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1.
Vet Parasitol ; 304: 109701, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395619

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis caused by the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite is known to infect almost all warm blooded animals, and meat containing tissue cysts is one of the main sources of infection for omnivorous an carnivorous animals. Over recent years, increasing numbers of omnivorous and carnivorous animals have been drawn to urban or suburban areas by easy access to food or safe shelter, and the presence of wild animals has became more natural to urban residents. However, infected animals can act as intermediate hosts to T. gondii and contribute to the transmission of disease to humans and domestic animals, as well as other wild animal species. This extensive spread of the parasite in the natural environment can be attributed to geographic location, landform or local climate. The present paper summarizes the data available on the prevalence of T. gondii infection among wildlife from Poland, Germany, Slovakia, Czechia, Austria and Hungary. The findings highlight the importance of conducting studies on the presence of the parasite in wildlife, where the data is limited or outdated.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Carnívoros/parasitologia , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
2.
J Wildl Dis ; 58(2): 373-379, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290458

RESUMO

Parasites have developed many strategies to ensure their development, multiplication, and dissemination, including the use of reservoir hosts that are often nondomesticated species. Despite drastic reductions in their populations, wild birds remain widespread worldwide and could constitute some of these reservoirs. We focused on the identification of wild bird species harboring parasite stages in their muscles. Breast muscles of 327 birds of 27 different species were collected at three different sites in France. After artificial digestion, isolated nematode larvae were identified by PCR sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Toxocara cati was identified mainly in birds of prey. The presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies was investigated by modified agglutination test on muscle fluids. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in 65 out of 166 samples from various bird species. Avifauna, particularly birds of prey, could help on the surveillance of parasite circulation and play a role as sentinel species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Aves Predatórias , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Toxocara , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 121(3): 1065-1071, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147771

RESUMO

A recent publication in Parasitology Research by (Old et al. Parasitol Res 120:1077-1090, 2021) raises the topical and often controversial issue of the treatment of wildlife by personnel with little or no formal scientific training (e.g. wildlife carers). In a valuable contribution to the subject, Old and colleagues document a wide range of topical (pour-on) application doses and frequencies of moxidectin (Cydectin®) administered in situ to bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus) by members of the wildlife carer/treater community in southeast Australia to treat sarcoptic mange disease. This treatment occurred under minor use permits issued by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Management Authority (APVMA). These permits do not require veterinary supervision, although carers are registered and are expected to comply with the guidelines of this permit.The prevalence and severity of sarcoptic mange in wildlife is influenced by a variety of factors including mite biology, environmental conditions, population density, animal behaviour and immune susceptibility (Browne et al. Bioscience, 2021). In bare-nosed wombats, combinations of these elements play a substantial role in making the treatment of an already difficult disease more complex. (Moroni et al. Parasit Vectors 13:471, 2020) comment that any pharmacological treatment of free-ranging wildlife must consider these factors when assessing their feasibility and implications, especially in the context of emerging drug resistance and potential long-term ecological impacts. As individuals with significant interest in sarcoptic mange and representing a range of professional research and veterinary expertise, we see value in providing expert commentary on this issue.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Escabiose , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sarcoptes scabiei , Escabiose/veterinária
4.
Parasitol Int ; 88: 102552, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108616

