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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e016320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605387

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the intestinal parasites of road-killed wild felines in the North Central and North, Paraná state, southern Brazil. The animals were monitored by sampling previously established transects. The places where the felines were run over were mapped, the animals were identified, and the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated. The feces were submitted to coproparasitological techniques of spontaneous sedimentation, floating in hypersaturated NaCl solution and centrifugal floating in zinc sulfate. All the parasitic structures detected were photomicrographed. In the coproparasitological analyses were identified oocysts of Cystoisospora spp., eggs of Ancylostomatidae, and Capillaria spp.; eggs of Aelurostrongylus spp., Toxocara spp., Physaloptera spp., Taenia spp., and Spirometra spp.; Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae; and eggs and adults of Ancylostoma cati and Taenia spp. One of the cats was parasitized by a flea of Ctenocephalides felis felis. Based on these results, the animals analyzed in this study supplied important samples for the evaluation of parasitic diversity of North of Paraná and suggested that this region may have conditions that allow the maintenance of these parasites life cycles in the environment and among wildlife.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças do Gato , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Prevalência
2.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 731-737, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442815

RESUMO

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a zoonosis caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, a heteroxenous parasite belonging to Cestoda class. AE is currently considered an important public health issue, but epidemiological and notably molecular data from several endemic countries, including Pakistan, are sparse. Here we report the first detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in wildlife from Pakistan after real-time PCR and sequencing confirmation in the faecal samples of three foxes from northern Kaghan and Siran regions. The occurrence is estimated at 4.4% (95% CI 0.9-12.4). In order to go further in the epidemiological investigations on E. multilocularis and due to the potential presence of other Echinococcus species, we suggest the need for further epidemiological surveys targeting E. multilocularis and E. granulosus sensu lato isolates from humans and intermediate hosts as well as definitive hosts from wildlife in Pakistan.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Raposas/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Cães , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Paquistão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis sp. is an anaerobic protozoan that parasitizes many animal hosts and the human gastrointestinal tract, and its pathogenicity is controversial. Captive wildlife may be potential reservoirs for human infection with Blastocystis sp. The present study was performed to investigate the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis sp. in zoo animals in Sichuan Province, southwestern China. METHODS: A total of 420 fresh fecal samples were collected from 54 captive wildlife species in four zoos in southwestern China between June 2017 and September 2019. The prevalence and subtype (ST) genetic characteristics of Blastocystis sp. were determined by PCR amplification of the barcode region of the SSU rRNA gene and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 15.7% (66/420) of the animal samples and 20.7% (14/54) of the species tested were shown to be infected with Blastocystis sp. The highest prevalence of Blastocystis sp. was found in Panzhihua Zoo (24.3%), which was significantly higher than that in Chengdu Zoo (6.9%), and Xichang Zoo (2.9%) (P < 0.05). There are also significant differences in the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. among different species (P < 0.05), and the highest of Blastocystis sp. prevalence was observed in white-cheeked gibbon, black great squirrel, and red giant flying squirrel (100%). Subtype analysis of Blastocystis sp. revealed nine subtypes, including six zoonotic STs (ST1-5, and ST8) and three animal-specific STs (ST10, ST14, and ST17), with ST17 as the predominant subtype (26/66) in Blastocystis sp.-positive isolates. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis sp. among captive wildlife in zoos in southwestern China. This study highlights that these animals may serve as reservoirs for human Blastocystis sp. infections.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Blastocystis , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Blastocystis/genética , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças , Fezes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalência , Zoonoses
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 18, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange causes significant animal welfare and occasional conservation concerns for bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus) throughout their range. To date, in situ chemotherapeutic interventions have involved macrocytic lactones, but their short duration of action and need for frequent re-administration has limited treatment success. Fluralaner (Bravecto®; MSD Animal Health), a novel isoxazoline class ectoparasiticide, has several advantageous properties that may overcome such limitations. METHODS: Fluralaner was administered topically at 25 mg/kg (n = 5) and 85 mg/kg (n = 2) to healthy captive bare-nosed wombats. Safety was assessed over 12 weeks by clinical observation and monitoring of haematological and biochemical parameters. Fluralaner plasma pharmacokinetics were quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Efficacy was evaluated through clinical assessment of response to treatment, including mange and body condition scoring, for 15 weeks after topical administration of 25 mg/kg fluralaner to sarcoptic mange-affected wild bare-nosed wombats (n = 3). Duration of action was determined through analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters and visual inspection of study subjects for ticks during the monitoring period. Methods for diluting fluralaner to enable 'pour-on' application were compared, and an economic and treatment effort analysis of fluralaner relative to moxidectin was undertaken. RESULTS: No deleterious health impacts were detected following fluralaner administration. Fluralaner was absorbed and remained quantifiable in plasma throughout the monitoring period. For the 25 mg/kg and 85 mg/kg treatment groups, the respective means for maximum recorded plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 6.2 and 16.4 ng/ml; for maximum recorded times to Cmax, 3.0 and 37.5 days; and for plasma elimination half-lives, 40.1 and 166.5 days. Clinical resolution of sarcoptic mange was observed in all study animals within 3-4 weeks of treatment, and all wombats remained tick-free for 15 weeks. A suitable product for diluting fluralaner into a 'pour-on' was found. Treatment costs were competitive, and predicted treatment effort was substantially lower relative to moxidectin. CONCLUSIONS: Fluralaner appears to be a safe and efficacious treatment for sarcoptic mange in the bare-nosed wombat, with a single dose lasting over 1-3 months. It has economic and treatment-effort-related advantages over moxidectin, the most commonly used alternative. We recommend a dose of 25 mg/kg fluralaner and, based on the conservative assumption that at least 50% of a dose makes dermal contact, Bravecto Spot-On for Large Dogs as the most appropriate formulation for adult bare-nosed wombats.


