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2.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696405

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are widespread and highly diversified in wildlife and domestic mammals and can emerge as zoonotic or epizootic pathogens and consequently host shift from these reservoirs, highlighting the importance of veterinary surveillance. All genera can be found in mammals, with α and ß showing the highest frequency and diversification. The aims of this study were to review the literature for features of CoV surveillance in animals, to test widely used molecular protocols, and to identify the most effective one in terms of spectrum and sensitivity. We combined a literature review with analyses in silico and in vitro using viral strains and archive field samples. We found that most protocols defined as pan-coronavirus are strongly biased towards α- and ß-CoVs and show medium-low sensitivity. The best results were observed using our new protocol, showing LoD 100 PFU/mL for SARS-CoV-2, 50 TCID50/mL for CaCoV, 0.39 TCID50/mL for BoCoV, and 9 ± 1 log2 ×10-5 HA for IBV. The protocol successfully confirmed the positivity for a broad range of CoVs in 30/30 field samples. Our study points out that pan-CoV surveillance in mammals could be strongly improved in sensitivity and spectrum and propose the application of a new RT-PCR assay, which is able to detect CoVs from all four genera, with an optimal sensitivity for α-, ß-, and γ-.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Deltacoronavirus/genética , Gammacoronavirus/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19/veterinária , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Gado/virologia , Roedores/virologia
3.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696423

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which continues to spread with devastating effects on global health and socioeconomics. The susceptibility of domestic and wild animal species to infection is a critical facet of SARS-CoV-2 ecology, since reverse zoonotic spillover events resulting in SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in animal populations could result in the establishment of new virus reservoirs. Adaptive mutations in the virus to new animal species could also complicate ongoing mitigation strategies to combat SARS-CoV-2. In addition, animal species susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection are essential as standardized preclinical models for the development and efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics. In this review, we summarize the current findings regarding the susceptibility of different domestic and wild animal species to experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection and provide detailed descriptions of the clinical disease and transmissibility in these animals. In addition, we outline the documented natural infections in animals that have occurred at the human-animal interface. A comprehensive understanding of animal susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to inform public health, veterinary, and agricultural systems, and to guide environmental policies.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , COVID-19/veterinária , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , COVID-19/patologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Zoonoses
4.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696445

RESUMO

In summer 2020, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detected on mink farms in Utah. An interagency One Health response was initiated to assess the extent of the outbreak and included sampling animals from on or near affected mink farms and testing them for SARS-CoV-2 and non-SARS coronaviruses. Among the 365 animals sampled, including domestic cats, mink, rodents, raccoons, and skunks, 261 (72%) of the animals harbored at least one coronavirus. Among the samples that could be further characterized, 127 alphacoronaviruses and 88 betacoronaviruses (including 74 detections of SARS-CoV-2 in mink) were identified. Moreover, at least 10% (n = 27) of the coronavirus-positive animals were found to be co-infected with more than one coronavirus. Our findings indicate an unexpectedly high prevalence of coronavirus among the domestic and wild free-roaming animals tested on mink farms. These results raise the possibility that mink farms could be potential hot spots for future trans-species viral spillover and the emergence of new pandemic coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/veterinária , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Gatos , Hotspot de Doença , Feminino , Masculino , Mephitidae/virologia , Camundongos , Vison/virologia , Guaxinins/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Utah/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 306, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521392

RESUMO

Globally, outbreaks of Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) in poultry continue to burden economies and endanger human, livestock and wildlife health. Wild waterbirds are often identified as possible sources for poultry infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the ecological and environmental factors that directly influence infection dynamics in wild birds, as these factors may thereby indirectly affect outbreaks in poultry. In Australia, where large parts of the country experience erratic rainfall patterns, intense rainfalls lead to wild waterfowl breeding events at temporary wetlands and increased proportions of immunologically naïve juvenile birds. It is hypothesized that after breeding, when the temporary wetlands dry, increasing densities of immunologically naïve waterbirds returning to permanent water bodies might strongly contribute to AIV prevalence in wild waterfowl in Australia. Since rainfall has been implicated as an important environmental driver in AIV dynamics in wild waterbirds in southeast Australia and wild waterbirds are identified globally to have a role in virus spillover into poultry, we hypothesise that rainfall events have an indirect effect on AIV outbreaks in poultry in southeast Australia. In this study we investigated this hypothesis by examining the correlation between the timing of AIV outbreaks in poultry in and near the Murray-Darling basin in relation to temporal patterns in regional rainfall since 1970. Our findings support our hypothesis and suggest that the risk of AIV outbreaks in poultry increases after a period of high rainfall, with peak AIV risk two years after the onset of the high-rainfall period. This is presumably triggered by increased rates of waterbird breeding and consequent higher proportions of immunologically naïve juvenile waterbirds entering the population directly after major rainfall events, which subsequently aggregate near permanent water bodies when the landscape dries out.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Chuva , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257898, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555121