RESUMO

Some avian Harpirhynchidae mites live under the skin and develop cutaneous cysts. Despite the obvious lesions that these parasites can produce, little is currently known about the behavioural disturbances that cyst-forming mites may cause in infected wild birds. We report an infection by Harpirhynchidae mites in a hawfinch (Coccothraustes coccothraustes) in southeast Spain. The bird was easily captured due to its inability to fly. During clinical examination it was found to have multiple severe traumatic injuries, possibly due to a blow or a fall, as result of which the bird was euthanized. At necropsy, the hawfinch was found to be in good body condition. Two yellowish and friable mite-filled cysts were detected in the subalar region of both wings. Mites were morphologically identified as Harpirhynchus nidulans, and histological analysis of the cystic lesions was also performed. This is the first time that the occurrence of a hawfinch infected by H. nidulans in the Iberian Peninsula has been reported.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Infestações por Ácaros , Ácaros , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/anatomia & histologia , Pele/patologia
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 33, 2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, more than 300 genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) have been described throughout the world, demonstrating its wide genetic diversity. The SAG3 locus is one of the genes included in the genotyping panel of this parasite. It is associated with its virulence since it participates during the invasion process of the host cells. Therefore, cloning, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis were used to deepen the understanding of the SAG3 locus genetic diversity of T. gondii in blood samples from feral cats. RESULTS: Six different SAG3 sequences were detected, five of which were detected in one feline. Three sequences were first reported here; one of them was an intragenic recombinant. In the cladogram, four out of ten SAG3 sequences did not share nodes with others reported worldwide. CONCLUSIONS: Cloning and sequencing of samples with more than one restriction pattern by PCR-RFLP were very helpful tools to demonstrate the presence of more than three genotypes of T. gondii in the blood of feral cats from southeastern Mexico. This suggests a potential mixed infection of multiple T. gondii strains and high genetic diversity of the parasites in felines in this tropical region of Mexico.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Região do Caribe , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Clonagem Molecular , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Genótipo , México/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Índias Ocidentais
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 37, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The distribution of parasite load across hosts may modify the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. Chagas disease is caused by a multi-host protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, but the association between host parasitemia and infectiousness to the vector has not been studied in sylvatic mammalian hosts. We quantified T. cruzi parasite load in sylvatic mammals, modeled the association of the parasite load with infectiousness to the vector and compared these results with previous ones for local domestic hosts. METHODS: The bloodstream parasite load in each of 28 naturally infected sylvatic mammals from six species captured in northern Argentina was assessed by quantitative PCR, and its association with infectiousness to the triatomine Triatoma infestans was evaluated, as determined by natural or artificial xenodiagnosis. These results were compared with our previous results for 88 humans, 70 dogs and 13 cats, and the degree of parasite over-dispersion was quantified and non-linear models fitted to data on host infectiousness and bloodstream parasite load. RESULTS: The parasite loads of Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum) and Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo) were directly and significantly associated with infectiousness of the host and were up to 190-fold higher than those in domestic hosts. Parasite load was aggregated across host species, as measured by the negative binomial parameter, k, and found to be substantially higher in white-eared opossums, cats, dogs and nine-banded armadillos (range: k = 0.3-0.5) than in humans (k = 5.1). The distribution of bloodstream parasite load closely followed the "80-20 rule" in every host species examined. However, the 20% of human hosts, domestic mammals or sylvatic mammals exhibiting the highest parasite load accounted for 49, 25 and 33% of the infected triatomines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the use of bloodstream parasite load as a proxy of reservoir host competence and individual transmissibility. The over-dispersed distribution of T. cruzi bloodstream load implies the existence of a fraction of highly infectious hosts that could be targeted to improve vector-borne transmission control efforts toward interruption transmission. Combined strategies that decrease the parasitemia and/or host-vector contact with these hosts would disproportionally contribute to T. cruzi transmission control.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Tatus/parasitologia , Gatos , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Didelphis/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Vetores de Doenças , Cães , Florestas , Genes de Protozoários , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Xenodiagnóstico
7.
Annu Rev Anim Biosci ; 10: 325-348, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758274

RESUMO

Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease present in the Americas, is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is transmitted by triatomine kissing bug vectors. Hundreds of vertebrate host species are involved in the ecology of Chagas disease. The sylvatic nature of most triatomines found in the United States accounts for high levels of animal infections but few reports of human infections. This review focuses on triatomine distributions and animal infections in the southern United States. A quantitative synthesis of available US data from triatomine bloodmeal analysis studies shows that dogs, humans, and rodents are key taxa for feeding triatomines. Imperfect and unvalidated diagnostic tools for wildlife complicate the study of animal T. cruzi infections, and integrated vector management approaches are needed to reduce parasite transmission in nature. The diversity of animal species involved in Chagas disease ecology underscores the importance of a One Health approach for disease research and management.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Triatoma/parasitologia , Estados Unidos
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(2): 718-723, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781254

