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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254251, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350307

RESUMO

Abstract Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.


RESUMO Amostras de sangue e fezes de perdiz chukar (Alectoris chukar), faisão-albino (Phasianus colchicus), faisão-prateado (Lophura nycthemera), periquito-de-rosa (Psittacula krameri) e perus (Meleagris gallopavo) foram analisadas para verificar a prevalência de parasitas. Para registrar os parasitas, essas cinco espécies de aves foram colocadas em gaiolas separadas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore, Paquistão. Cem amostras fecais e 100 amostras de sangue para cada espécie de ave foram inspecionadas para analisar os parasitas internos. Durante o presente estudo, foram examinadas 17 espécies de endoparasitas, 14 de amostras fecais e 3 de sangue. Foram estudadas duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, o ácaro Dermanyssus gallinae 42% e o carrapato aviário Args persicus 41%. Os parasitas sanguíneos incluíram Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond com prevalência parasitária de 40% e Aegyptinella pullorum com prevalência parasitária de 40%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%, Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 60%, Capillaria annulata 37,5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% e Heterakis gallinarum 28,3%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 50% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% também foram documentados em amostras fecais de aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 72% e 3 espécies de protozoários, isto é, Eimeria maxima com prevalência parasitária de 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% e Histomonas meleagridis 18% foram documentadas durante a análise corpológica. Em nossa recomendação, o saneamento adequado, medicação e vacinação de invólucros de pássaros são sugeridos para evitar parasitas.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galliformes , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251733, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355875

RESUMO

Abstract Mining is vital for human sustenance and a crucial sector in the state economy. However, its impacts on the environment and biodiversity cannot be underestimated. Which are potent to the attract government's attention. Environment and wildlife are subject to the harmful impacts of mining and its related activities. In this study, districts, namely Mardan and Mohmand have been targeted with respect to mining impacts. The assessment was carried out on wildlife adversely affected by the mining sector. The fauna has been keenly observed to bring the calculated risks and threat perception of the regional wildlife. Total 9 species of mammals, 21 species of birds, were recorded in District Mardan. While in District Mohmand 2 species of mammals, 9 species of birds, and 4 species of reptiles were studied. The Study explored that mining primarily responsible for land degradation. Which lead to food and agriculture losses. Several other factors like blasting, pollution, hunting, deforestation, habitat loss was also observed. Deforestation surfaced one of the major causes for extinction of fauna in the said region. preemptive measures are needed to seize the man-made catastrophe.


Resumo A mineração é vital para o sustento humano e um setor crucial na economia do Estado. No entanto, seus impactos sobre o meio ambiente e a biodiversidade não podem ser subestimados, visto serem potentes para atrair a atenção do governo. O meio ambiente e a vida selvagem estão sujeitos aos impactos prejudiciais da mineração e de suas atividades relacionadas. Neste estudo, os distritos, nomeadamente Mardan e Mohmand, foram selecionados ​​no que diz respeito aos impactos da mineração. A avaliação foi realizada em animais selvagens afetados negativamente pelo setor de mineração. A fauna tem sido observada atentamente para trazer os riscos calculados e a percepção de ameaça à vida selvagem regional. Um total de nove espécies de mamíferos, 21 espécies de pássaros, foi registrado no Distrito Mardan. Enquanto no Distrito Mohmand, duas espécies de mamíferos, nove espécies de pássaros e quatro espécies de répteis foram estudadas. O estudo explorou essa mineração que é principalmente responsável pela degradação do solo, acarretando perdas de alimentos e na agricultura. Vários outros fatores como explosões, poluição, caça, desmatamento, perda de habitat também foram observados. O desmatamento veio à tona como uma das principais causas de extinção da fauna da região, e tem-se que medidas preventivas são necessárias para dimensionar a catástrofe provocada pelo homem.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Animais Selvagens , Mineração , Paquistão
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249847, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339414

