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1.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 19-35, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191344

RESUMO

La pandemia de COVID-19 tiene un origen zoonótico: fue transmitida de los animales a los humanos. Lo mismo ha sucedido con otras epidemias recientes (como las causadas por los virus SARS-CoV-1 y H7N9, entre otros). Estas epidemias surgieron en un contexto de explotación animal: el comercio de animales silvestres. Mucha gente ha pedido la prohibición total de la venta de animales silvestres en mercados. Sin embargo, la prohibición puede ser contraproducente y tener peores consecuencias tanto para los animales como para la salud pública. Este artículo argumenta en contra de una prohibición total y a favor de una regulación progresiva que tome en cuenta el bienestar de los animales, pero que tenga como finalidad última la desaparición del comercio de animales silvestres


The COVID-19 pandemic has a zoonotic origin: it was transmitted from animals to humans. The same has happened with other recent epidemics (such as those caused by the virus SARS-CoV-1 and H7N9, among others). These epidemics arose in a context of animal exploitation: the trade in wildlife. Many people have asked for a blanket ban of wildlife trade in wet markets. However, a blanket ban may be counterproductive and have worse consequences both for the animals and for public health. This paper argues against a blanket ban and argues for a progressive regulation that takes into account the welfare of animals, but that has as its final goal the disappearance of trade in wildlife


La pandèmia de la COVID-19 té un origen zoonòtic: es va transmetre dels animals als humans. El mateix ha passat amb altres epidèmies recents (com les causades pels virus SARS-CoV-1 I H7N9, entre d'altres). Aquestes epidèmies van sorgir en un context d'explotació animal: el comerç d'animals silvestres. Molta gent ha demanat la prohibició total de la venda d'animals silvestres en mercats. No obstant això, la prohibició pot ser contraproduent I tenir pitjors conseqüències tant per als animals com per a la salut pública. Aquest article argumenta en contra d'una prohibició total I a favor d'una regulació progressiva que tingui en compte el benestar dels animals, però que tingui com a finalitat última la desaparició del comerç d'animals silvestres


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência
2.
Virol J ; 17(1): 143, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008410

RESUMO

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by a pathogen called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic. This ongoing pandemic has now been reported in 215 countries with more than 23 million confirmed cases and more than 803 thousand deaths worldwide as of August 22, 2020. Although efforts are undergoing, there is no approved vaccine or any specific antiretroviral drug to treat COVID-19 so far. It is now known that SARS-CoV-2 can affect not only humans but also pets and other domestic and wild animals, making it a one health global problem. Several published scientific evidence has shown that bats are the initial reservoir hosts of SARS-CoV-2, and pangolins are suggested as an intermediate hosts. So far, little is known concerning the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19. Therefore, updated knowledge about the potential role of pets in the current outbreak will be of paramount importance for effective prevention and control of the disease. This review summarized the current evidence about the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008758, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881980

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the substantial public health, economic, and societal consequences of virus spillover from a wildlife reservoir. Widespread human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) also presents a new set of challenges when considering viral spillover from people to naïve wildlife and other animal populations. The establishment of new wildlife reservoirs for SARS-CoV-2 would further complicate public health control measures and could lead to wildlife health and conservation impacts. Given the likely bat origin of SARS-CoV-2 and related beta-coronaviruses (ß-CoVs), free-ranging bats are a key group of concern for spillover from humans back to wildlife. Here, we review the diversity and natural host range of ß-CoVs in bats and examine the risk of humans inadvertently infecting free-ranging bats with SARS-CoV-2. Our review of the global distribution and host range of ß-CoV evolutionary lineages suggests that 40+ species of temperate-zone North American bats could be immunologically naïve and susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2. We highlight an urgent need to proactively connect the wellbeing of human and wildlife health during the current pandemic and to implement new tools to continue wildlife research while avoiding potentially severe health and conservation impacts of SARS-CoV-2 "spilling back" into free-ranging bat populations.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0228366, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866142