RESUMO

In pan Pamir Plateau countries, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) has brought huge losses to the livestock industry and threaten the endangered wildlife. In unknown regions, revealing PPRV transmission among countries is the premise of effective prevention and control, therefore calls for quantified monitoring on disease communication among countries. In this paper, a MaxEnt model was built for the first time to predict the PPR risk within the research area. The least cost path (LCP) for PPR transboundary communication were calculated and referred to as the maximum available paths (MAP). The results show that there are many places with high-risk in the research area, and the domestic risk in China is lower than that in foreign countries and is mainly determined by human activities. Five LCPs representing corridors among Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, India and China were obtained. This study proves for the first time that there is the possibility of cross-border transmission of diseases by wild and domestic animals. In the future, it will play an important role in monitoring the PPR epidemic and blocking-up its cross-border transmission.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Gado/virologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/transmissão , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/classificação , Animais , China , Índia , Cazaquistão , Modelos Teóricos , Paquistão , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Tadjiquistão
8.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372583

RESUMO

The present study was intended to screen the wild crustaceans for co-infection with Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Andaman and Nicobar Archipelago, India. We screened a total of 607 shrimp and 110 crab samples using a specific polymerase chain reaction, and out of them, 82 shrimps (13.5%) and 5 (4.5%) crabs were found positive for co-infection of IHHNV and WSSV. A higher rate of co-infection was observed in Penaeus monodon and Scylla serrata than other shrimp and crab species. The nucleotide sequences of IHHNV and WSSV obtained from crab in this present study exhibited very high sequence identity with their counterparts retrieved from various countries. Histopathological analysis of the infected shrimp gill sections further confirmed the eosinophilic intra-nuclear cowdry type A inclusion bodies and basophilic intra-nuclear inclusion bodies characteristics of IHHNV and WSSV infections, respectively. The present study serves as the first report on co-infection of WSSV and IHHNV in Andaman and Nicobar Archipelago, India and accentuates the critical need for continuous monitoring of wild crustaceans and appropriate biosecurity measures for brackishwater aquaculture.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/virologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Penaeidae/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Aquicultura/métodos , Densovirinae/genética , Densovirinae/patogenicidade , Índia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/genética , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/patogenicidade
9.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(5): 1980-1988, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This research aims to explore the factors motivate consumers to eat game meat during a multi-state disease outbreak. METHODS: It proposes a segmentation of consumers based on their attitudes toward and reveals the consumers' food beliefs that motivate their actions. Three segments of game meat consumers were identified: identity seekers, health seekers, and taste seekers. RESULTS: A survey of the potential impact that the COVID-19 crisis has on these three clusters' future food choices showed that the identity and health seekers are more open to a change in food choices. However, the taste seekers are less likely to be influenced by external factors. CONCLUSIONS: This research indicates that for the policymakers, the key is to take game meat consumers as an effective intervention entry point. It is crucial to facilitate healthy food choices and to promote socially- and culturally-appropriate food beliefs by improving public awareness of the risks of game meat, and invest in organic food. RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS: This research provides new insights into the food beliefs of game meat consumers via motivation-based segmentation.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Carne/normas , Motivação , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Animais , Ansiedade , COVID-19/etiologia , China , Comportamento de Escolha , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Discriminante , Escolaridade , Feminino , Alimentos Orgânicos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Paladar
10.
Adv Virus Res ; 110: 59-102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353482