Assuntos
Isoxazóis , Marsupiais/parasitologia , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/farmacocinética , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Isoxazóis/farmacocinética , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Sarcoptes scabiei/efeitos dos fármacos , Escabiose/veterinária , Tasmânia
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 13, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thelazia callipaeda is a zoonotic parasitic nematode of the family Thelaziidae, with Phortica okadai as its intermediate host and only confirmed vector in China. China has the largest number of human cases of thelaziosis in the world. It is generally believed that infected domestic animals (dogs and cats) are the most important reservoir hosts of T. callipaeda, and thus pose a direct threat to humans. At present, there is little research or attention focused on the role of wildlife in the transmission cycle of thelaziosis in nature reserves. METHODS: We selected locations in four national nature reserves across China to monitor P. okadai and wildlife. We used a fly-trap method to monitor P. okadai density. Morphological analysis of the parasites collected from the conjunctival sac of the infected wildlife was undertaken as the first step in species identification, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for species confirmation. RESULTS: In 2019, the density of P. okadai in Foping National Nature Reserve in China increased sharply, and infected P. okadai were newly found in the reserve. Giant panda, wild boar, leopard cat, and black bear were found to be newly infected with T. callipaeda (one individual of each species). A total of four worms were collected, one from each species of wildlife. The four worms were identified as T. callipaeda by their morphological characteristics; species identification was confirmed by PCR amplification. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. callipaeda infection in P. okadai as well as in a variety of wildlife, including giant panda, in nature reserves in China. These results indicate that there is a transmission cycle of T. callipaeda among wildlife in these nature reserves. The increasing number of case reports of thelaziosis in wildlife suggest a likely risk of T. callipaeda infection for the inhabitants of villages situated around nature reserves.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Drosophilidae/parasitologia , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/transmissão , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/transmissão , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Ursidae/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
6.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 395-409, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409643