RESUMO

The role of questing ticks in the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases in Kenya's Maasai Mara National Reserve (MMNR), an ecosystem with intensified human-wildlife-livestock interactions, remains poorly understood. We surveyed the diversity of questing ticks, their blood-meal hosts, and tick-borne pathogens to understand potential effects on human and livestock health. By flagging and hand-picking from vegetation in 25 localities, we collected 1,465 host-seeking ticks, mostly Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma species identified by morphology and molecular analysis. We used PCR with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis and sequencing to identify Anaplasma, Babesia, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Theileria pathogens and blood-meal remnants in 231 tick pools. We detected blood-meals from humans, wildebeest, and African buffalo in Rh. appendiculatus, goat in Rh. evertsi, sheep in Am. gemma, and cattle in Am. variegatum. Rickettsia africae was detected in Am. gemma (MIR = 3.10) that had fed on sheep and in Am. variegatum (MIR = 250) that had fed on cattle. We found Rickettsia spp. in Am. gemma (MIR = 9.29) and Rh. evertsi (MIR = 200), Anaplasma ovis in Rh. appendiculatus (MIR = 0.89) and Rh. evertsi (MIR = 200), Anaplasma bovis in Rh. appendiculatus (MIR = 0.89), and Theileria parva in Rh. appendiculatus (MIR = 24). No Babesia, Ehrlichia, or Coxiella pathogens were detected. Unexpectedly, species-specific Coxiella sp. endosymbionts were detected in all tick genera (174/231 pools), which may affect tick physiology and vector competence. These findings show that ticks from the MMNR are infected with zoonotic R. africae and unclassified Rickettsia spp., demonstrating risk of African tick-bite fever and other spotted-fever group rickettsioses to locals and visitors. The protozoan pathogens identified may also pose risk to livestock production. The diverse vertebrate blood-meals of questing ticks in this ecosystem including humans, wildlife, and domestic animals, may amplify transmission of tick-borne zoonoses and livestock diseases.


Assuntos
Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/patogenicidade , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Babesia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Coxiella , Ecossistema , Ehrlichia , Humanos , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Rhipicephalus , Rickettsia , Ovinos , Theileria , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Zoonoses
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4392, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873810

RESUMO

The successful mitigation of emerging wildlife diseases may involve controversial host culling. For livestock, 'preemptive host culling' is an accepted practice involving the removal of herds with known contact to infected populations. When applied to wildlife, this proactive approach comes in conflict with biodiversity conservation goals. Here, we present an alternative approach of 'proactive hunting surveillance' with the aim of early disease detection that simultaneously avoids undesirable population decline by targeting demographic groups with (1) a higher likelihood of being infected and (2) a lower reproductive value. We applied this harvesting principle to populations of reindeer to substantiate freedom of chronic wasting disease (CWD) infection. Proactive hunting surveillance reached 99% probability of freedom from infection (<4 reindeer infected) within 3-5 years, in comparison to ~10 years using ordinary harvest surveillance. However, implementation uncertainties linked to social issues appear challenging also with this kind of host culling.


Assuntos
Abate de Animais/métodos , Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Rena , Doença de Emaciação Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Sexuais , Doença de Emaciação Crônica/prevenção & controle , Doença de Emaciação Crônica/transmissão
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4295, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908130

RESUMO

Recent expansion of croplands in the United States has caused widespread conversion of grasslands and other ecosystems with largely unknown consequences for agricultural production and the environment. Here we assess annual land use change 2008-16 and its impacts on crop yields and wildlife habitat. We find that croplands have expanded at a rate of over one million acres per year, and that 69.5% of new cropland areas produced yields below the national average, with a mean yield deficit of 6.5%. Observed conversion infringed upon high-quality habitat that, relative to unconverted land, had provided over three times higher milkweed stem densities in the Monarch butterfly Midwest summer breeding range and 37% more nesting opportunities per acre for waterfowl in the Prairie Pothole Region of the Northern Great Plains. Our findings demonstrate a pervasive pattern of encroachment into areas that are increasingly marginal for production, but highly significant for wildlife, and suggest that such tradeoffs may be further amplified by future cropland expansion.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Custos e Análise de Custo/estatística & dados numéricos , Produção Agrícola/tendências , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Borboletas , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispersão Vegetal , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Estados Unidos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866175