RESUMO

Echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease that is highly endemic to the Qinghai province of China. Limited data are available on the prevalence of the causal pathogen, Echinococcus spp., in definitive hosts in this region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Echinococcus spp. in wild foxes and stray dogs in Qinghai province. Five hundred and twenty-eight feces from wild foxes and 277 from stray dogs were collected from 11 counties in the Golog, Yushu, and Haixi prefectures and screened for Echinococcus spp. using copro-DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In total, 5.5% of wild foxes and 15.2% of stray dogs tested positive for Echinococcus spp. The prevalence rates of Echinococcus spp. in wild foxes in Golog, Yushu, and Haixi were 7.3%, 5.2%, and 1.9%, respectively. In stray dogs, these rates were 13.3%, 17.3%, and 0%, respectively. Sequencing analysis determined that Echinococcus multilocularis was the most prevalent species, occurring in 4.0% and 12.6% of wild foxes and stray dogs, respectively. Echinococcus shiquicus was observed in 1.5% of wild foxes and 0.7% of stray dogs. Echinococcus granulosus was observed only in wild dogs, with a prevalence rate of 1.8%. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence of E. shiquicus in dogs in Qinghai province. The current results improve our understanding of the transmission and dissemination of human echinococcosis and suggest that exposure to the eggs of E. multilocularis harbored by wild foxes and stray dogs may pose a great risk of alveolar echinococcosis to humans in Qinghai province.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus/genética , Raposas/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Echinococcus/classificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 535, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a clinically serious zoonosis caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. We studied the diversity and the distribution of genotypes of E. multilocularis isolated from foxes in Brandenburg, Germany, and in comparison to a hunting ground in North Rhine-Westphalia. METHODS: Echinococcus multilocularis specimens from 101 foxes, 91 derived from Brandenburg and 10 derived from North Rhine-Westphalia, were examined. To detect potential mixed infections with different genotypes of E. multilocularis, five worms per fox were analyzed. For genotyping, three mitochondrial markers, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (Nad1), and ATP synthase subunit 6 (ATP6), and the nuclear microsatellite marker EmsB were used. To identify nucleotide polymorphisms, the mitochondrial markers were sequenced and the data were compared, including with published sequences from other regions. EmsB fragment length profiles were determined and confirmed by Kohonen network analysis and grouping of Sammon's nonlinear mapping with k-means clustering. The spatial distribution of genotypes was analyzed by SaTScan for the EmsB profiles found in Brandenburg. RESULTS: With both the mitochondrial makers and the EmsB microsatellite fragment length profile analyses, mixed infections with different E. multilocularis genotypes were detected in foxes from Brandenburg and North Rhine-Westphalia. Genotyping using the mitochondrial markers showed that the examined parasite specimens belong to the European haplotype of E. multilocularis, but a detailed spatial analysis was not possible due to the limited heterogeneity of these markers in the parasite population. Four (D, E, G, and H) out of the five EmsB profiles described in Europe so far were detected in the samples from Brandenburg and North Rhine-Westphalia. The EmsB profile G was the most common. A spatial cluster of the E. multilocularis genotype with the EmsB profile G was found in northeastern Brandenburg, and a cluster of profile D was found in southern parts of this state. CONCLUSIONS: Genotyping of E. multilocularis showed that individual foxes may harbor different genotypes of the parasite. EmsB profiles allowed the identification of spatial clusters, which may help in understanding the distribution and spread of the infection in wildlife, and in relatively small endemic areas.


