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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 259: 109136, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214906

RESUMO

The genus Helicobacter includes spiral-shaped bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria, class Epsilonproteobacteria, order Campylobacteriales, that have been associated with disease in animals, including reptiles. Three wild gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) index cases presented between 2012 and 2019 with nasal discharge, lethargy, and weight loss. Cytological examination of nasal discharge from all 3 tortoises identified marked heterophilic and mild histiocytic rhinitis with abundant extracellular and phagocytized spiral shaped bacteria that stained positive with Warthin-Starry stain. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed this to be a novel Helicobacter species. Two tortoises died despite treatment attempts, and the third was moribund and was euthanized. Histological examination of the nasal mucosa (n = 3) showed granulocytic to lymphocytic rhinitis with variable mucosal hyperplasia, erosion, and ulceration; Warthin-Starry staining highlighted the presence of spiral bacteria in the untreated tortoise. Genus-specific primers were designed, and the gyrA and groEL genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis shows that this organism and other previously characterized Helicobacter from tortoises form a clade. Development and cross-validation of two qPCR diagnostic assays for the gyrA and groEL genes showed significant correlation of the results of two assays (P < 0.0001). These assays were used to survey nasal wash samples from 31 rehabilitating gopher tortoises. Mortality of tortoises significantly correlated with higher Helicobacter loads detected by qPCR (P = 0.028). Appropriate quarantine protocols for tortoises during rehabilitation should consider this organism. Upper respiratory disease in tortoises may involve complex microbial ecology; factors beyond Mycoplasmopsis (Mycoplasma) agassizii should be taken into account.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Helicobacter/genética , Helicobacter/patogenicidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Tartarugas/microbiologia , Animais , Primers do DNA/genética , Feminino , Mucosa Nasal , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280084

RESUMO

Four mesophilic and Gram-stain-positive strains (zg-686T/zg-691 and HY186T/HY189) isolated from Tibetan Plateau wildlife (PR China) belong to the genus Gordonia according to 16S rRNA gene and genomic sequence-based phylogenetic/genomic results. They have a DNA G+C content range of 67.4-68.3 mol% and low DNA relatedness (19.2-27.6 %) with all available genomes in the genus Gordonia. Strains zg-686T/zg-691 and HY186T/HY189 had C18 : 1ω9c, C18 : 0 10-methyl, C16 : 1 ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C16 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids. The polar lipids detected in strains zg-686T and HY186T included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidyl inositol mannoside and phosphatidylinositol. The respiratory quinones comprised MK8(H2) (10.8 %) and MK9(H2) (89.2 %) for strain zg-686T, and MK6 (7.7 %), MK8(H2) (8.4 %), MK8(H4) (3.1 %) and MK9(H2) (80.8 %) for strain HY186T. Optimal growth conditions were pH 7.0, 35-37 °C and 0.5-1.5 % NaCl (w/v) for strains pair zg-686T/zg-691, and pH 7.0, 28 °C and 1.5 % (w/v) NaCl for strains pair HY186T/HY189. Based on these genotypic and phenotypic results, these four strains could be classified as two different novel species in the genus Gordonia, for which the names Gordonia jinghuaiqii sp. nov. and Gordonia zhaorongruii sp. nov. are proposed. The type strains are zg-686T (=GDMCC 1.1715T =JCM 33890T) and HY186T (=CGMCC 4.7607T =JCM 33466T), respectively.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactéria Gordonia/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Bactéria Gordonia/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tibet , Vitamina K 2/química
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 328, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved knowledge on vector-borne pathogens in wildlife will help determine their effect on host species at the population and individual level and whether these are affected by anthropogenic factors such as global climate change and landscape changes. Here, samples from brown hyenas (Parahyaena brunnea) from Namibia (BHNA) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) from Namibia (SHNA) and Tanzania (SHTZ) were screened for vector-borne pathogens to assess the frequency and genetic diversity of pathogens and the effect of ecological conditions and host taxonomy on this diversity. METHODS: Tissue samples from BHNA (n = 17), SHNA (n = 19) and SHTZ (n = 25) were analysed by PCRs targeting Anaplasmataceae, Rickettsia spp., piroplasms, specifically Babesia lengau-like piroplasms, Hepatozoidae and filarioids. After sequencing, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The relative frequency of Anaplasmataceae was significantly higher in BHNA (82.4%) and SHNA (100.0%) than in SHTZ (32.0%). Only Anaplasma phagocytophilum/platys-like and Anaplasma bovis-like sequences were detected. Rickettsia raoultii was found in one BHNA and three SHTZ. This is the first report of R. raoultii from sub-Saharan Africa. Babesia lengau-like piroplasms were found in 70.6% of BHNA, 88.9% of SHNA and 32.0% of SHTZ, showing higher sequence diversity than B. lengau from South African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). In one SHTZ, a Babesia vogeli-like sequence was identified. Hepatozoon felis-like parasites were identified in 64.7% of BHNA, 36.8% of SHNA and 44.0% of SHTZ. Phylogenetic analysis placed the sequences outside the major H. felis cluster originating from wild and domestic felids. Filarioids were detected in 47.1% of BHNA, 47.4% of SHNA and 36.0% of SHTZ. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high genetic diversity and suggested the presence of several undescribed species. Co-infections were frequently detected in SHNA and BHNA (BHNA median 3 pathogens, range 1-4; SHNA median 3 pathogens, range 2-4) and significantly rarer in SHTZ (median 1, range 0-4, 9 individuals uninfected). CONCLUSIONS: The frequencies of all pathogens groups were high, and except for Rickettsia, multiple species and genotypes were identified for each pathogen group. Ecological conditions explained pathogen identity and diversity better than host taxonomy.


