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1.
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 31(1): 1-15, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716225

RESUMO

One consequence of the lockdowns that many countries have introduced in response to the COVID-19 pandemic is that people have become more vulnerable to loneliness. In this contribution, I argue that even if this does not render lockdowns unjustified, it is morally incumbent upon states to make reasonable efforts to protect their residents from loneliness for as long as their social confinement measures remain in place. Without attempting to provide an exhaustive list of ways in which this might be done, I identify four broad measures that I believe many, if not most, states ought to take. These require states to (i) help ensure that people have affordable access to the internet, as well as opportunities for learning how to use this medium so as that they can digitally connect to others; (ii) help people to have harmonious and rewarding intimate relationships; and try to make (iii) non-human companionship as well as (iv) various non-social solutions to loneliness widely available.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Solidão , Quarentena , Governo Estadual , Animais , Humanos , Acesso à Internet , Relações Interpessoais , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Animais de Estimação , Isolamento Social , Estados Unidos
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1593, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707426

RESUMO

Robust evidence supporting strategies for companion animal antimicrobial stewardship is limited, despite frequent prescription of highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIA). Here we describe a randomised controlled trial where electronic prescription data were utilised (August 2018-January 2019) to identify above average HPCIA-prescribing practices (n = 60), which were randomly assigned into a control group (CG) and two intervention groups. In March 2019, the light intervention group (LIG) and heavy intervention group (HIG) were notified of their above average status, and were provided with educational material (LIG, HIG), in-depth benchmarking (HIG), and follow-up meetings (HIG). Following notification, follow-up monitoring lasted for eight months (April-November 2019; post-intervention period) for all intervention groups, though HIG practices were able to access further support (i.e., follow-up meetings) for the first six of these months if requested. Post-intervention, in the HIG a 23.5% and 39.0% reduction in canine (0.5% of total consultations, 95% confidence interval, 0.4-0.6, P = 0.04) and feline (4.4%, 3.4-5.3, P < 0.001) HPCIA-prescribing consultations was observed, compared to the CG (dogs: 0.6%, 0.5-0.8; cats: 7.4%, 6.0-8.7). The LIG was associated with a 16.7% reduction in feline HPCIA prescription (6.1% of total consultations, 5.3-7.0, P = 0.03). Therefore, in this trial we have demonstrated effective strategies for reducing veterinary HPCIA prescription.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Drogas Veterinárias/uso terapêutico , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Prescrição Eletrônica , Feminino , Masculino , Animais de Estimação
5.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 163(3): 227-237, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650523

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Monitoring programs and guidelines on the use of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in human and veterinary medicine have been developed worldwide to promote the prudent use of antibiotics in recent years. However, such information on the use of antibiotics in exotic pets is absent. This fact must be taken into account, since the number of exotic pet patients is constantly increasing and the administration of antibiotics is particular challenging due to the diversity of species and the differences in physiology. The present study reports the results of a survey of frequently used antibiotics and the criteria of antibiotic usage in exotic pets (rabbits, rodents, birds and reptiles) among Swiss veterinarians. These data should form the basis for the development of antibiotic usage guidelines in exotic pets. A total of 61 veterinarians returned the questionnaire. The most important decision-making criteria for antibiotic treatment and antibiotic selection were clinical symptoms (55/59, 93% for antibiotic treatment and 40/59, 68% for antibiotic selection), experience (41/59, 69% and 36/59, 61%, respectively) and textbooks (39/59, 66% and 40/59, 68%). The most important decision-making criteria for dosage and duration of therapy were textbooks (59/59, 100%) and experience (31/59, 53%). The use of a microbial culture was used as a decision criterion for both antibiotic treatment and antibiotic selection by 39% of the participants, sensitivity testing was chosen as a decision criterion by 37% for antibiotic treatment and by 46% for antibiotic selection. Fluoroquinolones were used most frequently, 46/56 (82% of the participants) for rabbits, 49/57 (86%) for rodents, 36/37 (97%) for reptiles and 38/46 (83%) for birds. The vast majority of veterinarians (57/58, 98%) would consult a guide for the use of antibiotics. The frequent use of critical antibiotics in exotic pets underscores the need for a guide to the prudent use of antibiotics. The positive influence of such guidelines has already been proven in dogs and cats.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/veterinária , Animais de Estimação , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça
6.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 42: 101298, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study describes the experiences of Pet Support Program clients in Melbourne, Australia and how the programs reduce the social isolation of the elderly. The study also describes the role of pets and associated health benefits of pet ownership. METHOD: The qualitative description study comprised of two phases: a secondary data analysis of interviews with 14 PSP clients, and key informant interviews with four PSP providers. RESULTS: The interviews were thematically analysed which resulted in three interconnected themes: Attachment, Support and Social Isolation. Social isolation was reduced by the PSP through access to social support groups, as well as the provision of a regular visitor who provides meaningful conversation and companionship. CONCLUSION: These results align with literature on pet ownership and Attachment Theory. The results also offer an insight into how PSPs allow the elderly to maintain pet ownership and age in place, thus enhancing their health and well-being.