RESUMO

Abstract The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Resumo O porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) é uma praga vertebrada de terras agrícolas e florestais. No estudo atual, o dano às plantações locais pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) foi relatado pela primeira vez no distrito de Muzaffarabad. O estudo foi projetado para investigar a perda econômica causada pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) nos distritos de Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu e Caxemira (AJK) de maio de 2017 a outubro de 2017. Um estudo baseado em pesquisa foi conduzido para identificar as áreas afetadas por porcos-espinhos e avaliar os danos às colheitas para os agricultores locais. Cerca de 19 aldeias foram pesquisadas e um total de 191 questionários semiestruturados foi distribuído entre os agricultores. Os danos às colheitas foram encontrados mais intensamente na aldeia Dhanni, onde um porco-espinho destruiu 175 kg / Kanal das colheitas. Em relação à magnitude total da perda de safra, as aldeias Danna e Koomi Kot foram as áreas mais afetadas. Mais da metade (51,8%) dos entrevistados na área de estudo sofreu perdas econômicas na faixa de 101-200 $, e 29,8% das pessoas sofreram perdas na faixa de 201-300 $ anualmente. Entre todas as culturas, o milho (Zea mays) foi considerado a cultura mais danificada, variando entre 1-300 kg anualmente. Na área de estudo, o porco-espinho também causou muitos danos a alguns vegetais importantes, incluindo espinafre (Spinacia oleracea), batata (Solanum tuberosum) e cebola (Allium cepa). Estimou-se que, em média, 511 kg de vegetais são destruídos pelo porco-espinho todos os anos nas terras agrícolas de Muzaffarabad. Concluiu-se que o porco-espinho de crista indiano tem um efeito devastador na agricultura, que é importante fonte de renda e alimento para a comunidade local. O desenvolvimento de uma estratégia eficaz de controle de pragas com a ajuda do governo local e do Departamento de Vida Selvagem pode ajudar os agricultores a superar esse problema.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Porcos-Espinhos , Paquistão , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Animais Selvagens
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248493, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339399

RESUMO

Abstract Parasites of veterinary importance have been heavily focused on domesticated livestock that was introduced into the neo-tropics. The text used in the teaching parasitology to veterinary students in Trinidad has only investigated the parasites of domesticated species. In the reviewed veterinary parasitology text no mention was made on the parasites that affect wild neo-tropical animals. Information on wild neo-tropical animals had to be sourced from texts on the management of wild life animals in the Neotropics. The texts that were reviewed in this document spanned from the mid-1950s to 2020. The information presented in this review reveals the exhaustive work done on the parasites of domesticated species but also revealed little information on neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. In conclusion, this review reveals the gap of information that is missing from parasitology texts used in the teaching of veterinary students. In the future these parasitology texts can be revised to include chapters on the parasites of neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication. At present students that graduate from the veterinary parasitology course has little information on the parasites of animals which are present in their 'backyards'.


Resumo Parasitas de importância veterinária têm se concentrado fortemente em animais domésticos que foram introduzidos na região neotrópica. O texto usado no ensino de parasitologia para estudantes de veterinária em Trinidad investigou apenas os parasitas de espécies domesticadas. No texto de parasitologia veterinária revisado, nenhuma menção foi feita sobre os parasitas que afetam os animais selvagens neotropicais. As informações sobre animais selvagens neotropicais tiveram que ser obtidas a partir de textos sobre o manejo de animais selvagens nos Neotrópicos. Os textos revisados neste documento vão de meados da década de 1950 até 2020. As informações apresentadas nesta revisão revelam o trabalho exaustivo realizado sobre os parasitas de espécies domesticadas, mas também revelaram poucas informações sobre animais neotropicais com potencial para domesticação. Em conclusão, esta revisão revela a lacuna de informação que existe nos textos de parasitologia utilizados no ensino de estudantes de veterinária. No futuro, esses textos de parasitologia podem ser revisados ​​para incluir capítulos sobre os parasitas de animais neotropicais com potencial para domesticação. Atualmente, os alunos que se formam no curso de parasitologia veterinária têm poucas informações sobre os parasitas de animais que estão presentes em seus "quintais".