Assuntos
Hyaenidae/microbiologia , Hyaenidae/parasitologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Anaplasmataceae/classificação , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Anaplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/genética , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , Coccídios/classificação , Coccídios/genética , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Variação Genética , Hyaenidae/classificação , Namíbia , Filogenia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Tanzânia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia
4.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1831): 20200228, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176326

RESUMO

The goal of achieving enhanced diagnosis and continuous monitoring of human health has led to a vibrant, dynamic and well-funded field of research in medical sensing and biosensor technologies. The field has many sub-disciplines which focus on different aspects of sensor science; engaging engineers, chemists, biochemists and clinicians, often in interdisciplinary teams. The trends which dominate include the efforts to develop effective point of care tests and implantable/wearable technologies for early diagnosis and continuous monitoring. This review will outline the current state of the art in a number of relevant fields, including device engineering, chemistry, nanoscience and biomolecular detection, and suggest how these advances might be employed to develop effective systems for measuring physiology, detecting infection and monitoring biomarker status in wild animals. Special consideration is also given to the emerging threat of antimicrobial resistance and in the light of the current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, zoonotic infections. Both of these areas involve significant crossover between animal and human health and are therefore well placed to seed technological developments with applicability to both human and animal health and, more generally, the reviewed technologies have significant potential to find use in the measurement of physiology in wild animals. This article is part of the theme issue 'Measuring physiology in free-living animals (Part II)'.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Infecção por Zika virus/veterinária , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Engenharia Celular/métodos , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Testes Imediatos , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico
5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 800, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172822

RESUMO

In the Anthropocene, humans, domesticated animals, wildlife, and their environments are interconnected, especially as humans advance further into wildlife habitats. Wildlife gut microbiomes play a vital role in host health. Changes to wildlife gut microbiomes due to anthropogenic disturbances, such as habitat fragmentation, can disrupt natural gut microbiota homeostasis and make animals vulnerable to infections that may become zoonotic. However, it remains unclear whether the disruption to wildlife gut microbiomes is caused by habitat fragmentation per se or the combination of habitat fragmentation with additional anthropogenic disturbances, such as contact with humans, domesticated animals, invasive species, and their pathogens. Here, we show that habitat fragmentation per se does not impact the gut microbiome of a generalist rodent species native to Central America, Tome's spiny rat Proechimys semispinosus, but additional anthropogenic disturbances do. Indeed, compared to protected continuous and fragmented forest landscapes that are largely untouched by other human activities, the gut microbiomes of spiny rats inhabiting human-disturbed fragmented landscapes revealed a reduced alpha diversity and a shifted and more dispersed beta diversity. Their microbiomes contained more taxa associated with domesticated animals and their potential pathogens, suggesting a shift in potential metagenome functions. On the one hand, the compositional shift could indicate a degree of gut microbial adaption known as metagenomic plasticity. On the other hand, the greater variation in community structure and reduced alpha diversity may signal a decline in beneficial microbial functions and illustrate that gut adaption may not catch up with anthropogenic disturbances, even in a generalist species with large phenotypic plasticity, with potentially harmful consequences to both wildlife and human health.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Metagenoma , Microbiota
6.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101752, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134063

