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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241052, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091068

RESUMO

Traditional pathogen surveillance methods for white-nose syndrome (WNS), the most serious threat to hibernating North American bats, focus on fungal presence where large congregations of hibernating bats occur. However, in the western USA, WNS-susceptible bat species rarely assemble in large numbers and known winter roosts are uncommon features. WNS increases arousal frequency and activity of infected bats during hibernation. Our objective was to explore the effectiveness of acoustic monitoring as a surveillance tool for WNS. We propose a non-invasive approach to model pre-WNS baseline activity rates for comparison with future acoustic data after WNS is suspected to occur. We investigated relationships among bat activity, ambient temperatures, and season prior to presence of WNS across forested sites of Montana, USA where WNS was not known to occur. We used acoustic monitors to collect bat activity and ambient temperature data year-round on 41 sites, 2011-2019. We detected a diverse bat community across managed (n = 4) and unmanaged (n = 37) forest sites and recorded over 5.37 million passes from bats, including 13 identified species. Bats were active year-round, but positive associations between average of the nightly temperatures by month and bat activity were strongest in spring and fall. From these data, we developed site-specific prediction models for bat activity to account for seasonal and annual temperature variation prior to known occurrence of WNS. These prediction models can be used to monitor changes in bat activity that may signal potential presence of WNS, such as greater than expected activity in winter, or less than expected activity during summer. We propose this model-based method for future monitoring efforts that could be used to trigger targeted sampling of individual bats or hibernacula for WNS, in areas where traditional disease surveillance approaches are logistically difficult to implement or because of human-wildlife transmission concerns from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Acústica , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Ascomicetos , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Betacoronavirus , Quirópteros/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Florestas , Hibernação , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Montana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239060, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941511

RESUMO

Quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) are small macropodid marsupials from Western Australia, which are identified as of conservation concern. Studies on their blood analytes exist but involve small sample sizes and are associated with very little information concerning the health of the animals. Blood was collected from free-ranging quokkas from Rottnest Island (n = 113) and mainland (n = 37) Western Australia, between September 2010 and December 2011, to establish haematology and blood chemistry reference intervals. Differences in haematology and blood chemistry between sites (Rottnest Island v mainland) were significant for haematology (HMT, p = 0.003), blood chemistry (BLC, p = 0.001) and peripheral blood cell morphology (PBCM, p = 0.001). Except for alkaline phosphatase, all blood chemistry analytes were higher in mainland animals. There were also differences with time of year in HMT (p = 0.001), BLC (p = 0.001) and PBCM (p = 0.001) for Rottnest Island quokkas. A small sample of captive animals (n = 8) were opportunistically sampled for plasma concentrations of vitamin E and were found to be deficient compared with wild-caught animals. Fifty-eight of the 150 quokkas were also tested for the presence of Salmonella, microfilariae, Macropodid herpesvirus-6, Theileria spp., Babesia spp., trypanosomes, Cryptococcus spp. and other saprophytic fungi. All eight infectious agents were detected in this study. Infectious agents were detected in 24 of these 58 quokkas (41%), with more than one infectious agent detected for all 24 individuals. Salmonella were detected concurrently with microfilariae in 8 of these 24 quokkas, and this mixed infection was associated with lower values across all haematological analytes, with Salmonella having the greater involvement in the decreased haematological values (p < 0.05). There was no evidence for an effect of sex on HMT, BLC and PBCM. Our data provide important haematological and blood chemistry reference intervals for free-ranging quokkas. We applied novel methods of analyses to HMT and BLC that can be used more broadly, aiding identification of potential disease in wildlife.