RESUMO

Within only one year after the first detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), nearly 100 million infections were reported in the human population globally, with more than two million fatal cases. While SARS-CoV-2 most likely originated from a natural wildlife reservoir, neither the immediate viral precursor nor the reservoir or intermediate hosts have been identified conclusively. Due to its zoonotic origin, SARS-CoV-2 may also be relevant to animals. Thus, to evaluate the host range of the virus and to assess the risk to act as potential animal reservoir, a large number of different animal species were experimentally infected with SARS-CoV-2 or monitored in the field in the last months. In this review, we provide an update on studies describing permissive and resistant animal species. Using a scoring system based on viral genome detection subsequent to SARS-CoV-2 inoculation, seroconversion, the development of clinical signs and transmission to conspecifics or humans, the susceptibility of diverse animal species was classified on a semi-quantitative scale. While major livestock species such as pigs, cattle and poultry are mostly resistant, companion animals appear moderately susceptible, while several model animal species used in research, including several Cricetidae species and non-human primates, are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. By natural infections, it became obvious that American minks (Neovison vison) in fur farms, e.g., in the Netherlands and Denmark are highly susceptible resulting in local epidemics in these animals.


Assuntos
COVID-19/veterinária , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/diagnóstico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Gado/virologia , Modelos Animais , Animais de Estimação/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
12.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452362

RESUMO

The revealed prevalence of coronaviruses in wild bird populations in Poland was 4.15% and the main reservoirs were birds from orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, with a prevalence of 3.51% and 5.59%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected more often than deltacoronaviruses, with detection rates of 3.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected in birds belonging to six orders, including Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Columbiformes, Galliformes, Gruiformes, and Passeriformes, indicating a relatively wide host range. Interestingly, this was the only coronavirus detected in Anseriformes (3.51%), while in Charadriiformes, the prevalence was 3.1%. The identified gammacoronaviruses belonged to the Igacovirus and Brangacovirus subgeneras. Most of these were igacoviruses and formed a common phylogenetic group with a Duck Coronavirus 2714 and two with an Avian Coronavirus/Avian Coronavirus9203, while the viruses from the pigeons formed a distinct "pigeon-like" group, not yet officially represented. The presence of deltacoronaviruses was detected in birds belonging to three orders, Charadriiformes, Galliformes, and Suliformes indicating a narrower host range. Most identified deltacoronaviruses belonged to the Buldecovirus subgenus, while only one belonged to Herdecovirus. Interestingly, the majority of buldecoviruses were identified in gulls, and they formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage not represented by any officially ratified virus species. Another separate group of buldecoviruses, also not represented by the official species, was formed by a virus identified in a common snipe. Only one identified buldecovirus (from common pheasant) formed a group with the ratified species Coronavirus HKU15. The results obtained indicate the high diversity of detected coronaviruses, and thus also the need to update their taxonomy (establishing new representative virus species). The serological studies performed revealed antibodies against an infectious bronchitis virus in the sera of white storks and mallards.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Biodiversidade , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Gammacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Anseriformes/virologia , Charadriiformes/virologia , Columbiformes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Patos/virologia , Galliformes/virologia , Gammacoronavirus/classificação , Gammacoronavirus/genética , Filogenia , Polônia
13.
Curr Biol ; 31(16): 3671-3677.e3, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237267

RESUMO

Most new infectious diseases emerge when pathogens transfer from animals to humans.1,2 The suspected origin of the COVID pandemic in a wildlife wet market has resurfaced debates on the role of wildlife trade as a potential source of emerging zoonotic diseases.3-5 Yet there are no studies quantitatively assessing zoonotic disease risk associated with wildlife trade. Combining data on mammal species hosting zoonotic viruses and mammals known to be in current and future wildlife trade,6 we found that one-quarter (26.5%) of the mammals in wildlife trade harbor 75% of known zoonotic viruses, a level much higher than domesticated and non-traded mammals. The traded mammals also harbor distinct compositions of zoonotic viruses and different host reservoirs from non-traded and domesticated mammals. Furthermore, we highlight that primates, ungulates, carnivores, and bats represent significant zoonotic disease risks as they host 132 (58%) of 226 known zoonotic viruses in present wildlife trade, whereas species of bats, rodents, and marsupials represent significant zoonotic disease risks in future wildlife trade. Thus, the risk of carrying zoonotic diseases is not equal for all mammal species in wildlife trade. Overall, our findings strengthen the evidence that wildlife trade and zoonotic disease risks are strongly associated, and that mitigation measures should prioritize species with the highest risk of carrying zoonotic viruses. Curbing the sales of wildlife products and developing principles that support the sustainable and healthy trade of wildlife could be cost-effective investments given the potential risk and consequences of zoonotic outbreaks.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Comércio , Mamíferos/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009536, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264951