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Educação em Veterinária , Animais Selvagens , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária , Estudantes , Trinidad e Tobago , Universidades
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247915, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339396

RESUMO

Abstract Wildlife trade is a profitable economic activity. Birds are among the most heavily traded animals worldwide, with numerous species threatened by pet trade. The present case study was stretched for period of one year to find out the status of wild birds' trade in Bannu and Dera Ismael Khan Divisions. The study was aimed to find out the types of species, commercial prices of bird, trade routes, overall income generated from birds' trade and the status of dealers whether licensed or not. Bimonthly visits were conducted to interview 52 bird dealers/pet shops owners/venders (23 in Dera Ismael Khan and 29 in Bannu). A sum of 16 conceivable sites were visited during the study period. Out of these, 8 sites were located in Dera Ismael Khan and 8 sites in Bannu Division. The highest priced species was Demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) and the lowest priced species was house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Total number of species traded in both regions were 8 and 14 while the income generated by bird trade was amounting to PkR 1,322,200 and 7,128,950 in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. Majority of the birds were trapped locally with the exception of few from adjacent areas. Commercial activity led by illegal bird traders was found 75% and 100% species in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. There was no significant difference between prices of birds, number of species sold and income generated by bird trade in two divisions.


Resumo O comércio de animais selvagens é uma atividade econômica lucrativa. Os pássaros estão entre os animais mais comercializados em todo o mundo, com inúmeras espécies ameaçadas pelo comércio de animais de estimação. O presente estudo de caso foi estendido por um período de um ano para descobrir a situação do comércio de aves selvagens nas Divisões Bannu e Dera Ismael Khan. O estudo teve como objetivo descobrir os tipos de espécies, os preços comerciais das aves, as rotas comerciais, a receita geral gerada pelo comércio de aves e o status dos negociantes, licenciados ou não. Visitas bimestrais foram realizadas para entrevistar 52 comerciantes de pássaros / proprietários / vendedores de pet shops (23 em Dera Ismael Khan e 29 em Bannu). Uma soma de 16 locais concebíveis foram visitados durante o período de estudo. Destes, 8 sites estavam localizados em Dera Ismael Khan e 8 sites na Divisão Bannu. A espécie com preço mais alto foi o guindaste Demoiselle (Grus virgo) e a espécie com preço mais baixo foi o pardal (Passer domesticus). O número total de espécies comercializadas em ambas as regiões foi de 8 e 14, enquanto a receita gerada pelo comércio de aves foi de PkR 1.322.200 e 7.128.950 em Dera Ismael Khan e Bannu, respectivamente. A maioria das aves foi capturada localmente, com exceção de algumas das áreas adjacentes. A atividade comercial liderada por comerciantes ilegais de aves foi encontrada com 75% e 100% de espécies em Dera Ismael Khan e Bannu, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre os preços das aves, o número de espécies vendidas e a receita gerada pelo comércio de aves nas duas divisões.


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Animais Selvagens , Paquistão
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246887, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285630