Assuntos
Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus multilocularis/classificação , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Raposas/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/patogenicidade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1961): 20211724, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666519

RESUMO

Macroecological approaches can provide valuable insight into the epidemiology of globally distributed, multi-host pathogens. Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan that infects any warm-blooded animal, including humans, in almost every ecosystem worldwide. There is substantial geographical variation in T. gondii prevalence in wildlife populations and the mechanisms driving this variation are poorly understood. We implemented Bayesian phylogenetic mixed models to determine the association between species' ecology, phylogeny and climatic and anthropogenic factors on T. gondii prevalence. Toxoplasma gondii prevalence data were compiled for free-ranging wild mammal species from 202 published studies, encompassing 45 079 individuals from 54 taxonomic families and 238 species. We found that T. gondii prevalence was positively associated with human population density and warmer temperatures at the sampling location. Terrestrial species had a lower overall prevalence, but there were no consistent patterns between trophic level and prevalence. The relationship between human density and T. gondii prevalence is probably mediated by higher domestic cat abundance and landscape degradation leading to increased environmental oocyst contamination. Landscape restoration and limiting free-roaming in domestic cats could synergistically increase the resiliency of wildlife populations and reduce wildlife and human infection risks from one of the world's most common parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Teorema de Bayes , Gatos , Ecossistema , Humanos , Mamíferos , Filogenia , Prevalência , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
11.
Ecohealth ; 18(2): 169-181, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508275