RESUMO

Mongooses, a nonnative species, are a known reservoir of rabies virus in the Caribbean region. A cross-sectional study of mongooses at 41 field sites on the US Virgin Islands of St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas captured 312 mongooses (32% capture rate). We determined the absence of rabies virus by antigen testing and rabies virus exposure by antibody testing in mongoose populations on all three islands. USVI is the first Caribbean state to determine freedom-from-rabies for its mongoose populations with a scientifically-led robust cross-sectional study. Ongoing surveillance activities will determine if other domestic and wildlife populations in USVI are rabies-free.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Herpestidae/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Ilhas Virgens Americanas
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 218, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by influenza A virus of subtype H5N8 have been reported in wild birds and poultry in Europe during autumn 2020. Norway is one of the few countries in Europe that had not previously detected HPAI virus, despite widespread active monitoring of both domestic and wild birds since 2005. RESULTS: We report detection of HPAI virus subtype H5N8 in a wild pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), and several other geese, ducks and a gull, from south-western Norway in November and December 2020. Despite previous reports of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI), this constitutes the first detections of HPAI in Norway. CONCLUSIONS: The mode of introduction is unclear, but a northward migration of infected geese or gulls from Denmark or the Netherlands during the autumn of 2020 is currently our main hypothesis for the introduction of HPAI to Norway. The presence of HPAI in wild birds constitutes a new, and ongoing, threat to the Norwegian poultry industry, and compliance with the improved biosecurity measures on poultry farms should therefore be ensured. [MK1]Finally, although HPAI of subtype H5N8 has been reported to have very low zoonotic potential, this is a reminder that HPAI with greater zoonotic potential in wild birds may pose a threat in the future. [MK1]Updated with a sentence emphasizing the risk HPAI pose to poultry farms, both in the Abstract and in the Conclusion-section in main text, as suggested by Reviewer 1 (#7).


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Charadriiformes , Patos , Gansos , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Noruega/epidemiologia
16.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070175

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had devastating health and socio-economic impacts. Human activities, especially at the wildlife interphase, are at the core of forces driving the emergence of new viral agents. Global surveillance activities have identified bats as the natural hosts of diverse coronaviruses, with other domestic and wildlife animal species possibly acting as intermediate or spillover hosts. The African continent is confronted by several factors that challenge prevention and response to novel disease emergences, such as high species diversity, inadequate health systems, and drastic social and ecosystem changes. We reviewed published animal coronavirus surveillance studies conducted in Africa, specifically summarizing surveillance approaches, species numbers tested, and findings. Far more surveillance has been initiated among bat populations than other wildlife and domestic animals, with nearly 26,000 bat individuals tested. Though coronaviruses have been identified from approximately 7% of the total bats tested, surveillance among other animals identified coronaviruses in less than 1%. In addition to a large undescribed diversity, sequences related to four of the seven human coronaviruses have been reported from African bats. The review highlights research gaps and the disparity in surveillance efforts between different animal groups (particularly potential spillover hosts) and concludes with proposed strategies for improved future biosurveillance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronaviridae/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Pandemias , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
17.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1831): 20200228, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176326

