + 1.20% Leu. We found that supplementing with 0.80% Leu significantly increased mean piglet birth weight ( P < 0.05). Supplementation with 0.40, 0.80, and 1.20% Leu increased the plasma concentration of Leu, while decreasing the plasma concentrations of valine (Val) and isoleucine (Ile) in both farrowing sows and newborn piglets ( P < 0.05). The protein expressions of amino acid transporters (including LAT1, SNAT1, SNAT2, 4F2hc, and rBAT) in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, longissimus dorsi muscle of newborn piglets, and placenta of sows showed a difference among the CON group and Leu supplemented groups. Expressions of p-mTOR, p-4E-BP1, and p-S6K1 in longissimus dorsi muscle were also enhanced in each of the supplemental Leu groups compared to CON ( P < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicated that 0.40-0.80% Leu supplementation during late gestation enhanced birth weight of fetal pigs by increasing protein synthesis through modulation of the plasma amino acids profile, amino acid transporters expression, and mTOR signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Leucina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Suínos/embriologia , Suínos/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
8.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 164(4): 493-496, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29504097

RESUMO

Prenatal and postnatal exposure to low doses of the endocrine disruptor dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) leads to delayed activation of the canonical ß-catenin/Wnt signaling in zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex in rats, which changed the rate of their postnatal development. Suppression of the Wnt pathway in zona fasciculata promotes its regeneration after DDT-induced blood circulation disorders and cell death.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , DDT/farmacologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacologia , Zona Glomerulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Zona Reticular/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Zona Glomerulosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zona Glomerulosa/metabolismo , Zona Glomerulosa/patologia , Zona Reticular/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zona Reticular/metabolismo , Zona Reticular/patologia , beta Catenina/metabolismo
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(1): 794-800, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102139

RESUMO

In ruminants, colostrum is the main source of immunoglobulins for the newborn animal, conferring immune protection until the immune system becomes active and able to synthesize its own immunoglobulins. Serotonin (5-HT), a biogenic amine derived from tryptophan, has stimulatory effects on many physiological processes, including components of the innate (mastocytes, eosinophils, and natural killer cells) and adaptive (T and B lymphocytes) immune systems. Based on the known effects of 5-HT on the immune system, we hypothesized that increased concentrations of 5-HT, through administration of its precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), may positively affect development of the calf's immune system and therefore support health and growth performance during the first weeks of life. Eighteen calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups (control and 5-HTP), resulting in n = 9 per treatment group. Both groups received 2 colostrum meals from a common pool of colostrum. Thereafter, calves were fed milk replacer twice daily for 30 d. In the 5-HTP group, colostrum and milk replacer were supplemented with 1.5 mg of 5-HTP/kg of birth weight during the first 15 d after birth. Body weight was recorded at birth and on d 5, 10, 15, and 30 after birth. Blood samples were collected every morning (0800 h) before feeding from birth until d 5 and then on d 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 30 after birth. Serum 5-HT concentrations were increased as a consequence of the 5-HTP supplementation. Plasma immunoglobulin G concentrations did not differ between groups throughout the experimental period. The blood mRNA abundance of several factors related to the innate and adaptive immune system [nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), serum amyloid A-1 (SAA1), chemokine C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5), cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2), haptoglobin (HP), and IL-1ß] were increased in calves supplemented with 5-HTP. Supplementation of 5-HTP did not affect any of the measured metabolites (fatty acids and glucose) or minerals (calcium and magnesium) or milk feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and growth. In conclusion, 5-HTP supplementation induced an increase of 5-HT concentrations in blood and caused an increase in mRNA abundance of several factors related to the innate and adaptive immune systems, which might increase the protection of the calf against external agents.