RESUMO

Echinococcus spp. are zoonotic cestode parasites with a worldwide distribution and a complex, two-host life cycle involving carnivore definitive hosts and small mammal or ungulate intermediate hosts. Surveillance for Echinococcus spp. in the Midwestern United States (USA) is rare. Using a mixed-methods approach, we examined Echinococcus infection risks in wildlife and domestic dogs in four Minnesota Tribal Nations. We hypothesized that the spillover of Echinococcus spp. into domestic dogs would vary with the presence or absence of suspected wildlife host species and certain behaviors associated with domestic dog ownership, like feeding wildlife host carcasses or frequency of veterinary care. Among 83 dogs tested, three (3.6%) were positive for Echinococcus spp. Despite low prevalence, pet owner survey and focus group findings indicated that dogs encounter peri-domestic wildlife most often when they roam freely or consume wildlife carcasses. This study demonstrates a need for further research into spillover potential of endemic zoonotic Echinococcus spp. in the Midwest USA.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Mamíferos , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Prevalência
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 487, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichinella spiralis is a zoonotic food-borne parasite. A disease caused by infection with T. spiralis is called trichinellosis in humans. It is important to investigate the epidemic situation and the surveillance of herds and then prevent infection in humans. Therefore, this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive diagnostic method for on-site test in domestic and wild animals. METHODS: Upconverting phosphor nanoparticles (UCNPs), an excellent optical label, were conjugated with the excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) or goat anti-rabbit IgG, and a lateral flow (LF) assay based on these probes (UCNPs-ES/goat anti-rabbit IgG) was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of anti-T. spiralis IgG antibodies in pig serum. The assay is named the UPT-LF-ES assay. In addition, the probes were characterized, and the assay was optimized. A cut-off threshold of the assay was also identified by using 169 known negative pig samples. Performance of the assay to T. spiralis with different infective numbers, cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections, the single-blinded experiment, and coincidence were evaluated with the assay. RESULTS: The UPT-LF-ES assay was successfully constructed and optimized based on the probes of UCNPs-ES/goat anti-rabbit IgG. In the pigs infected with 100, 1000, and 10,000 ML, positive results were first presented at 35 days post-infection (dpi), 30 dpi, and 25 dpi, respectively. The assay had no cross-reaction with other parasitic infections. A single-blinded experiment indicated that the sensitivity and specificity of the UPT-LF-ES assay were 100% and 100%, respectively, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 1.000. In addition, the value detected by the UPT-LF-ES assay was significantly different between positive and negative samples. Moreover, compared with the "gold standard" magnetic stirrer method, the coincidence rate of the UPT-LF-ES assay was 87.27%, and the kappa (K) coefficient was 0.7454, showing a substantial agreement. CONCLUSIONS: The UPT-LF-ES assay is a useful point-of-care test (POCT) with T. spiralis in the detection of pig, which contributes to preventing human trichinellosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Doenças dos Suínos/sangue , Trichinella spiralis/imunologia , Triquinelose/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/genética , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Testes Imediatos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Trichinella spiralis/genética , Trichinella spiralis/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/sangue , Triquinelose/parasitologia
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 481, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange is a globally distributed parasitic disease caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei. This mite has a certain degree of host specificity, although interspecific transmission can occur among phylogenetically related species or through prey-predator mediated exposure. In 2018, a wild boar (Sus scrofa) with lesions compatible with sarcoptic mange was hunted in Ports de Tortosa i Beseit Natural Park (PTB, north-eastern Spain), where an active epizootic outbreak of sarcoptic mange is affecting Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica) since 2014. METHODS: A complete necropsy, skin scrapings and skin digestions with hydroxide potassium were performed to confirm the diagnosis. Routine histopathological analysis, toluidine blue staining and immunohistochemistry were used to characterize the lesions and the inflammatory infiltrate. Finally, 10 specific S. scabiei microsatellites were molecularly genotyped through polymerase chain reactions in mites obtained from the affected wild boar. For phylogenetic comparison, mites obtained from sympatric Iberian ibexes and allopatric wild boars and Iberian ibexes from southern Spain were analysed. RESULTS: Sarcoptes scabiei was visually and molecularly identified in the infested wild boar from PTB, causing skin lesions with dermal inflammatory infiltrate rich in T and B cells, which indicate an adaptive immune response. Three S. scabiei genetic clusters were identified: one included mites from southern Iberian ibexes, another included mites from southern wild boars, and a third one distinctively grouped the wild boar from PTB with the sympatric ibexes. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of sarcoptic mange in wild boar in Spain and the first documented case of S. scabiei cross-transmission from a wild ruminant host to a wild boar. The wild boar presented an ordinary scabies type reaction, which is typical of the self-limiting infestations reported in other cases of interspecific transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Sarcoptes scabiei/patogenicidade , Escabiose/transmissão , Escabiose/veterinária , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Filogenia , Sarcoptes scabiei/genética , Sarcoptes scabiei/imunologia , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15817, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349189