RESUMO

Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis are members of the Anaplasmataceae family that cause disease in dogs and are mainly transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus species group ticks. We performed a cross-sectional study on these pathogens across six bioclimatic regions of Chile, including 719 free-ranging rural dogs, 132 Andean foxes (Lycalopex culpaeus), and 82 South American gray foxes (Lycalopex griseus). Dog and fox blood samples were first screened for DNA of Anaplasmataceae followed by two Ehrlichia-specific protocols. Antibodies against Anaplasma sp. and E. canis were assessed by immunofluorescence in dogs. Ectoparasites were collected and identified, with the determination of the lineages of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus species group by molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Finally, potential risk factors for infection were investigated across the different bioclimatic regions and host species. All DNA amplicons obtained from the screening protocol corresponded to Anaplasma platys. The occurrence of both A. platys DNA and antibodies was confirmed in all six bioclimatic regions, except for regions at high altitude and/or without either R. sanguineus species group lineage present. Dogs infested with R. sanguineus ticks were significantly more prone to be infected and exposed to Anaplasma spp. Prevalence of DNA was significantly higher in juvenile (19%) than in adult dogs (9%), whereas the opposite was found for seroprevalence (19% versus 35%, respectively). Overall prevalence of A. platys DNA was higher in dogs (11%) than in foxes (4%), probably owing to markedly lower tick infestations in the foxes. Ehrlichia canis DNA was not detected in any sample, and antibodies against this pathogen were detected only in four dogs, in areas with both R. sanguineus lineages present. Free-ranging dogs in Chile could be favoring the maintenance of A. platys in all areas suitable for its tick vector. Although apparently infrequent, spillovers from dogs to foxes may be taking place and should be considered in management plans in Chile.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae , Carnívoros/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Rickettsiaceae/veterinária , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Anaplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/genética , Ehrlichia canis/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Raposas/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsiaceae/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
7.
Med Mycol ; 59(9): 934-938, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998652

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi, an important microsporidian fungus, causes chronic diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. Out of the 502 fecal samples from wild boars, 13 were positive for the E. bieneusi internal transcribed spacer region, with a prevalence of 2.6%. Six E. bieneusi genotypes, D, EbpC, and four novel KWB1-KWB4, were identified with zoonotic potential. Genotypes D (subgroup 1a) and EbpC (subgroup 1d) were first reported in Korean swine and Korea, respectively; KWB1-KWB4 (subgroup 1e) were most prevalent in this study. Because zoonotic genotypes have been identified, E. bieneusi transmission through wild boars must be closely monitored for proper prevention and treatment, despite their low prevalence. LAY SUMMARY: Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an important microsporidian fungus. Its sequences from wild boars were identified with zoonotic potential. Genotypes D and EbpC were first reported in Korean swine and Korea, respectively. E. bieneusi should be closely monitored to properly prevent and treat animals.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Geografia , Masculino , Microsporidiose/genética , Filogenia , Prevalência , República da Coreia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249987, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886632