RESUMO

Ticks (Arachnida: Acari) are vectors for pathogens and the biggest threat to animal health. Many Australian ticks are associated with pathogens that impact humans, domestic animals and livestock. However, little is known about the presence or impact of tick-borne pathogens in native Australian wildlife. Wombats are particularly susceptible to the effects of the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei which causes sarcoptic mange, the reason for which is unknown. Factors such as other ectoparasites and their associated pathogens may play a role. A critical understanding of the species of ectoparasites that parasitise wombats and their pathogens, and particularly ticks, is therefore warranted. This review describes the ectoparasites of wombats, pathogens known to be associated with those ectoparasites, and related literature gaps. Pathogens have been isolated in most tick species that typically feed on wombats; however, there are minimal molecular studies to determine the presence of pathogens in any other wombat ectoparasites. The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies allows us to explore entire microbial communities in ectoparasite samples, allowing fast and accurate identification of potential pathogens in many samples at once. These new techniques have highlighted the diversity and uniqueness of native ticks and their microbiomes, including pathogens of potential medical and veterinary importance. An increased understanding of all ectoparasites that parasitise wombats, and their associated pathogens, requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Marsupiais/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Austrália , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Sarcoptes scabiei/fisiologia , Escabiose/parasitologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/etiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Carrapatos/classificação
7.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e5, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314957

RESUMO

Genetic diversity within partial 18S rRNA sequences from Hepatozoon protozoan parasites from wild felines in South Africa was assessed and compared with data from domestic cats to assess patterns of host specificity. Lions, leopards, servals, a caracal and an African wildcat were all positive for parasites of the Hepatozoon felis-complex. However, haplotypes were not species-specific, and potential mixed infections were widespread. Additional genetic markers are needed to untangle the extremely complex situation of these parasites in both domestic cats and wild felines in South Africa.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/veterinária , Felis/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Coccídios/classificação , Coccídios/genética , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Haplótipos , África do Sul
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3739-3753, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000433

RESUMO

Many tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are present in wildlife. The objective of this study is to reveal the role of wild bears in maintaining TBPs. A total of 49 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) from Hokkaido, and 18 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) from Tochigi, and 66 Japanese black bears from Nagano were examined by two molecular methods, reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization, and nested PCR. A total of 5 TBPs (Hepatozoon ursi, Babesia sp. UR2-like group, Cytauxzoon sp. UR1, Babesia sp. UR1, and Babesia microti) were detected from bear blood DNA samples. B. microti was detected from blood DNA samples of Japanese black bear for the first time, with the prevalence of 6.0% (5/84). Out of detected pathogens, H. ursi, Babesia sp. UR2-like pathogens, and Cytauxzoon sp. UR1 were considered as three of the most prevalent TBPs in bears. The prevalence of H. ursi were significantly higher in Japanese black bear (0% vs 96.4%) while that of Babesia sp. UR2-like group was higher in Hokkaido brown bears (89.8% vs 40.5%). The prevalence of Babesia sp. UR1 were significantly higher in Japanese black bears from Tochigi (44.4%), comparing with those from Nagano (18.2%). The prevalence of the detected TBPs were significantly higher in adult bears, comparing with those in younger bears. The present study suggests that Japanese bear species contribute in the transmission of several TBPs in Japan. The expanding distribution of bears might cause the accidental transmission of TBPs to humans and domestic animals.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Ursidae/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Carrapatos/parasitologia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008652, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877407