Assuntos
Macropodidae/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Análise Química do Sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis/sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Macropodidae/microbiologia , Macropodidae/virologia , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Vitamina E/sangue , Austrália Ocidental
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898140

RESUMO

The relationships between host-pathogen population dynamics in wildlife are poorly understood. An impediment to progress in understanding these relationships is imperfect detection of diagnostic tests used to detect pathogens. If ignored, imperfect detection precludes accurate assessment of pathogen presence and prevalence, foundational parameters for deciphering host-pathogen dynamics and disease etiology. Respiratory disease in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a significant impediment to their conservation and restoration, and effective management requires a better understanding of the structure of the pathogen communities. Our primary objective was to develop an easy-to-use and accessible web-based Shiny application that estimates the probability (with associated uncertainty) that a respiratory pathogen is present in a herd and its prevalence given imperfect detection. Our application combines the best-available information on the probabilities of detection for various respiratory pathogen diagnostic protocols with a hierarchical Bayesian model of pathogen prevalence. We demonstrated this application using four examples of diagnostic tests from three herds of bighorn sheep in Montana. For instance, one population with no detections of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (PCR assay) still had an 6% probability of the pathogen being present in the herd. Similarly, the apparent prevalence (0.32) of M. ovipneumoniae in another herd was a substantial underestimate of estimated true prevalence (0.46: 95% CI = [0.25, 0.71]). The negative bias of naïve prevalence increased as the probability of detection of testing protocols worsened such that the apparent prevalence of Mannheimia haemolytica (culture assay) in a herd (0.24) was less than one third that of estimated true prevalence (0.78: 95% CI = [0.43, 0.99]). We found a small difference in the estimates of the probability that Mannheimia spp. (culture assay) was present in one herd between the binomial sampling approach (0.24) and the hypergeometric approach (0.22). Ignoring the implications of imperfect detection and sampling variation for assessing pathogen communities in bighorn sheep can result in spurious inference on pathogen presence and prevalence, and potentially poorly informed management decisions. Our Shiny application makes the rigorous assessment of pathogen presence, prevalence and uncertainty straightforward, and we suggest it should be incorporated into a new paradigm of disease monitoring.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Carneiro da Montanha/microbiologia , Software , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Internet , Mannheimia haemolytica/isolamento & purificação , Montana , Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Probabilidade , Ovinos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845922

RESUMO

Modeling the behavior of zoonotic pandemic threats is a key component of their control. Many emerging zoonoses, such as SARS, Nipah, and Hendra, mutated from their wild type while circulating in an intermediate host population, usually a domestic species, to become more transmissible among humans, and this transmission route will only become more likely as agriculture and trade intensifies around the world. Passage through an intermediate host enables many otherwise rare diseases to become better adapted to humans, and so understanding this process with accurate mathematical models is necessary to prevent epidemics of emerging zoonoses, guide policy interventions in public health, and predict the behavior of an epidemic. In this paper, we account for a zoonotic disease mutating in an intermediate host by introducing a new mathematical model for disease transmission among three species. We present a model of these disease dynamics, including the equilibria of the system and the basic reproductive number of the pathogen, finding that in the presence of biologically realistic interspecies transmission parameters, a zoonotic disease with the capacity to mutate in an intermediate host population can establish itself in humans even if its R0 in humans is less than 1. This result and model can be used to predict the behavior of any zoonosis with an intermediate host and assist efforts to protect public health.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235841, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645064

RESUMO

The reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis is primarily considered to be poultry, but also other such as ruminants, pets and environmental sources are related with infection burden. Multilocus sequence typing is often used for Campylobacter epidemiological studies to determine potential sources of human infections. The collection of 420 Campylobacter jejuni isolates with assigned MLST genotype from poultry (n = 139), cattle (n = 48) and wild birds (n = 101) were used in source attribution analysis. Asymmetric island model with accurate and congruent self-attribution results, was used to determine potential sources of human C. jejuni infections (n = 132) in Baltic States. Source attribution analysis revealed that poultry (88.3%) is the main source of C. jejuni human infections followed by cattle and wild bird with 9.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that clinical cases of C. jejuni infections in Baltic countries are mainly linked to poultry, but also to cattle and wild bird sources.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Bovinos/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Países Bálticos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233776, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502160