RESUMO

The goal of achieving enhanced diagnosis and continuous monitoring of human health has led to a vibrant, dynamic and well-funded field of research in medical sensing and biosensor technologies. The field has many sub-disciplines which focus on different aspects of sensor science; engaging engineers, chemists, biochemists and clinicians, often in interdisciplinary teams. The trends which dominate include the efforts to develop effective point of care tests and implantable/wearable technologies for early diagnosis and continuous monitoring. This review will outline the current state of the art in a number of relevant fields, including device engineering, chemistry, nanoscience and biomolecular detection, and suggest how these advances might be employed to develop effective systems for measuring physiology, detecting infection and monitoring biomarker status in wild animals. Special consideration is also given to the emerging threat of antimicrobial resistance and in the light of the current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, zoonotic infections. Both of these areas involve significant crossover between animal and human health and are therefore well placed to seed technological developments with applicability to both human and animal health and, more generally, the reviewed technologies have significant potential to find use in the measurement of physiology in wild animals. This article is part of the theme issue 'Measuring physiology in free-living animals (Part II)'.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Infecção por Zika virus/veterinária , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Engenharia Celular/métodos , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Testes Imediatos , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico
18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0236971, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106949

RESUMO

Coronaviruses play an important role as pathogens of humans and animals, and the emergence of epidemics like SARS, MERS and COVID-19 is closely linked to zoonotic transmission events primarily from wild animals. Bats have been found to be an important source of coronaviruses with some of them having the potential to infect humans, with other animals serving as intermediate or alternate hosts or reservoirs. Host diversity may be an important contributor to viral diversity and thus the potential for zoonotic events. To date, limited research has been done in Africa on this topic, in particular in the Congo Basin despite frequent contact between humans and wildlife in this region. We sampled and, using consensus coronavirus PCR-primers, tested 3,561 wild animals for coronavirus RNA. The focus was on bats (38%), rodents (38%), and primates (23%) that posed an elevated risk for contact with people, and we found coronavirus RNA in 121 animals, of which all but two were bats. Depending on the taxonomic family, bats were significantly more likely to be coronavirus RNA-positive when sampled either in the wet (Pteropodidae and Rhinolophidae) or dry season (Hipposideridae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae, and Vespertilionidae). The detected RNA sequences correspond to 15 alpha- and 6 betacoronaviruses, with some of them being very similar (>95% nucleotide identities) to known coronaviruses and others being more unique and potentially representing novel viruses. In seven of the bats, we detected RNA most closely related to sequences of the human common cold coronaviruses 229E or NL63 (>80% nucleotide identities). The findings highlight the potential for coronavirus spillover, especially in regions with a high diversity of bats and close human contact, and reinforces the need for ongoing surveillance.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Roedores/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Quirópteros/genética , Congo/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Roedores/genética
20.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066336

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of goats and sheep that occurs in Africa, the Middle East and Asia with a severe impact on livelihoods and livestock trade. Many wild artiodactyls are susceptible to PPR virus (PPRV) infection, and some outbreaks have threatened endangered wild populations. The role of wild species in PPRV epidemiology is unclear, which is a knowledge gap for the Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication of PPR. These studies aimed to investigate PPRV infection in wild artiodactyls in the Greater Serengeti and Amboseli ecosystems of Kenya and Tanzania. Out of 132 animals purposively sampled in 2015-2016, 19.7% were PPRV seropositive by ID Screen PPR competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA; IDvet, France) from the following species: African buffalo, wildebeest, topi, kongoni, Grant's gazelle, impala, Thomson's gazelle, warthog and gerenuk, while waterbuck and lesser kudu were seronegative. In 2018-2019, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected African buffalo and Grant's gazelle herds was conducted. The weighted estimate of PPRV seroprevalence was 12.0% out of 191 African buffalo and 1.1% out of 139 Grant's gazelles. All ocular and nasal swabs and faeces were negative by PPRV real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Investigations of a PPR-like disease in sheep and goats confirmed PPRV circulation in the area by rapid detection test and/or RT-qPCR. These results demonstrated serological evidence of PPRV infection in wild artiodactyl species at the wildlife-livestock interface in this ecosystem where PPRV is endemic in domestic small ruminants. Exposure to PPRV could be via spillover from infected small ruminants or from transmission between wild animals, while the relatively low seroprevalence suggests that sustained transmission is unlikely. Further studies of other major wild artiodactyls in this ecosystem are required, such as impala, Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Ecossistema , Gado/virologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/fisiologia , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/história , Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Geografia Médica , História do Século XXI , Quênia/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/história , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/classificação , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
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