RESUMO

Abstract The current study was carried out to estimate the prevalence and diversity of ectoparasites in rock pigeons in different regions of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 120 birds were captured from March 2017 to February 2019. The ectoparasites were collected by standard procedures and preserved in 70% ethanol containing one drop of glycerin. Data related to age, health status, sex, type of area, sampling location and season were collected using a standardized form. Ectoparasites were identified based on morphological characteristics by using identification keys. Ninety-six (80%) birds were infested with ectoparasites. A total of seven families and thirteen species of different ectoparasites were observed. Mainly, seven species of lice, two species of flies, one species of tick and three species of mites were recovered from infested birds. The female pigeons were more often infested (89.02%) than male pigeons (60.52%). The prevalence was found higher during summer (100%) as compared to other seasons. The infestation rate was higher in Industrial area (97.50%) as compared to other regions. The highest prevalence of ectoparasites (100%) was recorded from Sargodha district. There was significant (P < 0.05) variation among number of ectoparasites on wing, chest, tail and neck within age groups, seasons and ecological zones. The occurrence of parasites in relation to area, age, health status, sex and season were significant. The infestation rate of parasites in rock pigeon is high in different districts of Punjab. It is recommended that these wild birds infested with multiple species of ectoparasites could be the potential source of infestations in domesticated birds if they come in contact with them. The contact of domesticated birds should be prevented from wild birds to minimize the chance of cross species transmission of ectoparasites.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para estimar a prevalência e diversidade de ectoparasitas em pombos-das-rochas em diferentes regiões de Punjab, Paquistão. Um total de 120 aves foram capturadas de março de 2017 a fevereiro de 2019. Os ectoparasitas foram coletados por procedimentos padrão e preservados em etanol 70% contendo uma gota de glicerina. Os dados relativos à idade, estado de saúde, sexo, tipo de área, local de amostragem e época do ano foram coletados em formulário padronizado. Os ectoparasitas foram identificados com base nas características morfológicas por meio de chaves de identificação. Noventa e seis (80%) aves estavam infestadas com ectoparasitas. Um total de sete famílias e treze espécies de diferentes ectoparasitas foram observados. Principalmente, sete espécies de piolhos, duas espécies de moscas, uma espécie de carrapato e três espécies de ácaros foram recuperadas de aves infestadas. Os pombos fêmeas foram infestados mais frequentemente (89,02%) do que os pombos machos (60,52%). A prevalência encontrada foi maior no verão (100%) em comparação com as outras estações. A taxa de infestação foi maior na área Industrial (97,50%) em relação às demais regiões. A maior prevalência de ectoparasitas (100%) foi registrada no distrito de Sargodha. Houve variação significativa (P <0,05) entre o número de ectoparasitas na asa, tórax, cauda e pescoço dentro das faixas etárias, estações do ano e zonas ecológicas. A ocorrência de parasitas em relação à área, idade, estado de saúde, sexo e estação do ano foi significativa. A taxa de infestação de parasitas em pombo-correio é alta em diferentes distritos de Punjab. Recomenda-se que essas aves selvagens infestadas com várias espécies de ectoparasitas possam ser a fonte potencial de infestações em aves domesticadas se entrarem em contato com elas. O contato de aves domesticadas deve ser evitado com aves selvagens para minimizar a chance de transmissão cruzada de ectoparasitas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Parasitos , Columbidae , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Animais Selvagens
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245867, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285615

RESUMO

Abstract Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Resumo Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , Paquistão , Cabras , Animais Selvagens
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e241164, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278551

RESUMO

Abstract Behavior is a useful trait for comparative studies that provide the comprehension of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we present a description of two spiny-rats species' behavioral repertoire, Clyomys laticeps and Trinomys setosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae). The affiliative and agonistic behavioral patterns were sampled during a three-year study of captive populations of wild animals. Observational data were collected in two phases under different arrangements of individuals in groups. We also compare the behavioral traits of T. setosus and C. laticeps with the known behavioral patterns of Trinomys yonenagae. We add categories to the previous descriptions of T. setosus and a standard ethogram for C. laticeps. Trinomys setosus showed a visual and vocal display we called foot-trembling, which was not described in this form and function for other species studied until now. We discuss the differences in their sociality levels and similarities and differences among behavior patterns and repertoires.