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a worldwide emerging zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira species, that in some patients develop severe forms with high mortality. In France, Corsica is the area where the highest incidences have been reported. The present study was focused on the analysis of pathogenic Leptospira species in rodents of Corsica, as these micromammals are the main natural reservoirs of the bacteria, in order to identify the circulating species and to locate possible risk focuses of transmission, as no previous study on the presence of Leptospira species has been carried out in the island. Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, Apodemus sylvaticus and Mus musculus domesticus were captured in the proximity of water sources along Corsica, the detection of pathogenic Leptospira species was carried out by amplification of the LipL32 gene. The bacteria were found in all the rodent species analyzed and widely. The general prevalence was 10.4%, reaching the maximum value in Bastia (45%). Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii were identified by phylogenetic analysis, but also two sequences which corresponded to an unnamed Leptospira species, only previously found in rodents of New Caledonia. The high incidence of human leptospirosis in Corsica could be partially explained by the wide distribution of pathogenic Leptospira species identified in this study. Also, the presence of an unknown pathogenic species of Leptospira in an area with high prevalence, may be involved in the higher incidence of Leptospirosis in this island, however, the zoonotic capacity of this species remains unknown. The results obtained are interesting for public health since all positive samples were found near water sources and one of the routes of transmission of leptospirosis is contact with contaminated water. This information could help the competent entities to take preventive measures, reducing the incidence of human leptospirosis in Corsica.


Assuntos
Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Murinae/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Feminino , França , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos
8.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008866, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530914

RESUMO

Escherichia coli is mostly a commensal of birds and mammals, including humans, where it can act as an opportunistic pathogen. It is also found in water and sediments. We investigated the phylogeny, genetic diversification, and habitat-association of 1,294 isolates representative of the phylogenetic diversity of more than 5,000 isolates from the Australian continent. Since many previous studies focused on clinical isolates, we investigated mostly other isolates originating from humans, poultry, wild animals and water. These strains represent the species genetic diversity and reveal widespread associations between phylogroups and isolation sources. The analysis of strains from the same sequence types revealed very rapid change of gene repertoires in the very early stages of divergence, driven by the acquisition of many different types of mobile genetic elements. These elements also lead to rapid variations in genome size, even if few of their genes rise to high frequency in the species. Variations in genome size are associated with phylogroup and isolation sources, but the latter determine the number of MGEs, a marker of recent transfer, suggesting that gene flow reinforces the association of certain genetic backgrounds with specific habitats. After a while, the divergence of gene repertoires becomes linear with phylogenetic distance, presumably reflecting the continuous turnover of mobile element and the occasional acquisition of adaptive genes. Surprisingly, the phylogroups with smallest genomes have the highest rates of gene repertoire diversification and fewer but more diverse mobile genetic elements. This suggests that smaller genomes are associated with higher, not lower, turnover of genetic information. Many of these genomes are from freshwater isolates and have peculiar traits, including a specific capsule, suggesting adaptation to this environment. Altogether, these data contribute to explain why epidemiological clones tend to emerge from specific phylogenetic groups in the presence of pervasive horizontal gene transfer across the species.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Evolução Molecular , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Austrália , Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Água Doce/microbiologia , Tamanho do Genoma , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
South Med J ; 113(5): 240-249, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358619