RESUMO

China once suffered greatly from schistosomiasis japonica, a major zoonotic disease. Nearly 70 years of multidisciplinary efforts have achieved great progress in disease control, with infections in both humans and bovines significantly reduced to very low levels. However, reaching for the target of complete interruption of transmission at the country level by 2030 still faces great challenges, with areas of ongoing endemicity and/or re-emergence within previously 'eliminated' regions. The objectives of this study were, by using meta-analytical methods, to estimate the overall prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infections in abundant commensal rodent species in mainland China after the introduction of praziquantel for schistosomiasis treatment in humans and bovines in 1980s. In doing so we thereby aimed to further assess the role of wild rodents as potential reservoirs in ongoing schistosome transmission. Published studies on infection prevalence of S. japonicum in wild rodents in mainland China since 1980 were searched across five electronic bibliographic databases and lists of article references. Eligible studies were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Risks of within and across study biases, and the variations in prevalence estimates attributable to heterogeneities were assessed. The pooled infection prevalence and its 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation. We identified a total of 37 relevant articles involving 61 field studies which contained eligible data on 8,795 wild rodents across mainland China. The overall pooled infection prevalence was 3.86% (95% CI: 2.16-5.93%). No significant change in the overall pooled prevalence was observed between 1980-2003 (n = 23 studies) and 2004-current (n = 38 studies). However, whilst the estimated prevalence decreased over time in the marshland and lake regions, there was an apparent increase in prevalence within hilly and mountainous regions. Among seven provinces, a significant prevalence reduction was only seen in Jiangsu where most endemic settings are classified as the marshland and lakes. These estimates changed over season, ranging from 0.58% in spring to 22.39% in winter, in association with increases in rodent density. This study systematically analyzed S. japonicum infections in wild rodents from the published literature over the last forty years after the introduction of praziquantel for schistosomiasis treatment in humans and bovines in 1980s. Although numbers of schistosomiasis cases in humans and bovines have been greatly reduced, no such comparable overall change of infection prevalence in rodents was detected. Furthermore, there appeared to be an increase in S. japonicum prevalence in rodents over time within hilly and mountainous regions. Rodents have been projected to become the dominant wildlife in human-driven environments and the main reservoir of zoonotic diseases in general within tropical zones. Our findings thus suggest that it is now necessary to include monitoring and evaluation of potential schistosome infection within rodents, particularly in hilly and mountainous regions, if we are ever to reach the new 2030 elimination goals and to maximize the impact of future public, and indeed One Health, interventions across, regional, national and international scales.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Roedores/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Schistosoma japonicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Schistosoma japonicum/genética , Schistosoma japonicum/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma japonicum/fisiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3181-3201, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803334

RESUMO

Giardia is a parasite distributed worldwide and one of the most prevalent intestinal protozoa in Argentina. We analysed all the national information regarding the prevalence of Giardia infections in humans, animals and environmental surveys over the last 40 years. In this work, we used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines and the period between 1980 and 2019 was defined as time lapse for inclusion of the studies. The analysis was conducted using the LILACS, PubMed, Scopus and Argentina SciELO databases employing as keywords 'Giardia' AND 'Argentina'. We also carried out a manual review of papers. Of 304 articles, 92 fitted the eligibility criteria. Giardia was reported in 15 of the 23 Argentine provinces; human prevalence was between 3.4 and 64.8%. Indigenous children and residents in peri-urban areas had the higher infection rates. In animals, Giardia was identified mainly in dogs with a prevalence of 8.9 ± 7.0%, and studies of wild animals and cattle were notably scarce. Environmental studies showed that Giardia was detected in the soil and water which may act as reservoirs for this parasite revealing the need to modify the national water treatment legislation. The identification of Giardia genetic assemblages in the studies analysed was limited and showed that genotypes AII and B were found in humans while assemblage B was mainly detected in animals. This report provides useful information on epidemiological aspects of giardiasis in Argentina that may help to define future research priorities and provides useful tools for professionals regarding actual information on the prevalence of this infection.


Assuntos
Água Potável/parasitologia , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Povos Indígenas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Purificação da Água
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3083-3091, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683558

RESUMO

Many enzootic life cycles involving wild animals and non-nidicolous ixodids are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to report the identified tick species collected from seven different animal species (red deer, brown bear, gray wolf, Eurasian lynx, red fox, European hare, and Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise) living in the wild in Turkey and to investigate the presence of a wide range of tick-borne microorganisms in the tick samples obtained from these animals. The collected ticks (n = 98) were identified as Dermacentor reticulatus, Haemaphysalis parva, Hyalomma aegyptium, Hyalomma excavatum, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes ricinus, and Rhipicephalus turanicus. All engorged ticks collected from the wild animals and unfed larvae (n = 30) obtained from a single Rh. turanicus female were also analyzed individually for tick-borne bacterial and protozoan agents via PCR-sequencing. The molecular analyses revealed the presence of Babesia sp. tavsan2, Theileria capreoli, four Hepatozoon spp. (Hep. ursi, Hep. canis, Hep. felis, and Hepatozoon sp.), Hemolivia mauritanica, and three SFG rickettsiae (Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae, Ca. R. goldwasserii, and Rickettsia hoogstraalii) in the collected ticks. This represents the first report of Th. capreoli, Hep. ursi, and Ca. R. barbariae in ticks from Turkey. The evolutionary relationships of microbes in the different host and tick species are also discussed. Multiple novel tick-host associations in the tick life cycle were also revealed.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/genética , Feminino , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Theileria/classificação , Theileria/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Turquia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2363-2367, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500369