RESUMO

Individuals reared in captivity are exposed to distinct selection pressures and evolutionary processes causing genetic and phenotypic divergence from wild populations. Consequently, restocking with farmed individuals may represent a considerable risk for the fitness of free-living populations. Supportive breeding on a massive scale has been established in many European countries to increase hunting opportunities for the most common duck species, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). It has previously been shown that mallards from breeding facilities differ genetically from wild populations and there is some indication of morphological differences. Using a common-garden experiment, we tested for differences in growth parameters between free-living populations and individuals from breeding facilities during the first 20 days of post-hatching development, a critical phase for survival in free-living populations. In addition, we compared their immune function by assessing two haematological parameters, H/L ratio and immature erythrocyte frequency, and plasma complement activity. Our data show that farmed ducklings exhibit larger morphological parameters, a higher growth rates, and higher complement activity. In haematological parameters, we observed high dynamic changes in duckling ontogeny in relation to their morphological parameters. In conclusion, our data demonstrate pronounced phenotype divergence between farmed and wild mallard populations that can be genetically determined. We argue that this divergence can directly or indirectly affect fitness of farmed individuals introduced to the breeding population as well as fitness of farmed x wild hybrids.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Selvagens/imunologia , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/imunologia , Animais , Cruzamento , República Tcheca , Fazendas , Fenótipo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4738, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994397

RESUMO

Wildlife trade is a key driver of the biodiversity crisis. Unregulated, or under-regulated wildlife trade can lead to unsustainable exploitation of wild populations. International efforts to regulate wildlife mostly miss 'lower-value' species, such as those imported as pets, resulting in limited knowledge of trade in groups like reptiles. Here we generate a dataset on web-based private commercial trade of reptiles to highlight the scope of the global reptile trade. We find that over 35% of reptile species are traded online. Three quarters of this trade is in species that are not covered by international trade regulation. These species include numerous endangered or range-restricted species, especially hotspots within Asia. Approximately 90% of traded reptile species and half of traded individuals are captured from the wild. Exploitation can occur immediately after scientific description, leaving new endemic species especially vulnerable. Pronounced gaps in regulation imply trade is having unknown impacts on numerous threatened species. Gaps in monitoring demand a reconsideration of international reptile trade regulations. We suggest reversing the status-quo, requiring proof of sustainability before trade is permitted.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Répteis , Animais , Comércio/economia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/economia , Internet/economia , Internet/legislação & jurisprudência
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776964

RESUMO

Outbreaks of emerging coronaviruses in the past two decades and the current pandemic of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that emerged in China highlight the importance of this viral family as a zoonotic public health threat. To gain a better understanding of coronavirus presence and diversity in wildlife at wildlife-human interfaces in three southern provinces in Viet Nam 2013-2014, we used consensus Polymerase Chain Reactions to detect coronavirus sequences. In comparison to previous studies, we observed high proportions of positive samples among field rats (34.0%, 239/702) destined for human consumption and insectivorous bats in guano farms (74.8%, 234/313) adjacent to human dwellings. Most notably among field rats, the odds of coronavirus RNA detection significantly increased along the supply chain from field rats sold by traders (reference group; 20.7% positivity, 39/188) by a factor of 2.2 for field rats sold in large markets (32.0%, 116/363) and 10.0 for field rats sold and served in restaurants (55.6%, 84/151). Coronaviruses were also detected in rodents on the majority of wildlife farms sampled (60.7%, 17/28). These coronaviruses were found in the Malayan porcupines (6.0%, 20/331) and bamboo rats (6.3%, 6/96) that are raised on wildlife farms for human consumption as food. We identified six known coronaviruses in bats and rodents, clustered in three Coronaviridae genera, including the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammacoronaviruses. Our analysis also suggested either mixing of animal excreta in the environment or interspecies transmission of coronaviruses, as both bat and avian coronaviruses were detected in rodent feces on wildlife farms. The mixing of multiple coronaviruses, and their apparent amplification along the wildlife supply chain into restaurants, suggests maximal risk for end consumers and likely underpins the mechanisms of zoonotic spillover to people.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/genética , Carne/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Porcos-Espinhos/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Ratos , Risco , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/virologia
10.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 110977, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778276

RESUMO

Mammal herbivores, and specially deer, can cause severe damages to agriculture, producing economic losses. Repellents based on odor, visual and/or taste stimuli have been tested to minimize these damages, but their global effectiveness has not been quantified. A systematic literature review on the use of repellents to reduce damage by deer was carried out, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of different repellents and application methods was performed. A Beta regression was employed considering the percentage of vegetation unbrowsed at the end of the essay as the response variable. A total of 246 essays testing ten different repellents and 236 essays testing four different application methods were extracted from 58 articles. Odor-based repellents, such as those including "meat and blood" and "urine, hair and feces of predators", were found to be the most effective to reduce damage. Non-lethal methods, such as repellents, could be valuable tools to manage this human-wildlife conflict.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Fezes , Herbivoria , Humanos , Odorantes
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140238, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783846