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies have found that the implementation of feeding sites for wildlife-related tourism can affect animal health, behaviour and reproduction. Feeding sites can favour high densities, home range overlap, greater sedentary behaviour and increased interspecific contacts, all of which might promote parasite transmission. In the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti), human interventions via provisioning monkeys at specific feeding sites have led to the sub-structuring of a group into genetically differentiated sub-groups. The fed subgroup is located near human hamlets and interacts with domesticated animals. Using high-throughput sequencing, we investigated Entamoeba species diversity in a local host assemblage strongly influenced by provisioning for wildlife-related tourism. We identified 13 Entamoeba species or lineages in faeces of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys, humans and domesticated animals (including pigs, cattle, and domestic chicken). In Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys, Entamoeba prevalence and OTU richness were higher in the fed than in the wild subgroup. Entamoeba polecki was found in monkeys, pigs and humans, suggesting that this parasite might circulates between the wild and domestic components of this local social-ecological system. The highest proportion of faeces positive for Entamoeba in monkeys geographically coincided with the presence of livestock and humans. These elements suggest that feeding sites might indirectly play a role on parasite transmission in the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey. The implementation of such sites should carefully consider the risk of creating hotspots of disease transmission, which should be prevented by maintaining a buffer zone between monkeys and livestock/humans. Regular screenings for pathogens in fed subgroup are necessary to monitor transmission risk in order to balance the economic development of human communities dependent on wildlife-related tourism, and the conservation of the endangered Yunnan snub-nosed monkey.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Colobinae/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/transmissão , Comportamento Alimentar , Turismo , Animais , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/genética , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Meio Ambiente , Filogenia
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 422, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes can impact fecundity, development, behaviour, and survival in wild vertebrate populations. Conventional monitoring of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in wild populations involves morphological identification of eggs, larvae, and adults from faeces or intestinal samples. Adult worms are typically required for species-level identification, meaning intestinal material from dead animals is needed to characterize the nematode community with high taxonomic resolution. DNA metabarcoding of environmental samples is increasingly used for time- and cost-effective, high-throughput biodiversity monitoring of small-bodied organisms, including parasite communities. Here, we evaluate the potential of DNA metabarcoding of faeces and soil samples for non-invasive monitoring of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode communities in a wild ruminant population. METHODS: Faeces and intestines were collected from a population of wild reindeer, and soil was collected both from areas showing signs of animal congregation, as well as areas with no signs of animal activity. Gastrointestinal parasitic nematode faunas were characterized using traditional morphological methods that involve flotation and sedimentation steps to concentrate nematode biomass, as well as using DNA metabarcoding. DNA metabarcoding was conducted on bulk samples, in addition to samples having undergone sedimentation and flotation treatments. RESULTS: DNA metabarcoding and morphological approaches were largely congruent, recovering similar nematode faunas from all samples. However, metabarcoding provided higher-resolution taxonomic data than morphological identification in both faeces and soil samples. Although concentration of nematode biomass by sedimentation or flotation prior to DNA metabarcoding reduced non-target amplification and increased the diversity of sequence variants recovered from each sample, the pretreatments did not improve species detection rates in soil and faeces samples. CONCLUSIONS: DNA metabarcoding of bulk faeces samples is a non-invasive, time- and cost-effective method for assessing parasitic nematode populations that provides data with comparable taxonomic resolution to morphological methods that depend on parasitological investigations of dead animals. The successful detection of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes from soils demonstrates the utility of this approach for mapping distribution and occurrences of the free-living stages of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Fezes/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/genética , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Masculino
17.
Parasitol Res ; 120(9): 3319-3324, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347167

RESUMO

High-performance-validated tests are essential for successful epidemiological monitoring, surveillance of parasitic infections, and comparative studies in wildlife populations. The Mini-FLOTAC is a novel flotation-based technique for the sensitive detection and quantification of gastrointestinal parasites that is recently being explored for use in wildlife. A limitation of any flotation-based copromicroscopic method is the selection of the flotation solution (FS), which might influence the performance of the test. However, no study has compared the influence of using different FS in the Mini-FLOTAC technique for parasite detection in wild birds. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of the Mini-FLOTAC in three waterbird host species using two widely used FS: saturated salt (NaCl; specific gravity 1.20) and saturated zinc sulfate (ZnSO4; specific gravity 1.35). One hundred fresh fecal samples were analyzed for parasite fecal egg counts (FEC). Regardless of the host species, fecal samples evaluated with the Mini-FLOTAC method using ZnSO4 resulted in a significantly higher detection rate and higher FEC of strongylid, capillarid, cestode, and trematode parasites, than samples analyzed with the NaCl solution. Our concise study demonstrated the importance of using an appropriate FS for the identification of parasite eggs in wildlife species, especially in hosts with an expected aggregated distribution and low parasite load such as waterbird hosts. The higher analytical sensitivity of the Mini-FLOTAC technique achieved with ZnSO4, and its applicability to fieldwork, highlights this method as a promising tool for the quantitative surveillance of parasite infections in wild bird populations.