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the major tick vector of Theileria parva, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that causes the most economically important and lethal disease of cattle in East and central Africa. The African cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the major wildlife host of T. parva from southern Uganda and Kenya to southern Africa. We show herein that R. appendiculatus appears to be absent from the two largest national parks in northern Uganda. Syncerus caffer is common in both of these national parks, specifically Murchison falls (MFNP) and Kidepo Valley (KVNP). We re-confirmed the previously reported absence of T. parva in buffalo sampled in the two northern parks based on RLB data using a nested PCR based on the T. parva p104 gene. By contrast, T. parva-infected R. appendiculatus ticks and parasite-infected buffalo were present in Lake Mburo (LMNP) in South central Uganda. This suggests that the distribution of R. appendiculatus, which is predicted to include the higher rainfall regions of northern Uganda, may be limited by additional, as yet unknown factors.


Assuntos
Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Búfalos/parasitologia , Rhipicephalus/parasitologia , Theileria parva/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Ecossistema , Genes de Protozoários/genética , Parques Recreativos , Theileria parva/genética , Theileriose/parasitologia , Theileriose/transmissão , Uganda/epidemiologia
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 293-299, Apr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135613

RESUMO

Hemoplasmas are bacteria able to adhere themselves loosely to the plasma membrane of erythrocytes and may parasitize several species of mammals. There are three known species of hemoplasmas that parasitize domestic and wild cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. Dogs are infected by at least two species of hemoplasmas: 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' and Mycoplasma haemocanis. The hemoplasmoses are very important in veterinary clinics, either because of its worldwide distribution and severity of clinical signs, depending on parasite species and host immune competence, or due to its zoonotic potential and capability of infecting endangered species. This study set out to investigate which hemoplasmas species parasitize different captive wild carnivores in order to clarify the epidemiology of hemoplasmoses in wild animals. Furthermore, the research intended to characterize the hematological changes caused by different species of hemotropic mycoplasmas infection in order to establish their clinical importance to wild species and the capacity of these species to become a reservoir of studied agents. Samples of 33 wild felids and 18 wild canids were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect hemoplasmas DNA and it was observed that the occurrence of infection in these species is 45.5% and 83.3%, respectively. Factors such as age, gender or anaemia are not more frequent in animals positive for the infection. Therefore, it is concluded that infection caused by hemoplasmas in wild carnivores has high prevalence, and either agent pathogenicity is low, or chronic stage is more frequent, resulting in a low rate of diagnosis.(AU)


Hemoplasmas são bactérias capazes de aderir frouxamente à membrana plasmática de eritrócitos e que podem parasitar diversas espécies de mamíferos. São conhecidas três espécies de hemoplasmas que parasitam felídeos domésticos e selvagens: Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. Cães são infectados por ao menos duas espécies de hemoplasmas: Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' and Mycoplasma haemocanis. As hemoplasmoses são de grande importância na clínica veterinária, tanto pela sua distribuição ubíqua e severidade dos sinais clínicos, a depender da espécie do parasita e imunocompetência do hospedeiro, quanto pelo seu potencial zoonótico e capacidade de infectar espécies ameaçadas. Este estudo visa investigar quais espécies de hemoplasmas parasitam diferentes carnívoros selvagens de cativeiro, a fim de esclarecer a epidemiologia das hemoplasmoses em animais selvagens. Além disso, o trabalho objetivou caracterizar as alterações hematológicas causadas pela infecção por diferentes espécies de micoplasmas hemotrópicos visando estabelecer sua importância clínica para espécies selvagens e a capacidade destas espécies de se tornar reservatórios dos agentes estudados. Amostras de 33 felídeos selvagens e de 18 canídeos selvagens foram investigadas por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (RCP) para detectar o DNA dos agentes e foi observado que a ocorrência da infecção por hemoplasmas nestas espécies é de 45,5% e 83,3%, respectivamente. Fatores como idade, sexo ou anemia não são mais frequentes em animais positivos para a infecção. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a infecção causada por hemoplasmas em carnívoros selvagens possui alta prevalência, no entanto ou a patogenicidade dos agentes é baixa ou o estágio crônico da infecção é mais frequente, resultando em uma baixa frequência diagnóstica.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Canidae/microbiologia , Canidae/parasitologia , Felidae/microbiologia , Felidae/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Anemia/veterinária
14.
Parasite ; 27: 13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163031