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease with symptoms in humans and animals, ranging from subclinical to serious and fatal. The disease occurs worldwide, but there is limited recognition of the public and animal health risks it poses in the southern United States. A systematic review of the frequency of animal leptospirosis in 17 states and jurisdictions covering the southern continental United States was performed to advance our understanding of the pathogen's distribution and identify transmission patterns that could be targeted for prevention efforts. Fifty-two articles, spanning >100 years, met the analysis criteria. A wide range of techniques were used to measure seroprevalence and isolate the bacteria. The assessment identified exposure to Leptospira spp and Leptospira spp infection among a diverse range of species, spanning 22 animal families within 14 states, suggesting that the pathogen is distributed throughout the southern region. Disease frequency trends were assessed among animals in various habitats (all habitats, nonwild habitats, and wild habitats). The frequency of Leptospira spp detection in animals in wild habitats increased slightly over time (<0.2%/year). We identified reports of 11 human leptospirosis illness clusters and outbreaks in the southern United States. Exposure to potentially contaminated surface waters were documented for at least seven of the events, and interactions with infected or likely infected animals were documented for at least six of the events. This analysis highlights the need for stronger partnerships across the public and animal health fields to enhance diagnostics, surveillance, and reporting. The early identification of leptospirosis in animals may serve as an indicator of environmental contamination and trigger prevention measures, such as vaccinating companion animals and livestock, use of potable water, and the wearing of waterproof protective clothing near water that may be contaminated.


Assuntos
Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Gatos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Mephitidae/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Suínos/microbiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231545, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298318

RESUMO

Mycoplasma gallisepticum is one of the most important poultry pathogens that can also infect wild birds, but knowledge of potential non-poultry hosts that could be reservoirs of M. gallisepticum is limited. For the paper presented here, we screened three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and the Web of Knowledge) to find articles on the occurrence of M. gallisepticum in different wild bird species that were published between 1951 and 2018. Among 314 studies found, we selected and included 50 original articles that met the pre-established criteria. From those publications we extracted the following information: name of the first author, year of publication, year of sample isolation, country, region, number of birds sampled, number of birds tested by each method, number of positive samples, diagnostic criteria, and if birds were wild or captive. Because different detection techniques were used to confirm the presence of M. gallisepticum in one animal, we decided to perform the meta analyses separately for each method. The estimated prevalence of M. gallisepticum in wild birds was different by each method of detection. Our summary revealed that M. gallisepticum was present in 56 species of bird belonging to 11 different orders, of which 21 species were reported suffering both past and current infection. Our work provides information on wild bird species that could be considered potential reservoirs or carriers of M. gallisepticum and could be helpful to set the direction for future research on the spread and phylogeny of M. gallisepticum in different hosts.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma gallisepticum , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Prevalência
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008127, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203502

RESUMO

Understanding the prevalence of M. leprae infection in armadillos is important because of evidence from Brazil and other countries of an association between contact with armadillos and the development of Hansen's Disease (leprosy). Our aim was to characterize studies which have investigated natural M. leprae infection in wild armadillos in Brazil, and to quantify and explore variability in the reported prevalence of infection. We conducted a systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42019155277) of publications in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, LILACS, Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações, Catálogo de Teses e Dissertações de CAPES, and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde up to 10/2019 using Mesh and text search terms (in English, Portuguese, Spanish, and French). The 10 included studies represented a total sample of 302 armadillos comprising 207 (69%) Dasypus novemcinctus, 67 (22%) Euphractus sexcinctus, 16 (5%) Priodontes maximus, 10 (3%) Cabassous unicinctus, and 2 (1%) Cabassous tatouay from 7 different states. Methods used included histopathology (4 studies), PGL-1 and LID-1 antigen detection (4 studies) and examination for clinical signs of disease (4 studies). Eight studies used PCR of which 7 targeted the RLEP repetitive element and 3 tested for inhibitory substances. M. leprae prevalence by PCR ranged from 0% (in 3 studies) to 100% in one study, with a summary estimate of 9.4% (95% CI 0.4% to 73.1%) and a predictive interval of 0-100%. The average prevalence is equivalent to 1 in 10 armadillos in Brazil being infected with M. leprae, but wide variation in sample estimates means that the prevalence in any similar study would be entirely unpredictable. We propose instead that future studies aim to investigate transmission and persistence of M. leprae within and between armadillo populations, meanwhile adopting the precautionary principle to protect human health and an endangered species in Brazil.