Assuntos
5-Hidroxitriptofano/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/metabolismo , Colostro/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Fatores Imunológicos/genética , Masculino , Gravidez
10.
Anim Sci J ; 88(11): 1779-1787, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594135

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle mass is an important trait in the animal industry. We previously reported an age-dependent downregulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/Akt/S6 pathway, major protein synthesis pathway, in chicken breast muscle after 1 week of age, despite a continuous increase of breast muscle weight. Myosin heavy chain (HC), a major protein in muscle fiber, has several isoforms depending on chicken skeletal muscle types. HC I (fast-twitch glycolytic type) is known to be expressed in adult chicken breast muscle. However, little is known about the changes in the expression levels of protein synthesis-related factors and HC isoforms in perihatching chicken muscle. In the present study, protein synthesis-related factors, such as IGF-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, phosphorylation of Akt, and phosphorylated S6 content, increased in an age-dependent manner after post-hatch day (D) 0. The mRNA levels of HC I, III and V (fast-twitch glycolytic type) dramatically increased after D0. The increase ratio of breast muscle weight was approximately 1100% from D0 to D7. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first evidence that upregulation of protein synthesis pathway and transcription of fast twitch glycolytic HC isoforms play critical roles in the increase of chicken breast muscle weight during the first week after hatching.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/fisiologia , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/fisiologia , Proteína S6 Ribossômica/metabolismo , Proteína S6 Ribossômica/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Fosforilação , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo
11.
J Cell Sci ; 130(13): 2134-2146, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28515230

RESUMO

Maturation of nociceptive neurons depends on changes in transcription factors, ion channels and neuropeptides. Mature nociceptors initiate pain in part by drastically reducing the activation threshold via intracellular sensitization signaling. Whether sensitization signaling also changes during development and aging remains so far unknown. Using a novel automated microscopy approach, we quantified changes in intracellular signaling protein expression and in their signaling dynamics, as well as changes in intracellular signaling cascade wiring, in sensory neurons from newborn to senescent (24 months of age) rats. We found that nociceptive subgroups defined by the signaling components protein kinase A (PKA)-RIIß (also known as PRKAR2B) and CaMKIIα (also known as CAMK2A) developed at around postnatal day 10, the time of nociceptor maturation. The integrative nociceptor marker, PKA-RIIß, allowed subgroup segregation earlier than could be achieved by assessing the classical markers TRPV1 and Nav1.8 (also known as SCN10A). Signaling kinetics remained constant over lifetime despite in part strong changes in the expression levels. Strikingly, we found a mechanism important for neuronal memory - i.e. the crosstalk from cAMP and PKA to ERK1 and ERK2 (ERK1/2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, respectively) - to emerge postnatally. Thus, maturation of nociceptors is closely accompanied by altered expression, activation and connectivity of signaling pathways known to be central for pain sensitization and neuronal memory formation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , AMP Cíclico/genética , Nociceptores/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Subunidade RIIbeta da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/genética , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8/genética , Ratos , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética
12.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(1)2017 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362979

RESUMO

Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein gene 1 (Nramp1) plays an important role in the innate immune response of swine, and is believed to influence disease resistance. In this study, a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique was used to investigate Nramp1 expression in 12 different tissues in newborn and 7-, 14-, 21-, 28-, and 35-day-old Meishan piglets. Results indicated that Nramp1 was expressed to varying degrees in all sample tissues, although expression differed among growth stages. For example, Nramp1 was highly expressed in the spleen, but minimally expressed in heart, liver, and muscle tissues among the various piglet age classes. Overall, Nramp1 expression increased with age, reaching significant levels in 21- and 28-day-old animals. Nramp1 was expressed in all 12 tissues tested; however, expression in spleen, lung, kidney, and thymus tissues was highest among newborns, which is consistent with this gene's role in innate immunity improvement. Before and after weaning, Nramp1 was highly expressed in digestive (stomach) and intestinal (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) tissues, further indicating a genetic role in both immune regulation to compensate for weaning stress and enhanced development of intestinal immunity.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Imunidade Inata , Suínos , Distribuição Tecidual , Desmame
13.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44481, 2017 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28290551