RESUMO

Wind energy is a key component of climate action strategies aimed at reducing our dependence on fossil fuels. Despite providing environmental benefits, there are increasing concerns surrounding the impact of wind farms on wildlife, with research indicating that effects on wildlife can be highly variable between species, regions, and sites. In light of this variability and the accelerating growth of the wind energy sector globally, a comprehensive understanding of wind farm effects on wildlife and ease of access to this knowledge are pivotal to inform best practice if wind energy is to become a truly sustainable source of energy. This review evaluates interactions between a globally distributed bird genus (harriers, Circus sp.) and wind farms to assess broader patterns in wildlife-wind energy knowledge accessibility and bias. A systematic review of grey and peer-reviewed literature across two multidisciplinary and two field-specific databases in two languages (English and Spanish) yielded 235 relevant sources, covering 12 harrier species and 31 countries. Findings indicate that harriers are considered to have high sensitivity to wind farms, with greatest impacts expected from habitat effects rather than from turbine collisions. In the broader wildlife-wind energy context, this study underscores (i) the predominance of grey literature and of sources solely documenting species-wind farm overlaps; (ii) limitations in grey literature availability and peer-reviewed publication accessibility; (iii) lack of standardized research and monitoring practices; and (iv) evidence of language, taxonomic, and geographic bias in literature sources. Overall, findings demonstrate that limited accessibility to wildlife-wind energy knowledge risks widening the research-implementation gap. Widespread implementation of open practices that allow researchers and practitioners to build on existing knowledge (e.g. national and international online repositories and databases, knowledge sharing and collaborative initiatives, open access publications) is crucial if ongoing wind energy development efforts are to be successfully aligned with conservation priorities.


Assuntos
Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Vento , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aves , Ecossistema
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0229277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817698

RESUMO

Human activities are changing landscape structure and function globally, affecting wildlife space use, and ultimately increasing human-wildlife conflicts and zoonotic disease spread. Capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) are linked to conflicts in human-modified landscapes (e.g. crop damage, vehicle collision), as well as the spread and amplification of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), the most human-lethal tick-borne disease in the world. Even though it is essential to understand the link between capybaras, ticks and BSF, many knowledge gaps still exist regarding the effects of human disturbance in capybara space use. Here, we analyzed diurnal and nocturnal habitat selection strategies of capybaras across natural and human-modified landscapes using resource selection functions (RSF). Selection for forested habitats was higher across human-modified landscapes, mainly during day- periods, when compared to natural landscapes. Across natural landscapes, capybaras avoided forests during both day- and night periods. Water was consistently selected across both landscapes, during day- and nighttime. Distance to water was also the most important variable in predicting capybara habitat selection across natural landscapes. Capybaras showed slightly higher preferences for areas near grasses/shrubs across natural landscapes, and distance to grasses/shrubs was the most important variable in predicting capybara habitat selection across human-modified landscapes. Our results demonstrate human-driven variation in habitat selection strategies by capybaras. This behavioral adjustment across human-modified landscapes may be related to increases in A. sculptum density, ultimately affecting BSF.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Roedores/psicologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Brasil , Meio Ambiente , Pradaria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Humanos , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/epidemiologia , Carrapatos , Água , Zoonoses
13.
Open Vet J ; 10(2): 164-177, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821661

RESUMO

Viruses are having great time as they seem to have bogged humans down. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) are the three major coronaviruses of present-day global human and animal health concern. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is identified as the newest disease, presumably of bat origin. Different theories on the evolution of viruses are in circulation, yet there is no denying the fact that the animal source is the skeleton. The whole world is witnessing the terror of the COVID-19 pandemic that is following the same path of SARS and MERS, and seems to be more severe. In addition to humans, several species of animals are reported to have been infected with these life-threatening viruses. The possible routes of transmission and their zoonotic potentialities are the subjects of intense research. This review article aims to overview the link of all these three deadly coronaviruses among animals along with their phylogenic evolution and cross-species transmission. This is essential since animals as pets or food are said to pose some risk, and their better understanding is a must in order to prepare a possible plan for future havoc in both human and animal health. Although COVID-19 is causing a human health hazard globally, its reporting in animals are limited compared to SARS and MERS. Non-human primates and carnivores are most susceptible to SARS-coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2, respectively, whereas the dromedary camel is susceptible to MERS-coronavirus. Phylogenetically, the trio viruses are reported to have originated from bats and have special capacity to undergo mutation and genomic recombination in order to infect humans through its reservoir or replication host. However, it is difficult to analyze how the genomic pattern of coronaviruses occurs. Thus, increased possibility of new virus-variants infecting humans and animals in the upcoming days seems to be the biggest challenge for the future of the world. One health approach is portrayed as our best way ahead, and understanding the animal dimension will go a long way in formulating such preparedness plans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Vírus da SARS/classificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Betacoronavirus/genética , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Camelus/virologia , Gatos , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Cães , Eutérios/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Leões/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Primatas/virologia , Cães Guaxinins/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Serpentes/virologia , Tigres/virologia , Viverridae/virologia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008288, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841229