Assuntos
Tatus/microbiologia , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/veterinária , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Bases de Dados Factuais , Mapeamento Geográfico , Mycobacterium leprae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 73, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lyme disease (LD) is an increasing public health threat in temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, yet relatively few methods exist for reducing LD risk in endemic areas. Disrupting the LD transmission cycle in nature is a promising avenue for risk reduction. This experimental study evaluated the efficacy of fluralaner, a recent oral acaricide with a long duration of effect in dogs, for killing Ixodes scapularis ticks in Peromyscus maniculatus mice, a known wildlife reservoir for Borrelia burgdorferi in nature. METHODS: We assigned 87 mice to 3 fluralaner treatment groups (50 mg/kg, 12.5 mg/kg and untreated control) administered as a single oral treatment. Mice were then infested with 20 Ixodes scapularis larvae at 2, 28 and 45 days post-treatment and we measured efficacy as the proportion of infesting larvae that died within 48 h. At each infestation, blood from 3 mice in each treatment group was tested to obtain fluralaner plasma concentrations (Cp). RESULTS: Treatment with 50 mg/kg and 12.5 mg/kg fluralaner killed 97% and 94% of infesting larvae 2 days post-treatment, but no significant effect of treatment on feeding larvae was observed 28 and 45 days post-treatment. Mouse Cp did not differ significantly between the two tested doses. Mean Cp decreased from 13,000 ng/ml in the 50 mg/kg group and 4000 ng/ml in the 12.5 mg/kg group at Day 2 to < 100 ng/ml in both groups at Day 45. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first evidence that fluralaner is effective for killing immature ticks in Peromyscus mice, a first step in evaluating its potential for treating wild rodents as a public health intervention to reduce LD risk in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Ixodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Peromyscus/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Borrelia burgdorferi , Feminino , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Ixodes/microbiologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Lyme/prevenção & controle , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Masculino , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 121-128, Feb. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098444

RESUMO

Necropsy protocols of the "Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico" of "Faculdade de Veterinária" of the "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" were reviewed, ranging the period from 2000 to 2018. Three hundred eighty one necropsies, 25 refrigerated and/or formaline fixed organs, and seven biopsies were received, representing 413 samples. Most of these materials were sent by the "Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre" of "Universidade Federal de Pelotas" (NURFS-CETAS-UFPel) and were from municipalities within the range area of LRD-UFPel influence. Of the 413 cases 55 (13.31%) corresponded to metabolic/nutritional diseases; 50 (12.10%) to trauma; 35 (8.47%) to bacterial diseases/toxi-infections; 30 (7.26%) to parasitic diseases; 28 (6.77%) to fungal diseases; four (0.97%) to viral diseases and 17 (4.11%) to other diseases. Cases where it was not possible to determine the etiology, were in severe autolysis or were inconclusive totaled 194 (46.97%). Metabolic/nutritional diseases and traumatic injuries were the main cause of death in wild birds', being Passeriformes the most affected order.(AU)


Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos diagnósticos de causas de morte e de lesões em aves silvestres na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul de 2000 a 2018. Foram revisados os protocolos de necropsia e materiais de aves silvestres encaminhados ao Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas no período. Foram recebidos 381 cadáveres para necropsia, 25 órgãos refrigerados e/ou em formol e 7 biopsias, totalizando 413 materiais. A maioria desses materiais foi remetida pelo Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (NURFS-CETAS-UFPel) e provenientes de municípios da área de influência do LRD-UFPel. Dos 413 casos 55 (13,31%) corresponderam a doenças metabólicas/nutricionais; 50 (12,10%) a traumas; 35 (8,47%) a doenças bacterianas/toxi-infecções; 30 (7,26%) a doenças parasitárias; 28 (6,77%) doenças fúngicas; 4 (0,97%) doenças virais e 17(4,12%) outras doenças que não se encaixavam nas categorias. Ainda em nos casos em que não foi possível determinar a etiologia, apresentaram autólise acentuada ou foram inconclusivos somaram 194 (46,97%). As doenças metabólicas/nutricionais e lesões traumáticas foram as principais causas de morte de aves silvestres, sendo a ordem mais afetada a Passeriformes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/lesões , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/virologia , Animais Selvagens/lesões , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Autopsia/veterinária , Biópsia/veterinária , Zoonoses
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0219805, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917824

