Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.484
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148505, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465061

RESUMO

The use of disposable face masks became essential to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in an unprecedented rise in their production and, unfortunately, to a new form of environmental contamination due to improper disposal. Recent publications reported the abundance of COVID-19-related litter in several environments, wildlife interaction with such items, and the contaminants that can be released from such protective equipment that has the potential to induce ecotoxicological effects. This paper provides a critical review of COVID-19 face mask occurrence in diverse environments and their adverse physiological and ecotoxicological effects on wildlife. It also outlines potential remediation strategies to mitigate the environmental challenge impose by COVID-19-related litter.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Máscaras , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248493, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495164

RESUMO

Parasites of veterinary importance have been heavily focused on domesticated livestock that was introduced into the neo-tropics. The text used in the teaching parasitology to veterinary students in Trinidad has only investigated the parasites of domesticated species. In the reviewed veterinary parasitology text no mention was made on the parasites that affect wild neo-tropical animals. Information on wild neo-tropical animals had to be sourced from texts on the management of wild life animals in the Neotropics. The texts that were reviewed in this document spanned from the mid-1950s to 2020. The information presented in this review reveals the exhaustive work done on the parasites of domesticated species but also revealed little information on neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. In conclusion, this review reveals the gap of information that is missing from parasitology texts used in the teaching of veterinary students. In the future these parasitology texts can be revised to include chapters on the parasites of neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. At present students that graduate from the veterinary parasitology course has little information on the parasites of animals which are present in their 'backyards'.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Educação em Veterinária , Animais , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária , Estudantes , Trinidad e Tobago , Universidades
3.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 626-632, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410047

RESUMO

Viruses can be transmitted from animals to humans (and vice versa) and across animal species. As such, host-virus interactions and transmission have attracted considerable attention. Non-human primates (NHPs), our closest evolutionary relatives, are susceptible to human viruses and certain pathogens are known to circulate between humans and NHPs. Here, we generated global statistics on VI-NHPs based on a literature search and public data mining. In total, 140 NHP species from 12 families are reported to be infected by 186 DNA and RNA virus species, 68.8% of which are also found in humans, indicating high potential for crossing species boundaries. The top 10 NHP species with high centrality in the NHP-virus network include two great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and eight Old World monkeys (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. leonina, Papio cynocephalus, Cercopithecus ascanius, C. erythrotis, Chlorocebus aethiops, and Allochrocebus lhoesti). Given the wide distribution of Old World monkeys and their frequent contact with humans, there is a high risk of virus circulation between humans and such species. Thus, we suggest recurring epidemiological surveillance of NHPs, specifically Old World monkeys that are in frequent contact with humans, and other effective measures to prevent potential circulation and transmission of viruses. Avoidance of false positives and sampling bias should also be a focus in future work.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Primatas/virologia , Saúde Pública , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus/classificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Saúde Global , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia
4.
Science ; 373(6558): 973, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446597
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2480-2484, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424182

RESUMO

We conducted a serosurvey for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus antibodies in various wildlife species in Catalonia, northeastern Spain. We detected high seroprevalence in southern Catalonia, close to the Ebro Delta wetland, a key stopover for birds migrating from Africa. Our findings could indicate that competent virus vectors are present in the region.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450868

RESUMO

Behavioural studies of elusive wildlife species are challenging but important when they are threatened and involved in human-wildlife conflicts. Accelerometers (ACCs) and supervised machine learning algorithms (MLAs) are valuable tools to remotely determine behaviours. Here we used five captive cheetahs in Namibia to test the applicability of ACC data in identifying six behaviours by using six MLAs on data we ground-truthed by direct observations. We included two ensemble learning approaches and a probability threshold to improve prediction accuracy. We used the model to then identify the behaviours in four free-ranging cheetah males. Feeding behaviours identified by the model and matched with corresponding GPS clusters were verified with previously identified kill sites in the field. The MLAs and the two ensemble learning approaches in the captive cheetahs achieved precision (recall) ranging from 80.1% to 100.0% (87.3% to 99.2%) for resting, walking and trotting/running behaviour, from 74.4% to 81.6% (54.8% and 82.4%) for feeding behaviour and from 0.0% to 97.1% (0.0% and 56.2%) for drinking and grooming behaviour. The model application to the ACC data of the free-ranging cheetahs successfully identified all nine kill sites and 17 of the 18 feeding events of the two brother groups. We demonstrated that our behavioural model reliably detects feeding events of free-ranging cheetahs. This has useful applications for the determination of cheetah kill sites and helping to mitigate human-cheetah conflicts.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Aceleração , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Namíbia
9.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452362