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the pathogenic Leptospira spp. Canine and human leptospirosis sometimes occur on Amami Oshima Island, located in the Nansei Archipelago, southwestern Japan; however, information on the causative Leptospira spp. on this island is quite limited. This study aimed to investigate the molecular and serological characteristics of Leptospira spp. isolated from wild animals and a dog in Amami Oshima Island. We obtained seven Leptospira strains by culturing kidney tissues of wild animals, such as black rats (2), wild boars (3), and rabbit (1) as well as blood from a symptomatic dog. Using flaB sequencing and microscopic agglutination test with antisera for 18 serovars, the isolates were identified as Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroups Javanica (black rat), L. interrogans serogroup Australis (black rat and dog), and L. interrogans serogroup Hebdomadis (wild boar and rabbit). The sequence type (ST) of L. borgpetersenii serogroup Javanica was determined to be ST143 via multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using seven housekeeping genes. For L. interrogans, MLST and multiple-locus variable-tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) revealed identical ST and MLVA types in rat and canine isolates, whereas two STs and MLVA types were identified in wild boar isolates. The STs and MLVA types of rabbit and one of the wild boars were identical. Bacterial culture and flaB-nested polymerase chain reaction demonstrated a high rate of Leptospira infection in wild boars (58.3%, 7/12), whereas Leptospira spp. were detected in 4.8% of black rats (2/42). This study revealed diverse Leptospira genotype and serotype maintenance in wild mammals on Amami Oshima Island. MLST and MLVA indicated that black rats were a source of canine infection. Wild boars carry L. interrogans and are considered an important maintenance host because antibodies against serogroup Hebdomadis were detected in human and canine leptospirosis patients on this island.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Flagelina/genética , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Rim/microbiologia , Leptospira/genética , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Coelhos , Ratos , Sus scrofa
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 204, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously, twelve Rickettsia species were identified in ticks, fleas, sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus), bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) and a tick-bitten patient in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) in northwestern China. Here we aimed to molecularly detect rickettsial agents in red fox (Vulpes vulpes), marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna) and their ticks. METHODS: During 2018-2019, 12 red foxes, one marbled polecat and their ticks were sampled in two counties and a city of the XUAR. The heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney of these 13 carnivores were dissected, followed by DNA extraction. Hard ticks were identified both morphologically and molecularly. All samples were examined for the presence of rickettsiae by amplifying four genetic markers (17-kDa, gltA, ompA, sca1). RESULTS: A total of 26 adult ticks and 28 nymphs (38 Ixodes canisuga, nine Ixodes kaiseri, six Haemaphysalis erinacei and one Dermacentor marginatus) were collected from red foxes, and four Ha. erinacei ticks were removed from the marbled polecat. Analysis of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences indicated that 2-32 nucleotides differed between I. canisuga, I. kaiseri and Ha. erinacei from northwestern China and Europe. Rickettsia raoultii was detected in three red foxes, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in a red fox, Rickettsia sibirica in a red fox and a marbled polecat, and R. raoultii in two tick species (I. canisuga and D. marginatus). CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, I. canisuga and I. kaiseri have not been previously reported from red foxes in China. The DNA of R. sibirica and R. raoultii was detected for the first time in the organs of red foxes, and R. sibirica in the organs of a marbled polecat. This is also the first molecular evidence for the presence of R. raoultii in I. canisuga. Our findings expand the range of tick-borne pathogens in wildlife species and associated ticks in China.


Assuntos
Raposas/microbiologia , Mustelidae/microbiologia , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , China , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Filogenia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Carrapatos/classificação , Carrapatos/fisiologia
10.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103768, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875204

RESUMO

Game birds may carry zoonotic bacteria in their intestines and transmit them to hunters through bird handling or through the handling and consumption of contaminated meat. In this study, the prevalence of foodborne bacteria was screened from game bird faeces and mallard breast meat using PCR. The sampling occurred in southern Finland from August to December during the hunting season. Isolates were characterized by multi-locus sequence typing. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were used to assess the microbial contamination of mallard meat. In total, 100 woodpigeon (Columba palumbus), 101 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), 110 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and 30 teals (Anas crecca) were screened during the hunting season. Additionally, 100 mallard breast meat samples were collected. Campylobacter and Listeria were commonly detected in the faeces and Listeria on mallard meat. L. monocytogenes of sequence types associated with human listeriosis were frequently found in game bird faeces and on mallard meat. Good hygiene during game bird handling, storing the game bird meat frozen, and proper heat treatment are important measures to minimize the health risk for hunters and consumers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Zoonoses Bacterianas/microbiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Zoonoses Bacterianas/metabolismo , Zoonoses Bacterianas/transmissão , Aves/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Finlândia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/metabolismo , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 95, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a contagious zoonotic disease of great public health and economic significance especially in developing countries. The disease affects humans and several species of livestock and wildlife. Studies on Brucellosis in wildlife in Uganda have been limited to single populations particularly in Queen Elizabeth National Park. This study aimed at estimating the percentage of positive samples of Brucella spp. in wildlife in four major national parks of Uganda. This was a retrospective survey which utilized archived samples collected from wildlife during the annual disease surveillance activities between 2013 and 2017. RESULTS: A total of 241 samples from seven species namely African buffalo (Syncerus caffer, n = 109), African elephant (Loxodonta africana, n = 22), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi, n = 41), Uganda kob (Kobus kob thomasi, n = 36), lion (Panthera leo, n = 6), plain zebra (Equus quagga, n = 25), and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus, n = 2), were tested for antibodies using the Rose Bengal Plate Test. The overall percentage of positive samples in the four national parks was 31.1% (75/241; 95% CI: 25.6-37.2). Kidepo Valley National Park had a significantly higher percentage of positive samples of 55.9% (19/34; 95% CI: 39.5-71.1) compared to other sampled national parks (p < 0.05). Lions had significantly higher percentage of positive samples at 66.7% (4/6) than African buffalo at 48.6% (53/109, p < 0.0001). There were no antibodies for Brucella spp. detected in African elephant and bushbuck. CONCLUSION: This study shows variations in percentage of positive samples with Brucella spp. between species and across national parks and notably a high percentage with Brucella spp. in wildlife in Uganda than that recorded elsewhere in sub-Saharan region of Africa. Potential for transmission to other wildlife and spill over to livestock is high especially in national parks with high livestock-wildlife interaction.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Brucella/imunologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(11)2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741637