RESUMO

Knowledge on the epidemiology, host range and transmission of Trichinella spp. infections in different ecological zones in southern Africa including areas of wildlife-human interface is limited. The majority of reports on Trichinella infections in sub-Saharan Africa were from wildlife resident in protected areas. Elucidation of the epidemiology of the infections and the prediction of hosts involved in the sylvatic cycles within specific ecological niches is critical. Of recent, there have been reports of Trichinella infections in several wildlife species within the Greater Kruger National Park (GKNP) of South Africa, which has prompted the revision and update of published hypothetical transmission cycles including the hypothetical options based previously on the biology and feeding behaviour of wildlife hosts confined to the GKNP. Using data gathered from surveillance studies and reports spanning the period 1964-2019, confirmed transmission cycles and revised hypothesized transmission cycles of three known Trichinella species (T. zimbabwensis, Trichinella T8 and T. nelsoni) are presented. These were formulated based on the epidemiological factors, feeding habits of hosts and prevalence data gathered from the GKNP. We presume that the formulated sylvatic cycles may be extrapolated to similar national parks and wildlife protected areas in sub-Saharan Africa where the same host and parasite species are known to occur. The anecdotal nature of some of the presented data confirms the need for more intense epidemiological surveillance in national parks and wildlife protected areas in the rest of sub-Saharan Africa to unravel the epidemiology of Trichinella infections in these unique and diverse protected landscapes.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Parques Recreativos , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/transmissão , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Ecologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , África do Sul , Trichinella/fisiologia
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 82, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Felids (domestic and wild cats) are important in the epidemiology of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global prevalence of T. gondii in species of the family Felidae. METHODS: We searched seven databases (PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Proquest and Web of Science) for studies reporting seroprevalence of T. gondii in felids from 1967 to 31 December 2017. A total of 217 published papers, containing 223 datasets were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, comprised 59,517 domestic and 2733 wild cats from 1967 to 2017. RESULTS: The pooled global T. gondii seroprevalence was estimated to be 35% (95% CI: 32-38%) and 59% (95% CI: 56-63%) in domestic cats and wild felids, respectively, using random effects model. The seroprevalence was higher in Australia and Africa where the T. gondii seropositivity in domestic cats was 52% (95% CI: 15-89%) and 51% (95% CI: 20-81%), respectively. The lowest seroprevalence was estimated in Asia 27% (95% CI: 24-30%). The seroprevalence values for T. gondii in wild felids were 74% (95% CI: 62-83%) in Africa, 67% (95% CI: 23-111%) in Asia, 67% (95% CI: 58-75%) in Europe and 66% (95% CI: 41-91%) in South America. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the global prevalence of T. gondii in species of the family Felidae and is a source of information to aid public health workers in developing prevention plans.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Ásia/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 66, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ornithodoros turicata is an important vector of both human and veterinary pathogens. One primary concern is the global spread of African swine fever virus and the risk of its re-emergence in the Americas through potential transmission by O. turicata to domestic pigs and feral swine. Moreover, in Texas, African warthogs were introduced into the state for hunting purposes and evidence exists that they are reproducing and have spread to three counties in the state. Consequently, it is imperative to develop strategies to evaluate exposure of feral pigs and African warthogs to O. turicata. RESULTS: We report the development of an animal model to evaluate serological responses of pigs to O. turicata salivary proteins after three exposures to tick feeding. Serological responses were assessed for ~ 120 days by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting using salivary gland extracts from O. turicata. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that domestic pigs seroconverted to O. turicata salivary antigens that is foundational toward the development of a diagnostic assay to improve soft tick surveillance efforts.