RESUMO

The revealed prevalence of coronaviruses in wild bird populations in Poland was 4.15% and the main reservoirs were birds from orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, with a prevalence of 3.51% and 5.59%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected more often than deltacoronaviruses, with detection rates of 3.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected in birds belonging to six orders, including Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Columbiformes, Galliformes, Gruiformes, and Passeriformes, indicating a relatively wide host range. Interestingly, this was the only coronavirus detected in Anseriformes (3.51%), while in Charadriiformes, the prevalence was 3.1%. The identified gammacoronaviruses belonged to the Igacovirus and Brangacovirus subgeneras. Most of these were igacoviruses and formed a common phylogenetic group with a Duck Coronavirus 2714 and two with an Avian Coronavirus/Avian Coronavirus9203, while the viruses from the pigeons formed a distinct "pigeon-like" group, not yet officially represented. The presence of deltacoronaviruses was detected in birds belonging to three orders, Charadriiformes, Galliformes, and Suliformes indicating a narrower host range. Most identified deltacoronaviruses belonged to the Buldecovirus subgenus, while only one belonged to Herdecovirus. Interestingly, the majority of buldecoviruses were identified in gulls, and they formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage not represented by any officially ratified virus species. Another separate group of buldecoviruses, also not represented by the official species, was formed by a virus identified in a common snipe. Only one identified buldecovirus (from common pheasant) formed a group with the ratified species Coronavirus HKU15. The results obtained indicate the high diversity of detected coronaviruses, and thus also the need to update their taxonomy (establishing new representative virus species). The serological studies performed revealed antibodies against an infectious bronchitis virus in the sera of white storks and mallards.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Biodiversidade , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Gammacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Anseriformes/virologia , Charadriiformes/virologia , Columbiformes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Patos/virologia , Galliformes/virologia , Gammacoronavirus/classificação , Gammacoronavirus/genética , Filogenia , Polônia
10.
J Water Health ; 19(4): 545-562, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371493

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is an intracellular protozoan parasite, globally distributed and capable of infecting various vertebrate species, including humans as well as domestic and wild animals. Cryptosporidium is increasingly gaining attention as a human and an animal pathogen mainly due to its dominant involvement in worldwide waterborne outbreaks. The present paper reviews the current knowledge and understanding of Cryptosporidium spp. in terrestrial and water animals in Azerbaijan.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Azerbaijão/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gado
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(3): e004221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378768

RESUMO

Invasive species impact native wildlife in several ways, as they compete for resources and may transmit their specific pathogens. However, the potential consequences of co-introduced parasites are not fully understood. While the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) was introduced in Chile about a century ago, no data are available regarding its parasites. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the parasitic fauna of this avian invader and to determine whether there are co-introduced/co-invasive parasites shared with native birds. One hundred and eight birds were collected from three different localities in the Ñuble region of Chile, and a complete parasitic necropsy was performed in the laboratory. Twenty-three (21.3%) were parasitized by six arthropod species and four (3.7%) were parasitized by two helminth species. Four out of eight taxa are reported for the first time in Chile; among them, three arthropod parasites and the tapeworm, Anonchotaenia globate, are considered as co-introduced parasites. Only A. globata is a potential co-invasive parasite given its low degree specificity in terms of its definitive hosts. Future research should examine whether additional co-introduced/co-invasive parasites have been brought by the house sparrow, and what their potential consequences might be on the health of native birds in Chile.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Pardais , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Chile , Espécies Introduzidas
12.
Adv Virus Res ; 110: 59-102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353482

RESUMO

Within only one year after the first detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), nearly 100 million infections were reported in the human population globally, with more than two million fatal cases. While SARS-CoV-2 most likely originated from a natural wildlife reservoir, neither the immediate viral precursor nor the reservoir or intermediate hosts have been identified conclusively. Due to its zoonotic origin, SARS-CoV-2 may also be relevant to animals. Thus, to evaluate the host range of the virus and to assess the risk to act as potential animal reservoir, a large number of different animal species were experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2 or monitored in the field in the last months. In this review, we provide an update on studies describing permissive and resistant animal species. Using a scoring system based on viral genome detection subsequent to SARS-CoV-2 inoculation, seroconversion, the development of clinical signs and transmission to conspecifics or humans, the susceptibility of diverse animal species was classified on a semi-quantitative scale. While major livestock species such as pigs, cattle and poultry are mostly resistant, companion animals appear moderately susceptible, while several model animal species used in research, including several Cricetidae species and non-human primates, are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. By natural infections, it became obvious that American minks (Neovison vison) in fur farms, e.g., in the Netherlands and Denmark are highly susceptible resulting in local epidemics in these animals.