RESUMO

In the absence of national control programmes against Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis, farmer-led treatment of cattle with pyrethroid-based insecticides may be an effective strategy for foci at the edges of wildlife areas, but there is limited evidence to support this. We combined data on insecticide use by farmers, tsetse abundance and trypanosome prevalence, with mathematical models, to quantify the likely impact of insecticide-treated cattle. Sixteen percent of farmers reported treating cattle with a pyrethroid, and chemical analysis indicated 18% of individual cattle had been treated, in the previous week. Treatment of cattle was estimated to increase daily mortality of tsetse by 5-14%. Trypanosome prevalence in tsetse, predominantly from wildlife areas, was 1.25% for T. brucei s.l. and 0.03% for T. b. rhodesiense. For 750 cattle sampled from 48 herds, 2.3% were PCR positive for T. brucei s.l. and none for T. b. rhodesiense. Using mathematical models, we estimated there was 8-29% increase in mortality of tsetse in farming areas and this increase can explain the relatively low prevalence of T. brucei s.l. in cattle. Farmer-led treatment of cattle with pyrethroids is likely, in part, to be limiting the spill-over of human-infective trypanosomes from wildlife areas.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Gado , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Modelos Teóricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Piretrinas , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle , Moscas Tsé-Tsé
16.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 10): 354, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type A influenza viruses circulate and spread among wild birds and mostly consist of low pathogenic strains. However, fast genome variation timely results in the insurgence of high pathogenic strains, which when infecting poultry birds may cause a million deaths and strong commercial damage. More importantly, the host shift may concern these viruses and sustained human-to-human transmission may result in a dangerous pandemic outbreak. Therefore, fingerprints specific to either low or high pathogenic strains may represent a very important tool for global surveillance. RESULTS: We combined Normal Modes Analysis and surface electrostatic analysis of a mixed strain dataset of influenza A virus haemagglutinins from high and low pathogenic strains in order to infer specific fingerprints. Normal Modes Analysis sorted the strains in two different, homogeneous clusters; sorting was independent of clades and specific instead to high vs low pathogenicity. A deeper analysis of fluctuations and flexibility regions unveiled a special role for the 110-helix region. Specific sorting was confirmed by surface electrostatics analysis, which further allowed to focus on regions and mechanisms possibly crucial to the low-to-high transition. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from previous work demonstrated that changes in surface electrostatics are associated with the evolution and spreading of avian influenza A virus clades, and seemingly involved also in the avian to mammalian host shift. This work shows that a combination of electrostatics and Normal Modes Analysis can also identify fingerprints specific to high and low pathogenicity. The possibility to predict which specific mutations may result in a shift to high pathogenicity may help in surveillance and vaccine development.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Eletricidade Estática , Algoritmos , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Aves/virologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/química , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Modelos Moleculares , Domínios Proteicos
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 41-53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833202

RESUMO

Wild birds are natural hosts of multiple microbial agents, including a wide diversity of coronaviruses. Here we describe a pan-Coronavirus detection RT-PCR method to identify those viruses regardless of the coronavirus genus or nature of the specimen. We also describe a protocol using high-throughput sequencing technologies to obtain their entire genome, which overcomes the inherent difficulties of wild bird coronavirus sequencing, that is, their genetic diversity and the lack of virus isolation methods.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , RNA Replicase/genética , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3181-3201, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803334