Assuntos
Sangue , Imunidade Humoral , Ornithodoros/imunologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Vetores Artrópodes/imunologia , Vetores Artrópodes/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Alimentar , Ornithodoros/fisiologia , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/imunologia , Soroconversão , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Suínos , Texas
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 73, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lyme disease (LD) is an increasing public health threat in temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, yet relatively few methods exist for reducing LD risk in endemic areas. Disrupting the LD transmission cycle in nature is a promising avenue for risk reduction. This experimental study evaluated the efficacy of fluralaner, a recent oral acaricide with a long duration of effect in dogs, for killing Ixodes scapularis ticks in Peromyscus maniculatus mice, a known wildlife reservoir for Borrelia burgdorferi in nature. METHODS: We assigned 87 mice to 3 fluralaner treatment groups (50 mg/kg, 12.5 mg/kg and untreated control) administered as a single oral treatment. Mice were then infested with 20 Ixodes scapularis larvae at 2, 28 and 45 days post-treatment and we measured efficacy as the proportion of infesting larvae that died within 48 h. At each infestation, blood from 3 mice in each treatment group was tested to obtain fluralaner plasma concentrations (Cp). RESULTS: Treatment with 50 mg/kg and 12.5 mg/kg fluralaner killed 97% and 94% of infesting larvae 2 days post-treatment, but no significant effect of treatment on feeding larvae was observed 28 and 45 days post-treatment. Mouse Cp did not differ significantly between the two tested doses. Mean Cp decreased from 13,000 ng/ml in the 50 mg/kg group and 4000 ng/ml in the 12.5 mg/kg group at Day 2 to < 100 ng/ml in both groups at Day 45. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first evidence that fluralaner is effective for killing immature ticks in Peromyscus mice, a first step in evaluating its potential for treating wild rodents as a public health intervention to reduce LD risk in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Ixodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Peromyscus/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Borrelia burgdorferi , Feminino , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Ixodes/microbiologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Lyme/prevenção & controle , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Masculino , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 805-813, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006230

RESUMO

Addressing the problems linked to tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiases requires considerable data on tsetse distribution and trypanosome infections. Although efforts to map tsetse and trypanosome infections have been undertaken at continental level, published data are still rare in wildlife reserves of West and Central Africa. To fill this gap, data on tsetse distribution and trypanosome infections were generated in the wildlife reserve of Santchou. For this study, each tsetse caught was identified and its DNA extracted. Different trypanosome species were identified by PCR. Entomological and parasitological data were transported onto a satellite image in order to visualize their distributions. From 195 Glossina palpalis palpalis that were caught, 33.8% (66/195) carried trypanosome infections with 89.4% (59/66) of single infections and 10.6% (7/66) mixed infections. From the 66 flies with trypanosome infections, 54.5% (36/66), 27.3% (18/66) and 18.2% (12/66) were respectively due to Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma brucei s.l. and Trypanosoma vivax. The global infection rates were 18.5% (36/195) for Trypanosoma congolense (forest and savannah), 9.2% (18/195) for Trypanosoma brucei s.l. and 6.1% (12/195) for Trypanosoma vivax. The maps generated show the distribution of tsetse and trypanosome infections. This study showed an active transmission of trypanosomes in the wildlife reserve of Santchou. The maps enabled to identify areas with high transmission risk and where control operations must be implemented in order to eliminate tsetse and the diseases that they transmit.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Trypanosoma/genética , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/parasitologia , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Insetos Vetores/genética , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/genética , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/fisiologia
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 104, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood parasites belonging to the Apicomplexa, Trypanosomatidae and Filarioidea are widespread in birds and have been studied extensively. Microscopical examination (ME) of stained blood films remains the gold standard method for the detection of these infections in birds, particularly because co-infections predominate in wildlife. None of the available molecular tools can detect all co-infections at the same time, but ME provides opportunities for this to be achieved. However, fixation, drying and staining of blood films as well as their ME are relatively time-consuming. This limits the detection of infected hosts during fieldwork when captured animals should be released soon after sampling. It is an obstacle for quick selection of donor hosts for parasite experimental, histological and other investigations in the field. This study modified, tested and described the buffy coat method (BCM) for quick diagnostics (~ 20 min/sample) of avian blood parasites. METHODS: Blood of 345 birds belonging to 42 species was collected, and each sample was examined using ME of stained blood films and the buffy coat, which was examined after centrifugation in capillary tubes and after being transferred to objective glass slides. Parasite detection using these methods was compared using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and Cohen's kappa index. RESULTS: Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, microfilariae, Trypanosoma and Lankesterella parasites were detected. BCM had a high sensitivity (> 90%) and specificity (> 90%) for detection of Haemoproteus and microfilariae infections. It was of moderate sensitivity (57%) and high specificity (> 90%) for Lankesterella infections, but of low sensitivity (20%) and high specificity (> 90%) for Leucocytozoon infections. Trypanosoma and Plasmodium parasites were detected only by BCM and ME, respectively. According to Cohen's kappa index, the agreement between two diagnostic tools was substantial for Haemoproteus (0.80), moderate for Lankesterella (0.46) and fair for microfilariae and Leucocytozoon (0.28) infections. CONCLUSIONS: BCM is sensitive and recommended as a quick and reliable tool to detect Haemoproteus, Trypanosoma and microfilariae parasites during fieldwork. However, it is not suitable for detection of species of Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium. BCM is a useful tool for diagnostics of blood parasite co-infections. Its application might be extended to studies of blood parasites in other vertebrates during field studies.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Buffy Coat/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Parasitologia/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Aves/sangue , Aves/classificação , Aves/parasitologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 7, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about parasitic infections is crucial information for animal health, particularly of free-ranging species that might come into contact with livestock and humans. METHODS: We investigated the seroprevalence of three tissue-cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti) in 506 individuals of 12 wildlife species in Namibia using in-house enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (indirect ELISAs applying purified antigens) for screening and immunoblots as confirmatory tests. We included six species of the suborder Feliformia, four species of the suborder Caniformia and two species of the suborder Ruminantia. For the two species for which we had most samples and life-history information, i.e. cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, n = 250) and leopards (Panthera pardus, n = 58), we investigated T. gondii seroprevalence in relation to age class, sex, sociality (solitary, mother-offspring group, independent sibling group, coalition group) and site (natural habitat vs farmland). RESULTS: All but one carnivore species (bat-eared fox Otocyon megalotis, n = 4) were seropositive to T. gondii, with a seroprevalence ranging from 52.4% (131/250) in cheetahs to 93.2% (55/59) in African lions (Panthera leo). We also detected antibodies to T. gondii in 10.0% (2/20) of blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus). Adult cheetahs and leopards were more likely to be seropositive to T. gondii than subadult conspecifics, whereas seroprevalence did not vary with sex, sociality and site. Furthermore, we measured antibodies to N. caninum in 15.4% (2/13) of brown hyenas (Hyaena brunnea) and 2.6% (1/39) of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas). Antibodies to B. besnoiti were detected in 3.4% (2/59) of African lions and 20.0% (4/20) of blue wildebeest. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that Namibian wildlife species were exposed to apicomplexan parasites at different prevalences, depending on parasite and host species. In addition to serological work, molecular work is also needed to better understand the sylvatic cycle and the clear role of wildlife in the epidemiology of these parasites in southern Africa.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Sarcocystidae/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Carnívoros/sangue , Carnívoros/parasitologia , Coccidiose/sangue , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Ruminantes/sangue , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Especificidade da Espécie , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
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