RESUMO

Borrelia persica, transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros tholozani, causes human tick-borne relapsing fever in the Middle East and Central Asia. Infection is acquired often when visiting tick-infested caves and reported to be transmitted mainly transovarially between ticks, occasionally infecting humans. To study the epidemiology of this infection, ticks were trapped in 24 caves in 12 geographic zones covering all of Israel and identified morphologically. DNA was extracted from larvae, nymphs, and adult stages from each location and PCR followed by DNA sequencing was performed to identify Borrelia infection, tick species, and tick blood meal sources. We collected 51,472 argasid ticks from 16 of 24 caves surveyed. We analyzed 2,774 O. tholozani ticks, and 72 (2.6%) from nine caves were PCR positive for B. persica Infection rates in male, female, and nymphal ticks (4.4%, 3%, and 3.2%, respectively) were higher than in larva (P < 0.001), with only 3 (0.04%) positive larvae. Presence of blood meal was associated with B. persica infection in ticks (P = 0.003), and blood meals of golden jackals, red foxes, and Cairo spiny mouse were associated with infection (P ≤ 0.043). PCR survey of 402 wild mammals revealed B. persica infection with the highest rates in social voles (22%), red foxes (16%), golden jackals (8%), and Cairo spiny mice (3%). In conclusion, although transovarial tick transmission of B. persica occurs at low levels, ticks apparently acquire infection mainly from wildlife canid and rodents and may eventually transmit relapsing fever borreliosis to humans who enter their habitat.IMPORTANCE Borrelia persica is a spirochete that causes tick-borne relapsing fever in humans in an area that spans from India to the Mediterranean. Until now, it was thought that the soft tick vector of this infection, Ornithodoros tholozani, is also its main reservoir and it transmits B. persica mostly transovarially between tick generations. This study showed that tick infection with B. persica is associated with feeding blood from wild jackals, foxes, and rodents and that transovarial transmission is minimal. Since O. tholozani ticks are found in isolated caves and ruins, it is assumed that wild canids who migrate over long distances have a major role in the transmission of B. persica between remote tick populations, and it is then maintained locally also by rodents and eventually transferred to humans during tick bites. Prevention of human infection could be achieved by restricting entrance of canines and humans to habitats with O. tholozani populations.


Assuntos
Zoonoses Bacterianas/transmissão , Borrelia/fisiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Ornithodoros/fisiologia , Febre Recorrente/transmissão , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Zoonoses Bacterianas/microbiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Cavernas/parasitologia , Dieta , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Israel , Masculino , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/fisiologia , Ornithodoros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ornithodoros/microbiologia , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia
13.
Science ; 372(6539)2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766942

RESUMO

Animals in the wild are able to subsist on pathogen-infected and poisonous food and show immunity to various diseases. These may be due to their microbiota, yet we have a poor understanding of animal microbial diversity and function. We used metagenomics to analyze the gut microbiota of more than 180 species in the wild, covering diverse classes, feeding behaviors, geographies, and traits. Using de novo metagenome assembly, we constructed and functionally annotated a database of more than 5000 genomes, comprising 1209 bacterial species of which 75% are unknown. The microbial composition, diversity, and functional content exhibit associations with animal taxonomy, diet, activity, social structure, and life span. We identify the gut microbiota of wild animals as a largely untapped resource for the discovery of therapeutics and biotechnology applications.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Genoma Bacteriano , Metagenoma , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Biodiversidade , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Dieta , Ecossistema , Ilhas Malvinas , Fezes/microbiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Israel , Madagáscar , Metagenômica , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Queensland , Uganda
14.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 21(5): 1410-1412, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559328