RESUMO

Giardia is a parasite distributed worldwide and one of the most prevalent intestinal protozoa in Argentina. We analysed all the national information regarding the prevalence of Giardia infections in humans, animals and environmental surveys over the last 40 years. In this work, we used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines and the period between 1980 and 2019 was defined as time lapse for inclusion of the studies. The analysis was conducted using the LILACS, PubMed, Scopus and Argentina SciELO databases employing as keywords 'Giardia' AND 'Argentina'. We also carried out a manual review of papers. Of 304 articles, 92 fitted the eligibility criteria. Giardia was reported in 15 of the 23 Argentine provinces; human prevalence was between 3.4 and 64.8%. Indigenous children and residents in peri-urban areas had the higher infection rates. In animals, Giardia was identified mainly in dogs with a prevalence of 8.9 ± 7.0%, and studies of wild animals and cattle were notably scarce. Environmental studies showed that Giardia was detected in the soil and water which may act as reservoirs for this parasite revealing the need to modify the national water treatment legislation. The identification of Giardia genetic assemblages in the studies analysed was limited and showed that genotypes AII and B were found in humans while assemblage B was mainly detected in animals. This report provides useful information on epidemiological aspects of giardiasis in Argentina that may help to define future research priorities and provides useful tools for professionals regarding actual information on the prevalence of this infection.


Assuntos
Água Potável/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Purificação da Água
19.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111254, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841791

RESUMO

Many approaches have been developed in order to mitigate wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC), their causes and consequences. Reliable data on the amount and location of killed animals along roads are therefore necessary. The existing WVC databases are usually, however, far from complete. This data underreporting causes problems when identifying the riskiest places along a transportation infrastructure. WVC data underreporting can distort the results of WVC hotspots determination. In this work, we simulated WVC hotspots identification and stability under various rates of WVC data underreporting. Our aim was to investigate whether WVC hotspots can be found at the original locations even when data are strongly underreported. We applied the KDE + method for WVC hotspots identification. The KDE + method also allows for hotspots ranking according to cluster strength and collective risk. These two measures were then used for detection of diminishing hotspot signals with a rising level of underreporting. We found that WVC hotspots with a greater cluster strength suffered less from underreporting whereas hotspots will lower values of both cluster strength and collective risk were not detected when underreporting in the data increased. Hotspots with a cluster strength above 0.5 were almost always detected when data underreporting remained below 50%. More than 50% of these hotspots (with cluster strength above 0.5) were detectable even when underreporting rate was between 50 and 80%. We further studied the effects of both spatial and temporal underreporting. Whereas temporal change of underreporting was not a problem in hotspots detection, spatial underreporting introduced significant errors producing both false positive and false negative results (hotspots). We conclude that both researchers and practitioners should be aware of the phenomenon of underreporting and should also try to maintain the same sampling effort of spatial reporting.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Animais Selvagens , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Transportes
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237812, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817716

RESUMO

Bhutan is one of the biological hotspots in the world where humans and natural flora and fauna co-exist in close proximity. Bhutan is home to two species of bears: Sloth Bear and Himalayan Black Bear. Human conflicts with bears are reported from all over the country. This study describes the profile of the victims and the pattern of injury resulting from bear attacks and circumstances around human conflicts with bears in Bhutan between 2015 and 2019. This was a cross-sectional study with a review of hospital records of patients treated at the National Referral Hospital from 01 January 2015 till 31 December 2019. Data were extracted into a structured pro forma and entered into EpiData Entry 3.1 and analysed in STATA 13.1. There were thirty-four patients who were provided care for bear maul injuries, with an average annual caseload of 6.8 cases per year. The injury prevalence was 100% and the kill prevalence was 0%. Bear attacks were reported from fourteen of twenty districts of the country. The mean age of the victims was 49 (±13) years. Males (26, 76%) and farmers (26, 76%) were the common victims; the risk of bear attacks was 0.16 per 100,000 farmers per year. The commonest region of the body attacked was the face (29, 85%) and victims were provided emergency and rehabilitative care within and outside the country. Thirty-three victims (97%) were provided post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies. All victims received antibiotics despite the lack of national guidelines on the choice of antibiotics post-bear maul. Human-bear conflict is multi-faceted, puts a considerable strain on bear-conservation efforts and requires multi-disciplinary efforts in the prevention of human injury and socioeconomic losses.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Ursidae/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/psicologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Butão/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/fisiopatologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/cirurgia , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Orelha/lesões , Orelha/fisiopatologia , Orelha/cirurgia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Florestas , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/patologia , Raiva/virologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Ursidae/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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