RESUMO

The establishment of T cell central tolerance critically relies on the development and maintenance of the medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Disrupted signaling of lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTßR) results in dramatically reduced mTEC population. However, whether LTßR directly or indirectly control mTECs remains undetermined; how LTßR controls this process also remain unclear. In this study, by utilizing K14-Cre × Ltbrfl/fl conditional knockout (cKO) mice, we show that epithelial intrinsic LTßR was essential for the mTEC development postnatally. Mechanistically, LTßR did not directly impact the proliferation or survival of mTECs; the maturation of mTECs from MHC-IIlo to MHC-IIhi stage was also unaltered in the absence of LTßR; interestingly, the number of mTEC progenitors (Cld3,4hiSSEA-1+) was found significantly reduced in LTßR cKO mice at the neonatal stage, but not at E18.5. Consequently, epithelial deficiency of LTßR resulted in significant defect of thymic negative selection as demonstrated using OT-I and RIP-OVA transgenic mouse system. In summary, our study clarifies the epithelial intrinsic role of LTßR on mTEC development and function; more importantly, it reveals a previously unrecognized function of LTßR on the control of the size of mTEC progenitor population.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/citologia , Receptor beta de Linfotoxina/genética , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Timo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Células-Tronco/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Timo/metabolismo
14.
Mol Cell Probes ; 33: 28-31, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28267624

RESUMO

This study describes a sensitive (1.3 × 101 genomic copies/µL) and specific TaqMan-based qRT-PCR assay able to detect and quantify SVA RNA in porcine biological samples. The technique represents an efficient tool for the virus diagnosis and assessment of SVA load in tissues of infected animals and for epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Picornaviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Picornaviridae/genética , Picornaviridae/genética , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Animais Recém-Nascidos/virologia , Picornaviridae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Suínos/genética , Suínos/virologia
15.
Theriogenology ; 93: 1-6, 2017 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257857

RESUMO

The development of transgenic technologies in the Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) has the potential to improve the quality of the meat and wool. The piggyBac (PB) transposon system is highly efficient and can be used to transpose specific target genes into the genome. Here, we developed a PB transposon system to produce transgenic Cashmere goat fetal fibroblasts (GFFs) with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). We then used the genetically modified GFFs as nuclear donors to generate transgenic embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The embryos (n = 40) were implanted into female goats (n = 20). One transgenic kid that expressed EGFP throughout the surface features of its body was born. This result demonstrated the usefulness of PB transposon system in generating transgenic Cashmere goats.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Engenharia Genética/veterinária , Cabras/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , DNA/análise , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Feto/citologia , Fibroblastos , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Carne , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear/veterinária , Gravidez , Transfecção/veterinária ,
16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 6(11): e966, 2016 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27898075

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders and depression are well-documented in subjects exposed to adverse childhood events. Recently, maternal obesity and/or maternal consumption of high-fat diets (HFD) have been also proposed as risk factors for offspring mental health. Here using an animal model in rats, we explored the combinatorial effects of a maternal HFD (40% of energy from fat without impact on maternal weight; during gestation and lactation) and maternal separation (MS) in offspring. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of pups, MS led to changes in the expression of several genes such as Bdnf (brain derived neurotrophic factor), 5HT-r1a (serotonin receptor 1a) and Rest4 (neuron-restrictive silencer element, repressor element 1, silencing transcription factor (Rest), splicing variant 4). Surprisingly, perinatal HFD strongly attenuated the developmental alterations induced by MS. Furthermore, maternal HFD totally prevented the endophenotypes (anxiety, spatial memory, social behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress, hippocampal neurogenesis and visceral pain) associated with MS at adulthood. Finally, we also demonstrated that HFD intake reduced anxiety and enhanced maternal care in stressed dams. Overall, our data suggest that a HFD restricted to gestation and lactation, which did not lead to overweight in dams, had limited effects in unstressed offspring, highlighting the role of maternal obesity, rather than fat exposure per se, on brain vulnerability during development.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Animais Recém-Nascidos/psicologia , Ansiedade/genética , Ansiedade/psicologia , Peso Corporal , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Comportamento Materno , Privação Materna , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
17.
Physiol Rep ; 4(14)2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27462071