RESUMO

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are increasingly recognized as a threat to both biodiversity and human health (Scheele et al., 2019; Wells et al., 2020). But pathogens cannot been seen as unique entities; their intraspecific genetic variability represented in variants, strains, antigenic types or genetic lineages may cause different impacts at the population level (Nelson and Holmes, 2007; Greenspan et al., 2018). The global spread of pathogens has been largely facilitated by globalization of transport, which particularly intensified during the last century (O'Hanlon et al., 2018). As seen with SARS-CoV-2, air travel can rapidly spread a pathogen globally (Wells et al., 2020). Furthermore, after initial introduction subsequent translocations of a pathogen may cause the contact of different variants facilitating the rise of novel genotypes that may have higher pathogenicity or transmissibility (Nelson and Holmes, 2007; Greenspan et al., 2018). Chytridiomycosis is an EID caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), that infects amphibian skin causing population declines to extinction in susceptible species. Now a wildlife pandemic, Bd has been recognized as the single pathogen causing the greatest loss of biodiversity on Earth (Scheele et al., 2019). Recent advances in genetics have made novel tools for pathogen detection and characterization more accessible and reliable (Boyle et al., 2004; Byrne et al., 2019). In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Ghosh et al. (2021) report the development of a new genotyping qPCR assay targeting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Bd, and based on noninvasive swab samples (Figure 1), discriminate between the two most globally widespread and pathogenic genetic lineages of Bd. Having a better understanding of how the genetic diversity of a pathogen is distributed is crucial to understand their spread patterns and develop timely mitigation strategies.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Batrachochytrium/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Animais , Biodiversidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/terapia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533708

RESUMO

Ten strains, BG-AF3-AT, pH52_RY, WF-MT5-AT, BG-MG3-A, Lr3000T, RRLNB_1_1, STM3_1T, STM2_1, WF-MO7-1T and WF-MA3-C, were isolated from intestinal or faecal samples of rodents, pheasant and primate. 16S rRNA gene analysis identified them as Limosilactobacillus reuteri. However, average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values based on whole genomes were below 95 and 70 %, respectively, and thus below the threshold levels for bacterial species delineation. Based on genomic, chemotaxonomic and morphological analyses, we propose five novel species with the names Limosilactobacillus balticus sp. nov. (type strain BG-AF3-AT=DSM 110574T=LMG 31633T), Limosilactobacillus agrestis sp. nov. (type strain WF-MT5-AT=DSM 110569T=LMG 31629T), Limosilactobacillus albertensis sp. nov. (type strain Lr3000T=DSM 110573T=LMG 31632T), Limosilactobacillus rudii sp. nov. (type strain STM3_1T=DSM 110572T=LMG 31631T) and Limosilactobacillus fastidiosus sp. nov. (type strain WF-MO7-1T=DSM 110576T=LMG 31630T). Core genome phylogeny and experimental evidence of host adaptation of strains of L. reuteri further provide a strong rationale to consider a number of distinct lineages within this species as subspecies. Here we propose six subspecies of L. reuteri: L. reuteri subsp. kinnaridis subsp. nov. (type strain AP3T=DSM 110703T=LMG 31724T), L. reuteri subsp. porcinus subsp. nov. (type strain 3c6T=DSM 110571T=LMG 31635T), L. reuteri subsp. murium subsp. nov. (type strain lpuph1T=DSM 110570T=LMG 31634T), L. reuteri subsp. reuteri subsp. nov. (type strain F 275T=DSM 20016T=ATCC 23272T), L. reuteri subsp. suis subsp. nov. (type strain 1063T=ATCC 53608T=LMG 31752T) and L. reuteri subsp. rodentium subsp. nov. (type strain 100-23T=DSM 17509T=CIP 109821T).