Resumo O comportamento é uma característica útil para estudos comparativos que fornecem a compreensão das relações filogenéticas entre as espécies. Apresentamos aqui uma descrição do repertório comportamental de duas espécies de ratos-de-espinho Clyomys laticeps and Trinomys setosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae). Os padrões comportamentais afiliativos e agonísticos foram amostrados durante um estudo de três anos em populações de animais silvestres em cativeiro. Os dados foram coletados em duas fases sob diferentes arranjos de indivíduos em grupos sociais. Comparamos as características comportamentais de T. setosus e C. laticeps com as da espécie mais conhecida, T. yonenagae. Adicionamos categorias às descrições anteriores de T. setosus, e um etograma padrão para C. laticeps. Trinomys setosus mostrou uma exibição visual e vocal que chamamos de saltitar, que não foi descrito nesta forma e função para outras espécies do gênero estudado até agora. Discutimos diferenças nos níveis de socialidade e similaridades e diferenças entre os padrões comportamentais e repertórios.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Roedores , Comportamento Social , Filogenia , Brasil , Animais Selvagens
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(9): e1010770, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107982

RESUMO

Babesia are tick-borne protozoan parasites that can infect livestock, pets, wildlife animals, and humans. In the mammalian host, they invade and multiply within red blood cells (RBCs). To support their development as obligate intracellular parasites, Babesia export numerous proteins to modify the RBC during invasion and development. Such exported proteins are likely important for parasite survival and pathogenicity and thus represent candidate drug or vaccine targets. The availability of complete genome sequences and the establishment of transfection systems for several Babesia species have aided the identification and functional characterization of exported proteins. Here, we review exported Babesia proteins; discuss their functions in the context of immune evasion, cytoadhesion, and nutrient uptake; and highlight possible future topics for research and application in this field.


Assuntos
Babesia , Carrapatos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Babesia/genética , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Humanos , Mamíferos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1982): 20221011, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100029

RESUMO

The pet trade and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) consumption are major drivers of global biodiversity loss. Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) are among the most traded reptile species worldwide. In Hong Kong, pet and TCM markets sell tokay geckos while wild populations also persist. To clarify connections between trade sources and destinations, we compared genetics and stable isotopes of wild tokays in local and non-local populations to dried individuals from TCM markets across Hong Kong. We found that TCM tokays are likely not of local origin. Most wild tokays were related to individuals in South China, indicating a probable natural origin. However, two populations contained individuals more similar to distant populations, indicating pet trade origins. Our results highlight the complexity of wildlife trade impacts within trade hubs. Such trade dynamics complicate local legal regulation when endangered species are protected, but the same species might also be non-native and possibly damaging to the environment.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Lagartos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 306, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112255

RESUMO

Tick and tick-borne pathogens constitute a growing veterinary and public health concern around the world. Ticks are considered natural reservoirs for tick-borne related pathogens and are equally responsible for the spread of infections in animals as well as humans. In this study, the presence of Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was investigated in hard ticks collected from reptiles, birds, and wild mammalian animals. The sample collection was carried out between December 2020 and September 2021. Adult ticks (male and female) were collected from wild animals in six districts of southern Benin. Molecular analysis was used to verify the presence of pathogens in all the ticks collected from wild animals. A total of 504 ticks were collected and grouped into 115 different tick pools. The PCR analysis detected 19 out of 115 tick pools which turn out positive for Rickettsia spp. and 9/115 tick pools positive for Bartonella spp., while Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was not detected in any tick. Several of the tick species collected from our studied reptiles/wild mammalian animals could be potential sources of zoonotic pathogens when subjected to further investigation. Therefore, stringent attention should be established for tick infestation of reptiles/wild mammalian animals in order to put in place proper control and prevention measures for tick-borne diseases in the wild, which could serve as reservoirs in the infestation of domestic animals/humans in the event of any possible contact.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Bartonella , Ixodidae , Rickettsia , Carrapatos , África Ocidental , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bartonella/genética , Benin/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mamíferos , Rickettsia/genética
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1982): 20221080, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100013