RESUMO

Preterm pigs show many signs of immaturity that are characteristic of preterm infants. In preterm infants, the cerebellum grows particularly rapid and hypoplasia and cellular lesions are associated with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that functional brain delays observed in preterm pigs would be paralleled by both structural and molecular differences in the cerebellum relative to term born piglets. Cerebella were collected from term (n = 56) and preterm (90% gestation, n = 112) pigs at 0, 5, and 26 days after birth for stereological volume estimations, large-scale qPCR gene expression analyses (selected neurodevelopmental genes) and western blot protein expression analysis (Sonic Hedgehog pathway). Memory and learning was tested using a T-maze, documenting that preterm pigs showed delayed learning. Preterm pigs also showed reduced volume of both white and gray matter at all three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found, except consistently higher mRNA levels of Midkine, p75, and Neurotrophic factor 3 in the preterm cerebellum postnatally, probably reflecting an adaptive response to preterm birth. Pig cerebellar development appears more affected by postconceptional age than by environmental factors at birth or postnatally. Compensatory mechanisms following preterm birth may include faster white matter growth and increased expression of selected genes for neurotrophic factors and regulation of angiogenesis. While the pig cerebellum is immature in 90% gestation preterm pigs, it appears relatively mature and resilient toward environmental factors.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cerebelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Biometria/métodos , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Cerebelo/patologia , Idade Gestacional , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Nutrição Parenteral/métodos , Sus scrofa
18.
Sci Rep ; 6: 27557, 2016 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27272163

RESUMO

Homeostasis of riboflavin should be maintained by transporters. Previous in vitro studies have elucidated basic information about riboflavin transporter RFVT3 encoded by SLC52A3 gene. However, the contribution of RFVT3 to the maintenance of riboflavin homeostasis and the significance in vivo remain unclear. Here, we investigated the physiological role of RFVT3 using Slc52a3 knockout (Slc52a3-/-) mice. Most Slc52a3-/- mice died with hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia within 48 hr after birth. The plasma and tissue riboflavin concentrations in Slc52a3-/- mice at postnatal day 0 were dramatically lower than those in wild-type (WT) littermates. Slc52a3-/- fetuses showed a lower capacity of placental riboflavin transport compared with WT fetuses. Riboflavin supplement during pregnancy and after birth reduced neonatal death and metabolic disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first report to indicate that Rfvt3 contributes to placental riboflavin transport, and that disruption of Slc52a3 gene caused neonatal mortality with hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia owing to riboflavin deficiency.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Deficiência de Riboflavina/genética , Riboflavina/sangue , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Hiperlipidemias/mortalidade , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Hipoglicemia/genética , Hipoglicemia/mortalidade , Hipoglicemia/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Placenta/metabolismo , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Riboflavina/genética , Deficiência de Riboflavina/mortalidade , Deficiência de Riboflavina/patologia
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 48(3): 667-72, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26739342

RESUMO

Genetic parameter estimates of growth rates, Kleiber ratios, and fat-tail dimensions were aimed using 22, 253 records at the present study. The studied traits were average daily gain from birth to weaning, average daily gain from 9 months of age to yearling, Kleiber ratio from birth to weaning, Kleiber ratio from 9 months of age to yearling, fat-tail length, fat-tail width, and fat-tail thickness. Each trait was fitted by four different animal models, which are differentiated by including or excluding maternal effects. Beside the estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlation among the studied traits, the association of them with birth to yearling live body weights using series of bivariate animal models was investigated. The direct heritabilities were ranged from 0.04 to 0.20, which indicated a wide range of additive genetic variances of the traits. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between the main traits were ranged from -0.11 to 0.99 and -0.08 to 0.95, respectively. The results indicated that the traits could be improved by including them in the selection index due to their moderate to high heritability estimation.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Feminino , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Fenótipo , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico , Desmame
20.
Res Vet Sci ; 103: 149-55, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26679810

RESUMO

Functional studies indicate differences in newborn gastrointestinal morphology and physiology after a meal. Both water and solutes transfer across the intestinal epithelial membrane appear to occur via aquaporins (AQPs). Given that the physiological roles of AQP4 and AQP5 in the developing intestine have not been fully established, the objective of this investigation was to determine their distribution, expression and respective mRNA in the small intestine of colostrums-suckling buffalo calves by using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Results showed different tissue distribution between AQP4 and AQP5 with the presence of the former along the enteric neurons and the latter in the endocrine cells. Moreover, their expression levels were high in the ileum of colostrum-suckling buffalo calves. The data present a link between feeding, intestinal development and water homeostasis, suggesting the involvement of these channel proteins in intestinal permeability and fluid secretion/absorption during this stage of development after birth.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/genética , Aquaporina 4/genética , Aquaporina 5/genética , Búfalos/genética , Colostro/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Aquaporina 4/metabolismo , Aquaporina 5/metabolismo , Western Blotting/veterinária , Búfalos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária
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