Assuntos
COVID-19/veterinária , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/diagnóstico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Gado/virologia , Modelos Animais , Animais de Estimação/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431907

RESUMO

Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cães , Cabras , Paquistão
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246887, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431910

RESUMO

The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and diversity of ectoparasites in rock pigeons in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 120 birds were captured from March 2017 to February 2019. The ectoparasites were collected by standard procedures and preserved in 70% ethanol containing one drop of glycerin. Data related to age, health status, sex, type of area, sampling location and season were collected using a standardized form. Ectoparasites were identified based on morphological characteristics by using identification keys. Ninety-six (80%) birds were infested with ectoparasites. A total of seven families and thirteen species of different ectoparasites were observed. Mainly, seven species of lice, two species of flies, one species of tick and three species of mites were recovered from infested birds. The female pigeons were more often infested (89.02%) than male pigeons (60.52%). The prevalence was found higher during summer (100%) as compared to other seasons. The infestation rate was higher in Industrial area (97.50%) as compared to other regions. The highest prevalence of ectoparasites (100%) was recorded from Sargodha district. There was significant (P < 0.05) variation among number of ectoparasites on wing, chest, tail and neck within age groups, seasons and ecological zones. The occurrence of parasites in relation to area, age, health status, sex and season were significant. The infestation rate of parasites in rock pigeon is high in different districts of Punjab. It is recommended that these wild birds infested with multiple species of ectoparasites could be the potential source of infestations in domesticated birds if they come in contact with them. The contact of domesticated birds should be prevented from wild birds to minimize the chance of cross species transmission of ectoparasites.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Parasitos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 794: 148600, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198085

RESUMO

Annually millions of animals are killed as a result of human-wildlife impacts. Each year the NGO Associação Mata Ciliar (NGOMC), in Southeastern Brazil, receives and rehabilitates thousands of animals. We evaluated how natural and anthropogenic characteristics affect the risk of different types of human-wildlife impacts for mammals that arrive at the NGOMC; and explore the relationship between both the animal's size and the type of human-wildlife impact event, survival rates and the likelihood that these animals can be fully rehabilitated. To test our hypotheses regarding the drivers and consequences of the total number of human-wildlife impact events, traffic collisions, electrocutions, and requested removals, we used records of the mammals that arrived at the NGOMC between 2012 and 2018, and obtained data on environmental attributes and anthropogenic factors at the municipality level, as well as species weights. The total number of human-wildlife impact events and of requested removals were both positively correlated with deforestation rate and urban area. The number of traffic collisions was positively related to the number of fires. Municipalities with larger urban areas were more likely to have at least one electrocuted mammal. Temporally, the number of fires two months before was positively correlated with the number of human-wildlife impact events. Traffic collisions and electrocutions more frequently resulted in the death of the animal, than did other events. Animals that died were heavier on average than those that remained in captivity or were successfully released back into the wild. We conclude that human-wildlife impact event rates should decline with lower rates of deforestation, less anthropogenic fires and the adoption of other specific measures to avoid both traffic collisions with fauna and electrocutions.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Mamíferos , Acidentes de Trânsito , Animais , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Répteis
16.
Science ; 373(6554): 484-485, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326219
18.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 228-231, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319851

RESUMO

Current evidence indicates that cats play a limited role in COVID-19 epidemiology, and pets are probably dead-end hosts of SARS-CoV-2 and pose negligible risks of transmission to humans. Still, one health concept is to be adopted widely as a component of mitigation strategies to tackle the ongoing pandemic. Therefore, in terms of the magnitude of infection and potential to transmit SARS-CoV-2 to humans, our surveillance efforts should mainly focus on mustelids (especially minks, ferrets, and others) for early detection and control of infection. This will ensure that SARS-CoV-2 will not get established in the wild animal population of these susceptible species. We agree with Dr. Passarella Teixeira on the possibility of domestic and feral cats acting as an urban reservoir, subsequently transmitting the virus to human beings. However, it is less likely that such a phenomenon will be reported even if it has occurred due to the efficient and extensive human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária
19.
Curr Biol ; 31(16): 3671-3677.e3, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237267

RESUMO

Most new infectious diseases emerge when pathogens transfer from animals to humans.1,2 The suspected origin of the COVID pandemic in a wildlife wet market has resurfaced debates on the role of wildlife trade as a potential source of emerging zoonotic diseases.3-5 Yet there are no studies quantitatively assessing zoonotic disease risk associated with wildlife trade. Combining data on mammal species hosting zoonotic viruses and mammals known to be in current and future wildlife trade,6 we found that one-quarter (26.5%) of the mammals in wildlife trade harbor 75% of known zoonotic viruses, a level much higher than domesticated and non-traded mammals. The traded mammals also harbor distinct compositions of zoonotic viruses and different host reservoirs from non-traded and domesticated mammals. Furthermore, we highlight that primates, ungulates, carnivores, and bats represent significant zoonotic disease risks as they host 132 (58%) of 226 known zoonotic viruses in present wildlife trade, whereas species of bats, rodents, and marsupials represent significant zoonotic disease risks in future wildlife trade. Thus, the risk of carrying zoonotic diseases is not equal for all mammal species in wildlife trade. Overall, our findings strengthen the evidence that wildlife trade and zoonotic disease risks are strongly associated, and that mitigation measures should prioritize species with the highest risk of carrying zoonotic viruses. Curbing the sales of wildlife products and developing principles that support the sustainable and healthy trade of wildlife could be cost-effective investments given the potential risk and consequences of zoonotic outbreaks.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Comércio , Mamíferos/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...