RESUMO

The ecology and life history of wild animals influences their potential to harbour infectious disease. This observation has motivated studies identifying empirical relationships between traits of wild animals and historical patterns of spillover and emergence into humans. Although these studies have identified compelling broad-scale patterns, they are generally agnostic with respect to underlying mechanisms. Here, we develop mathematical models that couple reservoir population ecology with viral epidemiology and evolution to clarify existing verbal arguments and pinpoint the conditions that favour spillover and emergence. Our results support the idea that average lifespan influences the likelihood of an animal serving as a reservoir for human infectious disease. At the same time, however, our results show that the magnitude of this effect is sensitive to the rate of viral mutation. Our results also demonstrate that viral pathogens causing persistent infections or a transient immune response within the reservoir are more likely to fuel emergence. Genetically explicit stochastic simulations enrich these mathematical results by identifying relationships between the genetic basis of transmission and the risk of spillover and emergence. Together, our results clarify the scope of applicability for existing hypotheses and refine our understanding of emergence risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Ecologia , Humanos
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 965454, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36059479

RESUMO

Ducks and wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses. However, the host proteome response that causes disease in vivo by the H5N1 HPAI virus is still unclear. This study presented a comprehensive analysis of the proteome response in Muscovy duck lung tissue during 3 days of infection with either a highly virulent DK383 or an avirulent DK212. An unbiased strategy- isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) in conjunction with high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was utilized to investigate the infection mechanism. Pathways derived from analysis of 292 significantly altered proteins may contribute to the high pathogenic nature and disease progression of H5N1 viruses. Global proteome profiles indicated improved correlation with the virus titers and gene expression patterns between the two strains of the H5N1 virus. DK383 replicated more efficiently and induced a stronger response specific to severe disease. While proteins involved in the immune response of neutrophils were increased markedly by DK383, DK212 evoked a distinct response characterized by an increase in proteins involved in the maturation of dendritic cells, adhesion of phagocytes, and immune response of macrophages. The differentially activated Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway might involve in the host response to H5N1 viruses. Therefore, systematically integrated with datasets from primary genomic and virus titer results, proteomic analyses may help reveal the potential pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aves , Patos , Proteoma , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Curr Biol ; 32(17): R910-R911, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099892

RESUMO

Foraging innovations can give wild animals access to human-derived food sources1. If these innovations spread, they can enable adaptive flexibility2 but also lead to human-wildlife conflicts3. Examples include crop-raiding elephants4 and long-tailed macaques that steal items from people to trade them back for food5. Behavioural responses by humans might act as a further driver on animal innovation2,6, even potentially leading to an inter-species 'innovation arms-race'7, yet this is almost entirely unexplored. Here, we report a potential case in wild, urban-living, sulphur-crested cockatoos (Cacatua galerita; henceforth cockatoos), where the socially-learnt behaviour of opening and raiding of household bins by cockatoos8 is met with increasingly effective and socially-learnt bin-protection measures by human residents.


Assuntos
Cacatuas , Elefantes , Papagaios , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Humanos , Pesquisa
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15090, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064859

RESUMO

Applying contemporary trapping standards when managing wildlife should no longer be an option, but a duty. Increasing wild boar populations originate a growing number of conflicts and hunting is the only cost-effective management option in most cases. However, new scenarios where hunting is unfeasible emerge and trapping necessities cope with lacking regulatory frameworks and technical guidelines. In this research, we evaluated drop nets, a capture method not considered by the international trapping standards, to capture Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), a wildlife species not included in the list of mammal species under the scope of the Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards (AIHTS). Less than 20% of the captured wild boars presented moderate or severe injuries attributable to the capture method, hence fulfilling the acceptance thresholds of the outdated AIHTS. Based on the new standards thresholds of acceptance, the humaneness of drop-nets in our study ranged 66-78%, under the 85% required. The capture success and selectivity were 100%, as ensured by operator-driven triggering, which should be considered the main strengths of this method, together with the minimization of animal suffering owing the short duration of the stressful situation. Additionally, in spite of the socially adverse environment, with people contrary to wild boar removal, no disturbances against the capture system or operations occurred. This is the first assessment of a drop-net capture method according to internationally accepted mammal trapping standards, with unconclusive results. However, there is a need for adapted procedures and thresholds of acceptance aimed at not-mechanical traps in general, and specifically at drop-nets. Compared to other live-capture methods, drop-nets minimize the duration of the stressful situation -at the expense of a strong adrenergic acute response-, maximize the probabilities of capturing entire sounders of prosocial species, which may be also considered as more humane, and has the ability to coordinate higher values of capture success, absolute selectivity and adaptability to difficult environments.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/lesões , Humanos , Espanha , Sus scrofa/lesões , Suínos , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077512