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Lactobacillaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Galliformes/microbiologia , Lactobacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Primatas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Roedores/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 20, 2021 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The analysis of blow microbiota has been proposed as a biomarker for respiratory health analysis in cetaceans. Yet, we lack crucial knowledge on the long-term stability of the blow microbiota and its potential changes during disease. Research in humans and mice have provided evidence that respiratory disease is accompanied by a shift in microbial communities of the airways. We investigate here the stability of the community composition of the blow microbiota for 13 captive bottlenose dolphins over eight months including both sick and healthy individuals. We used barcoded tag sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Four of the dolphins experienced distinct medical conditions and received systemic antimicrobial treatment during the study. RESULTS: We showed that each dolphin harboured a unique community of zero-radius operational taxonomic units (zOTUs) that was present throughout the entire sampling period ('intra-core'). Although for most dolphins there was significant variation over time, overall the intra-core accounted for an average of 73% of relative abundance of the blow microbiota. In addition, the dolphins shared between 8 and 66 zOTUs on any of the sampling occasions ('inter-core'), accounting for a relative abundance between 17 and 41% of any dolphin's airway microbiota. The majority of the intra-core and all of the inter-core zOTUs in this study are commonly found in captive and free-ranging dolphins and have previously been reported from several different body sites. While we did not find a clear effect of microbial treatment on blow microbiota, age and sex of the dolphins did have such an effect. CONCLUSIONS: The airways of dolphins were colonized by an individual intra-core 'signature' that varied in abundance relative to more temporary bacteria. We speculate that the intra-core bacteria interact with the immune response of the respiratory tract and support its function. This study provides the first evidence of individual-specific airway microbiota in cetaceans that is stable over eight months.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais de Zoológico/classificação , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/classificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Manejo de Espécimes
17.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(3): 101659, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497885

RESUMO

Genetic diversity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum was assessed in specimens from 16 infected patients and 16 infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. A region immediately downstream of the 16S rRNA gene, which included the gene encoding SdhC, was sequenced. For the A. phagocytophilum strains from patients no sequence differences were detected in this region. In contrast, significantly fewer ticks had a sequence encoding SdhC that was identical to that of the human strains (11/16 vs. 16/16, p = 0.04). This variation is consistent with the premise that not all A. phagocytophilum strains present in nature are able to cause clinical illness in humans. A strain referred to as A. phagocytophilumVariant-1 that is regarded as non-pathogenic for humans was previously described using a different typing method. Data from the current study suggest that both typing methods are identifying the same non-pathogenic strains.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum/genética , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/patogenicidade , Variação Genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/classificação , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Sequência de Bases , Humanos , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
18.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246141, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508004

RESUMO

A novel five year Test and Vaccinate or Remove (TVR) wildlife research intervention project in badgers (Meles meles) commenced in 2014 in a 100km2 area of Northern Ireland. It aimed to increase the evidence base around badgers and bovine TB and help create well-informed and evidence-based strategies to address the issue of cattle-to-cattle spread and spread between cattle and badgers. It involved real-time trap-side testing of captured badgers and vaccinating those that tested negative for bTB (BadgerBCG-BCG Danish 1331) and removal of those that tested bTB positive using the Dual-Path Platform VetTB test (DPP) for cervids (Chembio Diagnostic Systems, Medford, NY USA). Four diagnostic tests were utilised within the study interferon gamma release assay (IGRA), culture (clinical samples and post mortem), DPP using both whole blood and DPP using serum. BCG Sofia (SL222) was used in the final two years because of supply issues with BadgerBCG. Objectives for this study were to evaluate the performance of the DPP in field conditions and whether any trend was apparent in infection prevalence over the study period. A Bayesian latent class model of diagnostic test evaluation in the absence of a gold standard was applied to the data. Temporal variation in the sensitivity of DPP and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) due to the impact of control measures was investigated using logistic regression and individual variability was assessed. Bayesian latent class analysis estimated DPP with serum to have a sensitivity of 0.58 (95% CrI: 0.40-0.76) and specificity of 0.97 (95% CrI: 0.95-0.98). The DPP with whole blood showed a higher sensitivity (0.69 (95% CrI: 0.48-0.88)) but similar specificity (0.98 (95% Crl: 0.96-0.99)). The change from BCG Danish to BCG Sofia significantly impacted on DPP serum test characteristics. In addition, there was weak evidence of increasing sensitivity of IGRA over time and differences in DPP test sensitivity between adults and cubs. An exponential decline model was an appropriate representation of the infection prevalence over the 5 years, with a starting prevalence of 14% (95% CrI: 0.10-0.20), and an annual reduction of 39.1% (95% CrI: 26.5-50.9). The resulting estimate of infection prevalence in year 5 of the study was 1.9% (95% CrI: 0.8-3.8). These results provide field evidence of a statistically significant reduction in badger TB prevalence supporting a TVR approach to badger intervention. They give confidence in the reliability and reproducibility in the DPP Whole Blood as a real time trap-side diagnostic test for badgers, and describe the effect of vaccination and reduced infection prevalence on test characteristics.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Modelos Biológicos , Mustelidae/microbiologia , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Bovina , Vacinação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose Bovina/transmissão
19.
mSphere ; 6(1)2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408222