RESUMO

Footrot is a worldwide economically important, painful, contagious bacterial foot disease of domestic and wild ungulates caused by Dichelobacter nodosus. Benign and virulent strains have been identified in sheep presenting with mild and severe lesions, respectively. However, in Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex), both strains have been associated with severe lesions. Because the disease is widespread throughout sheep flocks in Switzerland, a nationwide footrot control program for sheep focusing on virulent strains shall soon be implemented. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the nationwide prevalence of both strain groups of D. nodosus in four wild indigenous ruminant species and to identify potential susceptible wildlife maintenance hosts that could be a reinfection source for domestic sheep. During two years (2017-2018), interdigital swabs of 1,821 wild indigenous ruminant species (Alpine ibex, Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus)) were analysed by Real-Time PCR. Furthermore, observed interspecies interactions were documented for each sample. Overall, we report a low prevalence of D. nodosus in all four indigenous wild ruminants, for both benign (1.97%, N = 36, of which 31 red deer) and virulent (0.05%, N = 1 ibex) strains. Footrot lesions were documented in one ibex with virulent strains, and in one ibex with benign strains. Interspecific interactions involving domestic livestock occurred mainly with cattle and sheep. In conclusion, the data suggest that wild ungulates are likely irrelevant for the maintenance and spread of D. nodosus. Furthermore, we add evidence that both D. nodosus strain types can be associated with severe disease in Alpine ibex. These data are crucial for the upcoming nationwide control program and reveal that wild ruminants should not be considered as a threat to footrot control in sheep in this context.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Dichelobacter nodosus/patogenicidade , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Cervos/microbiologia , Dichelobacter nodosus/classificação , Dichelobacter nodosus/genética , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/patologia , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/transmissão , Cabras/microbiologia , Prevalência , Rupicapra/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Suíça/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935269

RESUMO

The foods we eat contain microorganisms that we ingest alongside the food. Industrialized food systems offer great advantages from a safety point of view, but have also been accused of depleting the diversity of the human microbiota with negative implications for human health. In contrast, artisanal traditional foods are potential sources of a diverse food microbiota. Traditional foods of the Greenlandic Inuit are comprised of animal-sourced foods prepared in the natural environment and are often consumed raw. These foods, some of which are on the verge of extinction, have not previously been microbiologically characterized. We mapped the microbiota of foods stemming from traditional Inuit land-based hunting activities. The foods included in the current study are dried muskox and caribou meat, caribou rumen and intestinal content as well as larval parasites from caribou hides, all traditional Inuit foods. This study shows that traditional drying methods are efficient for limiting microbial growth through desiccation. The results also show the rumen content of the caribou to be a highly diverse source of microbes with potential for degradation of plants. Finally, a number of parasites were shown to be included in the biodiversity of the assessed traditional foods. Taken together, the results map out a diverse source of ingested microbes and parasites that originate from the natural environment. These results have implications for understanding the nature-sourced traditional Inuit diet, which is in contrast to current day diet recommendations as well as modern industrialized food systems.


Assuntos
Dieta , Manipulação de Alimentos , Inuítes , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Groenlândia , Humanos , Rena/microbiologia , Ruminantes/microbiologia
18.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(3): 345-349, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983705

RESUMO

The emergence and prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in wild animals are a great concern for public health. A total of 963 Escherichia coli isolates from 475 wild mammals (242 sika deers, 112 wild boars, 113 small mammals, 4 Japanese badger, 2 Tokara cows, and 2 Amani rabbits), collected between 2013 and 2017, were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial was observed in 92 of 963 isolates (9.3%). No isolates exhibited resistance to carbapenem (meropenem). Resistance to third-generation cephalosporin (cefotaxime) and fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin) was observed in less than 1% of the isolates. Thus, low prevalence of bacterial antimicrobial resistance was observed in wild mammals between 2013 and 2017 in Japan.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Japão , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
19.
ISME J ; 14(2): 609-622, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719654

RESUMO

Documenting the natural diversity of eukaryotic organisms in the nonhuman primate (NHP) gut is important for understanding the evolution of the mammalian gut microbiome, its role in digestion, health and disease, and the consequences of anthropogenic change on primate biology and conservation. Despite the ecological significance of gut-associated eukaryotes, little is known about the factors that influence their assembly and diversity in mammals. In this study, we used an 18S rRNA gene fragment metabarcoding approach to assess the eukaryotic assemblage of 62 individuals representing 16 NHP species. We find that cercopithecoids, and especially the cercopithecines, have substantially higher alpha diversity than other NHP groups. Gut-associated protists and nematodes are widespread among NHPs, consistent with their ancient association with NHP hosts. However, we do not find a consistent signal of phylosymbiosis or host-species specificity. Rather, gut eukaryotes are only weakly structured by primate phylogeny with minimal signal from diet, in contrast to previous reports of NHP gut bacteria. The results of this study indicate that gut-associated eukaryotes offer different information than gut-associated bacteria and add to our understanding of the structure of the gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metagenômica , Primatas/microbiologia , Primatas/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Blastocisto/classificação , Cercopithecidae/microbiologia , Cercopithecidae/parasitologia , Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/genética , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Endolimax/classificação , Endolimax/genética , Endolimax/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/genética , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Hominidae/microbiologia , Hominidae/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Lemur/microbiologia , Lemur/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Platirrinos/microbiologia , Platirrinos/parasitologia
20.
Food Microbiol ; 86: 103352, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703865

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia (E.) coli (STEC) pathogens are responsible for the outbreaks of serious diseases in humans, including haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), bloody diarrhoea (BD) and diarrhoea (D), and they pose a significant public health concern. Wild ruminants are an important environmental reservoir of foodborne pathogens that can cause serious illnesses in humans and contaminate fresh products. There is a general scarcity of published data about wildlife as a reservoir of foodborne pathogens in Poland, which is why the potential epidemiological risk associated with red deer, roe deer and fallow deer as reservoirs of STEC/AE-STEC strains was evaluated in this study. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of STEC strains in red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) populations in north-eastern Poland, and to evaluate the potential health risk associated with wild ruminants carrying STEC/AE-STEC strains. We examined 252 rectal swabs obtained from 134 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 97 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and 21 fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-eastern Poland. The samples were enriched in modified buffered peptone water. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were conducted to determine the virulence profile of stx1, stx2 and eae or aggR genes, to identify the subtypes of stx1 and stx2 genes, and to perform O and H serotyping. E. coli O157:H7 isolates were detected in the rectal swabs collected from 1/134 roe deer (0.75%) and 4/97 red deer (4.1%), and they were not detected in fallow deer (Dama dama). The remaining E. coli serogroups, namely O26, O103, O111 and O145 that belong to the "top five" non-O157 serogroups, were detected in 15/134 roe deer (11.19%), 18/97 red deer (18.56%) and 2/21 fallow deer (9.52%). STEC/AE-STEC strains were detected in 33 roe deer isolates (24.63%), 21 red deer isolates (21.65%) and 2 fallow deer isolates (9.52%). According to the most recent FAO/WHO report, stx2a and eae genes are the primary virulence traits associated with HUS, and these genes were identified in one roe deer isolate and one red deer isolate. Stx2 was the predominant stx gene, and it was detected in 78.79% of roe deer and in 71.43% of red deer isolates. The results of this study confirmed that red deer and roe deer in north-eastern Poland are carriers of STEC/AE-STEC strains that are potentially pathogenic for humans. This is the first report documenting the virulence of STEC/AE-STEC strains from wild ruminants in Poland.


Assuntos
Cervos/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Cervos/classificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/classificação , Polônia , Toxina Shiga/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/classificação , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
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