RESUMO

Understanding the dopaminergic system is a priority in neurobiology and neuropharmacology. Dopamine receptors are involved in the modulation of fundamental physiological functions, and dysregulation of dopaminergic transmission is associated with major neurological disorders. However, the available tools to dissect the endogenous dopaminergic circuits have limited specificity, reversibility, resolution, or require genetic manipulation. Here, we introduce azodopa, a novel photoswitchable ligand that enables reversible spatiotemporal control of dopaminergic transmission. We demonstrate that azodopa activates D1-like receptors in vitro in a light-dependent manner. Moreover, it enables reversibly photocontrolling zebrafish motility on a timescale of seconds and allows separating the retinal component of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Azodopa increases the overall neural activity in the cortex of anesthetized mice and displays illumination-dependent activity in individual cells. Azodopa is the first photoswitchable dopamine agonist with demonstrated efficacy in wild-type animals and opens the way to remotely controlling dopaminergic neurotransmission for fundamental and therapeutic purposes.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Dopamina , Ligantes , Camundongos , Transmissão Sináptica
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15055, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064956

RESUMO

The influence of supplementary feeding of wildlife on disease transmission and its consequent impacts on population dynamics are underappreciated. In Great Britain, supplementary feeding is hypothesised to have enabled the spread of the protozoan parasite, Trichomonas gallinae, from columbids to finches, leading to epidemic finch trichomonosis and a rapid population decline of greenfinch (Chloris chloris). More recently, chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), has also declined markedly from the second to fifth commonest bird in Britain. Using citizen science data, we show that both declines were driven primarily by reduced adult survival, with the greatest reductions occurring in peri-domestic habitats, where supplementary food provision is common. Post-mortem examinations showed a proportional increase in chaffinch trichomonosis cases, near-contemporaneous with its population decline. Like greenfinches, chaffinches often use supplementary food, but are less associated with human habitation. Our results support the hypothesis that supplementary feeding can increase parasite transmission frequency within and between common species. However, the dynamics behind resultant population change can vary markedly, highlighting the need for integrating disease surveillance with demographic monitoring. Other species susceptible to T. gallinae infection may also be at risk. Supplementary feeding guidelines for wildlife should include disease mitigation strategies to ensure that benefits to target species outweigh risks.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Tentilhões , Tricomoníase , Trichomonas , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Tentilhões/parasitologia , Humanos , Tricomoníase/parasitologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 2612716, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072352

RESUMO

We conducted a review of 26 articles published between 2009 and 2021 to determine human-wildlife conflict based on spatial and temporal patterns, biological components, drivers of conflict, and mitigation methods used. We employed search, synthesis, appraisal, and analysis framework for review and VOSviewer software for network analysis. We included articles that only focused on relations between terrestrial wildlife and humans, while others deal with ecology, distribution, and biology of wildlife because it does not go with HWC. Forty-seven species of terrestrial vertebrates were reported in conflict-related studies, being Bovidae and Cercopithecidae the most frequently studied groups, of which eleven are found in threatened list species. The main drivers reported were land use change, proximity to protected areas, and illegal resource exploitation. In the management case, the use of traditional protection techniques such as fencing, guarding, and physical barriers was reported. About 178 keywords' analysis revealed a focus on "coexistence," "mitigation," and "food security." The literature focused mainly on larger mammals, led by Ethiopian authors, and excluded the social dimensions of HWC. Therefore, identifying conflict-prone species focuses on the social dimensions of coexistence, such as human attitudes towards terrestrial wildlife, and broadening the taxonomic and cultural breadth of HWC is required.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Etiópia , Humanos , Mamíferos
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