Assuntos
Aves/parasitologia , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 394, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive arthropod vectors and the range expansions of native vectors can lead to public and veterinary health concerns, as these vectors may introduce novel pathogens or spread endemic pathogens to new locations. Recent tick invasions and range expansion in the USA has been attributed to climate and land use change, an increase in global travel, and importations of exotic animals. METHODS: A 10-year surveillance study was conducted on Block Island, Rhode Island, from 2010 to 2020 including sampling ticks from small mammal and avian hosts. RESULTS: We report the discovery and establishment of the red sheep tick (Haemaphysalis punctata) for the first time in the western hemisphere and in the US. This invasive species was first collected in 2010 on Block Island, was collected continuously throughout the study, and was collected from an avian host. We document the first report of the invasive Asian longhorned tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) in the state of Rhode Island, first observed at our sites in 2018. Finally, we present data on the range expansion and establishment of two native tick species, the lone star tick and the rabbit tick, on Block Island. CONCLUSION: This study emphasized the importance of long-term surveillance to detect changes in tick host communities, including invasive and expanding native vectors of potential significance to humans and wildlife.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Ixodidae/genética , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Vetores Artrópodes/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Feminino , Ixodidae/classificação , Masculino , Ninfa , Rhode Island/epidemiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(4): 984-988, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285258

RESUMO

O Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra (PNSC), localizado no estado de Minas Gerais, é um importante habitat de inúmeras espécies de animais ameaçados de extinção, como o lobo-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Parasitos de animais selvagens podem representar um problema para os programas de manejo e recuperação de espécies ameaçadas, pois atuam como causa primária ou agravante de inúmeras doenças. Dependendo da época do ano, a suscetibilidade ao parasitismo pode ser maior devido à facilidade de infecção. Com o objetivo de avaliar a frequência de endoparasitos e a sazonalidade dessas parasitoses em diferentes épocas do ano, foram examinadas 103 amostras fecais de lobos-guarás, coletadas no PNSC, durante o período de março de 2017 a agosto de 2019. O número de amostras positivas para pelo menos uma espécie de parasito foi de 47 amostras (45,63%), sendo o outono a estação em que foi encontrada a maior frequência de formas parasitárias, com 60,86% (14/23) de amostras positivas, seguido do inverno, com 52,38% (11/21), verão com 37,5% (15/40), e primavera com 36,84% (7/19). Dentre os parasitos encontrados, Capillaria sp. apresentou a maior frequência, sendo encontrado em 23 amostras (22,33%), seguido de trematódeos, em 15 amostras (14,56%), acantocéfalos, ascarídeos, Trichuris sp. e Ancylostoma sp., em cinco amostras (4,85%), nematoides da superfamília Strongyloidea, Lynxacarus sp., em duas amostras (1,94%), e pentastomídeos em uma amostra (0,97%).(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Canidae/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Brasil , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia
20.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(8): 884-895, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227234

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii which infects warm-blooded species worldwide. Humans can be infected through ingestion of tissue cysts from raw or undercooked meat, including game meat. A nationwide large-scale cross-sectional study was conducted to assess exposure to T. gondii in seven wild ruminant species in Spain. A total of 2,040 serum samples from 77 sampling sites randomly distributed in the five bioregions (BRs) covering mainland Spain were tested for antibodies against T. gondii using the modified agglutination test. The overall seroprevalence was 22.0% (449/2,040). Seroprevalence by species in decreasing order was as follows: 39.6% (141/356) in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 37.1% (138/372) in fallow deer (Dama dama), 16.6% (92/553) in red deer (Cervus elaphus), 14.0% (26/186) in Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), 11.5% (24/209) in mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), 7.8% (27/346) in Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica) and 5.6% (1/18) in Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia). Seropositivity was detected in 74.0% (57/77) of the sampling sites. Results indicate widespread but not homogeneous exposure to T. gondii in wild ruminant populations in Spain during the last two decades and highlight differences related to animal species and spatial distribution of these species in this country; this implies potential consequences of T. gondii for animal health, conservation and public health.


Assuntos
Cervos , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Cervos/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
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