Assuntos
Animais de Estimação , Idoso , Animais , Austrália , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Apoio Social
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495179

RESUMO

We present an unusual case of an acutely unwell patient with an upper gastrointestinal bleed whose resuscitation efforts were delayed by the discovery of his, similarly, acutely unwell pet on the medical high dependency unit. We highlight the challenges this provided the clinical team and focus on the issues relating to patient safety, consent and multidisciplinary action which may be more relevant to daily clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/terapia , Gastroscopia , Pesar , Animais de Estimação , Animais , Galinhas , Humanos , Masculino , Competência Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente
8.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 103-117, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189246

RESUMO

Problem behaviors are a leading cause of relinquishment in pet psittacines. Exotic animal practitioners with a good understanding of diagnosis and treatment of common psittacine behavior issues are in a position to enhance the welfare of these birds and their caregivers. Reduced-stress veterinary appointments also lead to less fear and better behavior diagnoses and treatment plans. Every treatment plan focuses on physical and social enrichment, along with behavior modification to treat the motivation behind the diagnosed problem. This article describes how to conduct an appointment that provides the best opportunity for an accurate behavior diagnosis and effective treatment plan.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal , Aves , Animais , Animais de Estimação , Prática Profissional , Medicina Veterinária
9.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 175-195, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189250

RESUMO

Reptile behavior varies widely among the approximately 11,000 species of this class. The authors' objective is to allow practitioners to discriminate between normal and abnormal behaviors in reptiles. Some of the most common reasons for presentation of behavioral issues are discussed, including hyperactivity, self-mutilation, biting, repetitive behaviors, and postural abnormalities. Medical problems and suboptimal husbandry causing abnormal behaviors should be ruled out by attending veterinarians. Addressing behavior issues involves determining a differential diagnosis through a systematic approach, which then allows implementation of necessary environmental changes including enrichment, developing plans for behavior modification and biomedical training, and medication when appropriate.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Animais de Estimação , Répteis/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais
10.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 197-210, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189251

RESUMO

Amphibians represent a diverse group of animals with highly varied behaviors depending on their anatomy, physiology, and ecological niche. Behavioral and welfare issues in amphibians are frequent in captive settings and warrant evaluation. Welfare criteria and clinical diagnostic assays when combined with a comprehension of the natural history of a species are useful tools to improve both the well-being of the individual animal and the population. Correction of environmental factors that affect behavior and, secondarily, survival and reproduction is important in captivity and for the conservation of wild populations.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Animal , Animais de Estimação , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais
11.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 211-227, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189252

RESUMO

Interpreting fish behavior is an important component of providing veterinary care. There are over 28,000 species of fish and while only a handful are commonly encountered by exotic pet and public display veterinarians, there are still hundreds of species to consider. Three models-natural history (species typical modal action patterns), medical (disease state), and learning experience (classical and operant conditioning)-are useful for taking an actionable, holistic approach to interpreting behavior. Models help clinicians formulate appropriate differentials, ensuring they do not exclusively consider disease, particularly in unfamiliar species.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Animal , Peixes , Animais de Estimação , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Humanos
12.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 229-251, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189253

RESUMO

Invertebrate animals comprise more than 95% of the animal kingdom's species and approximately 40 separate phyla. Yet, invertebrates are an artificial taxon, in which all members simply possess a single negative trait: they lack a vertebral column (backbone). In fact, some invertebrates are more closely related to vertebrates than to their "fellow" invertebrates. For the purpose of this veterinary article, we have elected to review a handful of important groups: Coelenterates, Gastropods, Cephalopods, Chelicerates, Crustaceans, Insects, and Echinoderms. We have primarily included behaviors that may have an impact on clinical case outcome, or be of interest to the veterinary clinician.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Animais de Estimação , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais
13.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 37-51, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189255

RESUMO

Domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) are common zoologic companion animals and display specific body language and vocalizations. Social interactions, play behavior, and resting periods are important keystone in domestic ferret behavior. Specific housing and environmental enrichment are recommended to preserve the expression of normal behavior and physiology in ferrets. Presence of abnormal behaviors, including aggression, urination and defecation outside the litter box, stereotypies, and absence of play behavior, should be carefully monitored by veterinarians and ferret owners to assess ferret wellness. Specific considerations, such as deafness, poor vision, and hybridation with other mustelids, may play a role in ferret behavior.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Furões , Animais , Abrigo para Animais , Animais de Estimação
14.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 53-62, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189256

RESUMO

Rabbits are the third most common mammalian pet in the United States. They make good pets because they generally are nonaggressive and are playful, active, and curious. They form strong social bonds, both with rabbits they live with in the household and with the humans who care for them. They have several behaviors derived from their wild counterparts that can cause problems, if not properly allowed for, or be beneficial, such as their proclivity to use a specific site for elimination.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Coelhos , Animais , Abrigo para Animais , Animais de Estimação
15.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 63-86, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189257

RESUMO

Miniature pet pigs bond readily to people and can make excellent pets as long as they are given an appropriate environment and their behavioral needs are met. They are intelligent and highly social with a strong exploratory drive so, if they are not properly trained and their behavior directed appropriately, they can be destructive and even aggressive in some cases. Most problem behaviors are not a result of behavioral disorder but typically represent normal swine behaviors that people find unacceptable.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Animais de Estimação , Porco Miniatura , