Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.655
Filtrar
1.
Science ; 385(6705): 123, 2024 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38991057

RESUMO

The relentless march of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain, known as H5N1, to become an unprecedented panzootic continues unchecked. The leap of H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4b from Eurasia and Africa to North America in 2021 and its further spread to South America and the Antarctic have exposed new avian and mammalian populations to the virus and led to outbreaks on an unrivaled scale. The virus has infected wild birds across vast geographic regions and caused wildlife deaths in some of the world's most biodiverse ecosystems. Hundreds of millions of poultry have died or been culled, affecting global food security in some of the world's poorest regions. Numerous mammalian species, including sea lions and fur animals, have been infected. Outbreaks in dairy cows in the United States have been occurring for months, seemingly unchecked in most affected states. Why is there not a greater sense of urgency to control these infections?


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Aviária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Bovinos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Aves/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Humanos
2.
Virol J ; 21(1): 153, 2024 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972989

RESUMO

Wild waterfowl serve as a reservoir of some astroviruses. Fecal samples from wild waterfowl collected at Hong Kong's Marshes were tested using pan-astrovirus reverse transcription-PCR. Positive samples underwent subsequent host identification using DNA barcoding. Based on deduced partial sequences, noteworthy samples from three astrovirus groups (mammalian, avian and unclassified astroviruses) were further analyzed by next-generation sequencing. One sample of Avastrovirus 4 clade, MP22-196, had a nearly complete genome identified. The results of ORF2 phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance analysis indicate that Avastrovirus 4 is classified as a distinct subclade within Avastrovirus. MP22-196 has typical astrovirus genome characteristics. The unique characteristics and potential differences of this genome, compared to other avian astrovirus sequences, involve the identification of a modified sgRNA sequence situated near the ORF2 start codon, which precedes the ORF1b stop codon. Additionally, the 3' UTR of MP22-196 is shorter than other avian astroviruses. This study expands our understanding of the Avastrovirus 4 clade.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae , Aves , Fezes , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Animais , Hong Kong , Aves/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Avastrovirus/genética , Avastrovirus/classificação , Avastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Astroviridae/genética , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Astroviridae/classificação
3.
Euro Surveill ; 29(25)2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38904109

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has caused widespread mortality in both wild and domestic birds in Europe 2020-2023. In July 2023, HPAI A(H5N1) was detected on 27 fur farms in Finland. In total, infections in silver and blue foxes, American minks and raccoon dogs were confirmed by RT-PCR. The pathological findings in the animals include widespread inflammatory lesions in the lungs, brain and liver, indicating efficient systemic dissemination of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis of Finnish A(H5N1) strains from fur animals and wild birds has identified three clusters (Finland I-III), and molecular analyses revealed emergence of mutations known to facilitate viral adaptation to mammals in the PB2 and NA proteins. Findings of avian influenza in fur animals were spatially and temporally connected with mass mortalities in wild birds. The mechanisms of virus transmission within and between farms have not been conclusively identified, but several different routes relating to limited biosecurity on the farms are implicated. The outbreak was managed in close collaboration between animal and human health authorities to mitigate and monitor the impact for both animal and human health.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Charadriiformes , Surtos de Doenças , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Aviária , Filogenia , Animais , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Charadriiformes/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fazendas , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/mortalidade , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Raposas/virologia , Aves/virologia , Vison/virologia
4.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305702, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38905303

RESUMO

Since the confirmation of African swine fever (ASF) in South Korea in 2019, its spread, predominantly in wild boars, has been a significant concern. A key factor in this situation is the lack of identification of risk factors by surveillance bias. The unique orography, characterized by high mountains, complicates search efforts, leading to overlooked or delayed case detection and posing risks to the swine industry. Additionally, shared rivers with neighboring country present a continual threat of virus entry. This study employs geospatial analysis and statistical methods to 1) identify areas at high risk of ASF occurrence but possibly under-surveilled, and 2) indicate strategic surveillance points for monitoring the risk of ASF virus entry through water bodies and basin influences. Pearson's rho test indicated that elevation (rho = -0.908, p-value < 0.001) and distance from roads (rho = -0.979, p-value < 0.001) may have a significant impact on limiting surveillance activities. A map of potential under-surveilled areas was created considering these results and was validated by a chi-square goodness-of-fit test (X-square = 208.03, df = 1, p-value < 0.001). The strong negative correlation (rho = -0.997, p-value <0.001) between ASF-positive wild boars and distance from water sources emphasizes that areas surrounding rivers are one of the priority areas for monitoring. The subsequent hydrological analyses provided important points for monitoring the risk of virus entry via water from the neighboring country. This research aims to facilitate early detection and prevent further spread of ASF.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Animais , Suínos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/patogenicidade , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14199, 2024 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38902400

RESUMO

The wild to domestic bird interface is an important nexus for emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. Although the recent incursion of HPAI H5N1 Clade 2.3.4.4b into North America calls for emergency response and planning given the unprecedented scale, readily available data-driven models are lacking. Here, we provide high resolution spatial and temporal transmission risk models for the contiguous United States. Considering virus host ecology, we included weekly species-level wild waterfowl (Anatidae) abundance and endemic low pathogenic avian influenza virus prevalence metrics in combination with number of poultry farms per commodity type and relative biosecurity risks at two spatial scales: 3 km and county-level. Spillover risk varied across the annual cycle of waterfowl migration and some locations exhibited persistent risk throughout the year given higher poultry production. Validation using wild bird introduction events identified by phylogenetic analysis from 2022 to 2023 HPAI poultry outbreaks indicate strong model performance. The modular nature of our approach lends itself to building upon updated datasets under evolving conditions, testing hypothetical scenarios, or customizing results with proprietary data. This research demonstrates an adaptive approach for developing models to inform preparedness and response as novel outbreaks occur, viruses evolve, and additional data become available.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Surtos de Doenças , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Aviária , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Aves/virologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Migração Animal
6.
Viruses ; 16(6)2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38932187

RESUMO

In 2023, South Africa continued to experience sporadic cases of clade 2.3.4.4b H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) in coastal seabirds and poultry. Active environmental surveillance determined that H5Nx, H7Nx, H9Nx, H11Nx, H6N2, and H12N2, amongst other unidentified subtypes, circulated in wild birds and ostriches in 2023, but that H5Nx was predominant. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of confirmed H5N1 HPAI cases determined that only two of the fifteen sub-genotypes that circulated in South Africa in 2021-2022 still persisted in 2023. Sub-genotype SA13 remained restricted to coastal seabirds, with accelerated mutations observed in the neuraminidase protein. SA15 caused the chicken outbreaks, but outbreaks in the Paardeberg and George areas, in the Western Cape province, and the Camperdown region of the KwaZulu-Natal province were unrelated to each other, implicating wild birds as the source. All SA15 viruses contained a truncation in the PB1-F2 gene, but in the Western Cape SA15 chicken viruses, PA-X was putatively expressed as a novel isoform with eight additional amino acids. South African clade 2.3.4.4b H5N1 viruses had comparatively fewer markers of virulence and pathogenicity compared to European strains, a possible reason why no spillover to mammals has occurred here yet.


Assuntos
Aves , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Aviária , Filogenia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Animais , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/classificação , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Aves/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Genoma Viral , Virulência , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Neuraminidase/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
7.
Viruses ; 16(6)2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38932181

RESUMO

High pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) cause high morbidity and mortality in poultry species. HPAIV prevalence means high numbers of infected wild birds could lead to spill over events for farmed poultry. How these pathogens survive in the environment is important for disease maintenance and potential dissemination. We evaluated the temperature-associated survival kinetics for five clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx HPAIVs (UK field strains between 2014 and 2021) incubated at up to three temperatures for up to ten weeks. The selected temperatures represented northern European winter (4 °C) and summer (20 °C); and a southern European summer temperature (30 °C). For each clade 2.3.4.4 HPAIV, the time in days to reduce the viral infectivity by 90% at temperature T was established (DT), showing that a lower incubation temperature prolonged virus survival (stability), where DT ranged from days to weeks. The fastest loss of viral infectivity was observed at 30 °C. Extrapolation of the graphical DT plots to the x-axis intercept provided the corresponding time to extinction for viral decay. Statistical tests of the difference between the DT values and extinction times of each clade 2.3.4.4 strain at each temperature indicated that the majority displayed different survival kinetics from the other strains at 4 °C and 20 °C.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Temperatura , Animais , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Aviária/mortalidade , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Cinética , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Aves/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/mortalidade
8.
Viruses ; 16(6)2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38932248

RESUMO

The emergence of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has led to significant interest in its potential transmission between animals and humans, especially pets. This review article summarises the literature on coronavirus infections in domestic animals, emphasising epidemiology, transmission dynamics, clinical manifestations, and public health implications. This article highlights current understandings of the relationship between infections in companion animals and humans, identifies research gaps, and suggests directions for future research. Cases of disease in cats, dogs, and other domestic animals, often occurring through close contact with infected owners, are reviewed, raising concerns about possible zoonotic and reverse zoonotic transmission. Precautions and recommendations for pet owners and healthcare workers are also discussed. The scientific evidence presented in the article highlights the need for a One Health approach that considers the health of people, animals, and the environment to combat future pandemics.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , COVID-19 , Animais de Estimação , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses , Animais , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/veterinária , COVID-19/virologia , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Humanos , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Gatos , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Cães , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Saúde Única , Zoonoses Virais/transmissão , Zoonoses Virais/epidemiologia
9.
Virol J ; 21(1): 146, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38918816

RESUMO

The genus Jeilongvirus comprises non-segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses that are classified within the Paramyxoviridae family by phylogeny. Jeilongviruses are found in various reservoirs, including rodents and bats. Rodents are typical viral reservoirs with diverse spectra and zoonotic potential. Little is currently known about jeilongviruses in rodents from central China. The study utilized high-throughput and Sanger sequencing to obtain jeilongvirus genomes, including those of two novel strains (HBJZ120/CHN/2021 (17,468 nt) and HBJZ157/CHN/2021 (19,143 nt)) and three known viruses (HBXN18/CHN/2021 (19,212 nt), HBJZ10/CHN/2021 (19,700 nt), HBJM106/CHN/2021 (18,871 nt)), which were characterized by genome structure, identity matrix, and phylogenetic analysis. Jeilongviruses were classified into three subclades based on their topology, phylogeny, and hosts. Based on the amino acid sequence identities and phylogenetic analysis of the L protein, HBJZ120/CHN/2021 and HBJZ157/CHN/2021 were found to be strains rather than novel species. Additionally, according to specific polymerase chain reaction screening, the positive percentage of Beilong virus in Hubei was 6.38%, suggesting that Beilong virus, belonging to the Jeilongvirus genus, is likely to be widespread in wild rodents. The identification of novel strains further elucidated the genomic diversity of jeilongviruses. Additionally, the prevalence of jeilongviruses in Hubei, China, was profiled, establishing a foundation for the surveillance and early warning of emerging paramyxoviruses.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Roedores , Animais , China , Roedores/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Paramyxovirinae/genética , Paramyxovirinae/classificação , Paramyxovirinae/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/genética , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/virologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Arch Virol ; 169(7): 137, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847873

RESUMO

The present study focuses on the pathological and molecular characterization of African swine fever virus (ASFV) associated with an outbreak in wild boars in two national parks in southern India in 2022-2023. Significant mortality was observed among free-ranging wild boars at Bandipur National Park, Karnataka, and Mudumalai National Park, Tamil Nadu. Extensive combing operations were undertaken in both national parks, spanning an area of around 100 km2, originating from the reported epicenter, to estimate the mortality rate. Recovered carcasses were pathologically examined, and ASFV isolates was genetically characterized. Our findings suggested spillover infection of ASFV from nearby domestic pigs, and the virus was equally pathogenic in wild boars and domestic pigs. ASFV intrusion was reported in the Northeastern region of the country, which borders China and Myanmar, whereas the current outbreak is very distantly located, in southern India. Molecular data will help in tracing the spread of the virus in the country.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Febre Suína Africana , Surtos de Doenças , Sus scrofa , Animais , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/genética , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/isolamento & purificação , Índia/epidemiologia , Suínos , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Febre Suína Africana/epidemiologia , Febre Suína Africana/mortalidade , Sus scrofa/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Filogenia , Animais Selvagens/virologia
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 13(1): 2361792, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828793

RESUMO

Europe has suffered unprecedented epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) clade 2.3.4.4b H5N1 since Autumn 2021. As well as impacting upon commercial and wild avian species, the virus has also infected mammalian species more than ever observed previously. Mammalian species involved in spill over events have primarily been scavenging terrestrial carnivores and farmed mammalian species although marine mammals have also been affected. Alongside reports of detections of mammalian species found dead through different surveillance schemes, several mass mortality events have been reported in farmed and wild animals. In November 2022, an unusual mortality event was reported in captive bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) with clade 2.3.4.4b H5N1 HPAIV of avian origin being the causative agent. The event involved an enclosure of 15 bush dogs, 10 of which succumbed during a nine-day period with some dogs exhibiting neurological disease. Ingestion of infected meat is proposed as the most likely infection route.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/mortalidade , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Canidae , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Aviária/mortalidade , Influenza Aviária/transmissão
12.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303756, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829903

RESUMO

The rapid spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) viruses in Southeast Asia in 2004 prompted the New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries to expand its avian influenza surveillance in wild birds. A total of 18,693 birds were sampled between 2004 and 2020, including migratory shorebirds (in 2004-2009), other coastal species (in 2009-2010), and resident waterfowl (in 2004-2020). No avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from cloacal or oropharyngeal samples from migratory shorebirds or resident coastal species. Two samples from red knots (Calidris canutus) tested positive by influenza A RT-qPCR, but virus could not be isolated and no further characterization could be undertaken. In contrast, 6179 samples from 15,740 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) tested positive by influenza A RT-qPCR. Of these, 344 were positive for H5 and 51 for H7. All H5 and H7 viruses detected were of low pathogenicity confirmed by a lack of multiple basic amino acids at the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site. Twenty H5 viruses (six different neuraminidase [NA] subtypes) and 10 H7 viruses (two different NA subtypes) were propagated and characterized genetically. From H5- or H7-negative samples that tested positive by influenza A RT-qPCR, 326 AIVs were isolated, representing 41 HA/NA combinations. The most frequently isolated subtypes were H4N6, H3N8, H3N2, and H10N3. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the relations between the location and year of sampling, and presence of AIV in individual waterfowl showed that the AIV risk at a given location varied from year to year. The H5 and H7 isolates both formed monophyletic HA groups. The H5 viruses were most closely related to North American lineages, whereas the H7 viruses formed a sister cluster relationship with wild bird viruses of the Eurasian and Australian lineages. Bayesian analysis indicates that the H5 and H7 viruses have circulated in resident mallards in New Zealand for some time. Correspondingly, we found limited evidence of influenza viruses in the major migratory bird populations visiting New Zealand. Findings suggest a low probability of introduction of HPAI viruses via long-distance bird migration and a unique epidemiology of AIV in New Zealand.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Aves , Influenza Aviária , Filogenia , Animais , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Aves/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Genoma Viral , Patos/virologia
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 190, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734647

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a fatal zoonosis caused by ticks in East Asia. As SFTS virus (SFTSV) is maintained between wildlife and ticks, seroepidemiological studies in wildlife are important to understand the behavior of SFTSV in the environment. Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, is an SFTS-endemic area, and approximately 100 feral horses, called Misaki horses (Equus caballus), inhabit Cape Toi in Miyazaki Prefecture. While these animals are managed in a wild-like manner, their ages are ascertainable due to individual identification. In the present study, we conducted a seroepidemiological survey of SFTSV in Misaki horses between 2015 and 2023. This study aimed to understand SFTSV infection in horses and its transmission to wildlife. A total of 707 samples from 180 feral horses were used to determine the seroprevalence of SFTSV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Neutralization testing was performed on 118 samples. In addition, SFTS viral RNA was detected in ticks from Cape Toi and feral horses. The overall seroprevalence between 2015 and 2023 was 78.5% (555/707). The lowest seroprevalence was 55% (44/80) in 2016 and the highest was 92% (76/83) in 2018. Seroprevalence was significantly affected by age, with 11% (8/71) in those less than one year of age and 96.7% (435/450) in those four years of age and older (p < 0.0001). The concordance between ELISA and neutralization test results was 88.9% (105/118). SFTS viral RNA was not detected in ticks (n = 516) or feral horses. This study demonstrated that horses can be infected with SFTSV and that age is a significant factor in seroprevalence in wildlife. This study provides insights into SFTSV infection not only in horses but also in wildlife in SFTS-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Phlebovirus , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia , Animais , Cavalos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Japão/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/veterinária , Febre Grave com Síndrome de Trombocitopenia/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Carrapatos/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Animais Selvagens/virologia
14.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 36(4): 554-559, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745456

RESUMO

We performed a retrospective study of all case submissions for the rabies virus (RABV) direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) requested of the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory (Tifton, GA, USA) between July 2010 and June 2021. Submitted were 792 samples from 23 animal species from 89 counties in Georgia, and 4 neighboring counties in Florida, 1 in South Carolina, and 1 in Alabama. In 13 (1.6%) cases, the DFAT result was inconclusive; 779 (98.4%) cases had a conclusive (positive or negative) test result. Of these 779 cases, 79 (10.1%) tested positive across 10 species. The remaining 700 (89.9%) cases were negative. The main reason for submission for RABV testing was human exposure to a potentially rabid animal in 414 (52.3%) cases. Among the 79 positive cases, 74 (93.7%) involved wildlife; raccoons (51 cases; 68.9%) were the primary host confirmed with RABV infection, followed by skunk and fox (8 cases each; 10.8%), bobcat (5 cases; 6.8%), and bats (2 cases; 2.7%). Only 5 domestic animals (6.3% of the positive cases) tested positive during our study period; one from each of the bovine, canine, caprine, equine, and feline species. Hence, the sylvatic cycle plays the predominant role in circulating RABV infection in our study area.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Raiva , Animais , Raiva/veterinária , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária
15.
J Gen Virol ; 105(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695722

RESUMO

High-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of the goose/Guangdong lineage are enzootically circulating in wild bird populations worldwide. This increases the risk of entry into poultry production and spill-over to mammalian species, including humans. Better understanding of the ecological and epizootiological networks of these viruses is essential to optimize mitigation measures. Based on full genome sequences of 26 HPAIV samples from Iceland, which were collected between spring and autumn 2022, as well as 1 sample from the 2023 summer period, we show that 3 different genotypes of HPAIV H5N1 clade 2.3.4.4b were circulating within the wild bird population in Iceland in 2022. Furthermore, in 2023 we observed a novel introduction of HPAIV H5N5 of the same clade to Iceland. The data support the role of Iceland as an utmost northwestern distribution area in Europe that might act also as a potential bridging point for intercontinental spread of HPAIV across the North Atlantic.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Aviária , Filogenia , Islândia/epidemiologia , Animais , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral , Aves/virologia
16.
J Microbiol ; 62(5): 337-354, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777985

RESUMO

Reverse zoonosis reveals the process of transmission of a pathogen through the human-animal interface and the spillback of the zoonotic pathogen. In this article, we methodically demonstrate various aspects of reverse zoonosis, with a comprehensive discussion of SARS-CoV-2 and MPXV reverse zoonosis. First, different components of reverse zoonosis, such as humans, different pathogens, and numerous animals (poultry, livestock, pets, wild animals, and zoo animals), have been demonstrated. Second, it explains the present status of reverse zoonosis with different pathogens during previous occurrences of various outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics. Here, we present 25 examples from literature. Third, using several examples, we comprehensively illustrate the present status of the reverse zoonosis of SARS-CoV-2 and MPXV. Here, we have provided 17 examples of SARS-CoV-2 reverse zoonosis and two examples of MPXV reverse zoonosis. Fourth, we have described two significant aspects of reverse zoonosis: understanding the fundamental aspects of spillback and awareness. These two aspects are required to prevent reverse zoonosis from the current infection with two significant viruses. Finally, the One Health approach was discussed vividly, where we urge scientists from different areas to work collaboratively to solve the issue of reverse zoonosis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses , Animais , Humanos , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Monkeypox virus/genética , Monkeypox virus/patogenicidade , Monkeypox virus/isolamento & purificação , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Saúde Única , Mpox/transmissão , Mpox/epidemiologia , Mpox/virologia
17.
Microbes Infect ; 26(5-6): 105350, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723999

RESUMO

The widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in humans poses a serious threat to public health security, and a growing number of studies have discovered that SARS-CoV-2 infection in wildlife and mutate over time. This article mainly reports the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in wildlife. The pooled prevalence of the 29 included articles was calculated by us using a random effects model (22.9%) with a high heterogeneity (I2 = 98.7%, p = 0.00). Subgroup analysis and univariate regression analysis found potential risk factors contributing to heterogeneity were country, wildlife species, sample type, longitude, and precipitation. In addition, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in wildlife increased gradually over time. Consequently, it is necessary to comprehensively analyze the risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infection in wildlife and develop effective control policies, as well as to monitor the mutation of SARS-CoV-2 in wildlife at all times to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among different species.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Prevalência , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Wildl Dis ; 60(3): 647-659, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752344

RESUMO

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are among the most detrimental invasive species in the USA. They are damaging to crops and agriculture, pose a public health risk as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens, and may also spread disease to livestock. One pathogen identified in wild pigs is bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a virus that causes an economically important disease of cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus). We sought to determine the BVDV seroprevalence in wild pigs in 17 states across the US and to determine whether age category, sex, or location were associated with a positive antibody titer. Serum samples from 945 wild pigs were collected from 17 US states. Virus neutralization assays were performed to determine antibody titers against BVDV-1b and BVDV-2a. Total BVDV seroprevalence for the study area was 5.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.11-8.89). Seroprevalence across all evaluated states was determined to be 4.4% (95% CI, 2.48-6.82) for BVDV-1b and 3.6% (95% CI, 1.54-5.60) for BVDV-2a. The seroprevalence for individual states varied from 0% to 16.7%. There was no statistical difference in median antibody titer for BVDV-1b or BVDV-2a by sex or age category. State seroprevalences for both BVDV-1b and BVDV-2a were associated with wild pig population estimates for those states.


Assuntos
Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Infecções por Pestivirus , Sus scrofa , Doenças dos Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/fisiologia , Infecções por Pestivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pestivirus/veterinária , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Densidade Demográfica , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1/fisiologia , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/fisiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
J Wildl Dis ; 60(3): 572-583, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742383

RESUMO

The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) is the primary infection reservoir of Arctic rabies, the dynamics of which are poorly understood and subject to significant spatiotemporal variation. Although rabies presence has been documented in the region since the mid-19th century, there is currently no evidence of rabies impacting Arctic fox population size. Under the influence of climate change in a rapidly evolving Arctic ecosystem, alterations in transmission dynamics are predicted, with implications for this species. Concurrently, the World Health Organization leads the United Against Rabies collective in the aim of elimination of dog-mediated rabies by 2030, and although efforts have justifiably been directed to tropical regions, elimination will require a good understanding of rabies in the Arctic. Therefore, this review aimed to provide an overview of current Arctic rabies understanding, while identifying the key knowledge gaps. The review covered spatiotemporal trends in rabies populations, population dynamics of the host species, and current theories about Arctic rabies persistence. It is still unclear how Arctic rabies can persist under low host densities, which has led to several hypotheses in recent years. Creation of high animal density "hotspots" caused by heterogenic fox distribution and multispecies congregations in response to food availability, extensive Arctic fox migration patterns, and the potential evolution to a less lethal variant of rabies may all be part of the explanation. Evidence for these theories by using recent genetic and modeling studies was evaluated within the review. There is currently insufficient evidence about the efficacy and feasibility of vaccines against Arctic rabies. Key knowledge gaps need addressing to enable future control campaigns.


Assuntos
Raposas , Raiva , Raposas/virologia , Animais , Raiva/veterinária , Raiva/epidemiologia , Regiões Árticas/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia
20.
J Wildl Dis ; 60(3): 799-801, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752359

RESUMO

Coyotes (Canis latrans) share urban habitats with domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), providing opportunities for pathogen transmission. In Chicago, Illinois, USA, canine influenza virus (CIV) is prevalent in dogs. Serologic investigation for exposure in 101 coyote samples collected 2000-23 did not detect any antibodies against CIV H3N2 and H3N8.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Coiotes , Doenças do Cão , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8 , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , Coiotes/sangue , Coiotes/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Cães , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Feminino , Illinois/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Animais Selvagens/virologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...