RESUMO

Escherichia coli is a common bacterial species in the gastrointestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals and humans. Pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance in E. coli may emerge via host switching from animal reservoirs. Despite its potential clinical importance, knowledge of the population structure of commensal E. coli within wild hosts and the epidemiological links between E. coli in nonhuman hosts and E. coli in humans is still scarce. In this study, we analyzed the whole-genome sequencing data of a collection of 119 commensal E. coli strains recovered from the guts of 55 mammal and bird species in Mexico and Venezuela in the 1990s. We observed low concordance between the population structures of E. coli isolates colonizing wild animals and the phylogeny, taxonomy, and ecological and physiological attributes of the host species, with distantly related E. coli strains often colonizing the same or similar host species and distantly related host species often hosting closely related E. coli strains. We found no evidence for recent transmission of E. coli genomes from wild animals to either domesticated animals or humans. However, multiple livestock- and human-related virulence factor genes were present in E. coli of wild animals, including virulence factors characteristic of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), where several isolates from wild hosts harbored the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. Moreover, E. coli isolates from wild animal hosts often harbored known antibiotic resistance determinants, including those against ciprofloxacin, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and beta-lactams, with some determinants present in multiple, distantly related E. coli lineages colonizing very different host animals. We conclude that genome pools of E. coli colonizing the guts of wild animals and humans share virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, underscoring the idea that wild animals could serve as reservoirs for E. coli pathogenicity in human and livestock infections.IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli is a clinically important bacterial species implicated in human- and livestock-associated infections worldwide. The bacterium is known to reside in the guts of humans, livestock, and wild animals. Although wild animals are recognized as potential reservoirs for pathogenic E. coli strains, the knowledge of the population structure of E. coli in wild hosts is still scarce. In this study, we used fine resolution of whole-genome sequencing to provide novel insights into the evolution of E. coli genomes from a small yet diverse collection of strains recovered within a broad range of wild animal species (including mammals and birds), the coevolution of E. coli strains with their hosts, and the genetics of pathogenicity of E. coli strains in wild hosts in Mexico. Our results provide evidence for the clinical importance of wild animals as reservoirs for pathogenic strains and highlight the need to include nonhuman hosts in the surveillance programs for E. coli infections.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano , Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/transmissão , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Variação Genética , Genômica , Humanos , Mamíferos/microbiologia , México/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 766, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436896

RESUMO

Studies connecting microbiome composition and functional performance in wildlife have received little attention and understanding their connections with wildlife physical condition are sorely needed. We studied the variation in gut microbiota (hard fecal pellets) between allopatric subspecies of the European wild rabbit in wild populations and in captured individuals studied under captivity. We evaluated the influence of environmental and host-specific factors. The microbiome of wild rabbit populations reduced its heterogeneity under controlled conditions. None of the host-specific factors tested correlated with the microbiota composition. We only observed significant intra-group dispersion for the age factor. The most diverse microbiomes were rich in Ruminococcaceae potentially holding an enriched functional profile with dominance of cellulases and xylanases, and suggesting higher efficiency in the digestion of fiber-rich food. Conversely, low diversity gut microbiomes showed dominance of Enterobacteriaceae potentially rich in amylases. We preliminary noticed geographical variations in field populations with higher dominance of Ruminococcaceae in south-western than in north-eastern Spain. Spatial differences appeared not to be subspecies driven, since they were lost in captivity, but environmentally driven, although differences in social structure and behavior may also play a role that deserve further investigations. A marginally significant relationship between the Ruminococcaceae/Enterobacteriaceae ratio and potential life expectancy was observed in captive rabbits. We hypothesize that the gut microbiome may determine the efficiency of feeding resource exploitation, and can also be a potential proxy for life expectancy, with potential applications for the management of declining wild herbivorous populations. Such hypotheses remain to be explored in the future.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Coelhos/microbiologia , Animais , Fezes/microbiologia , Geografia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Espanha
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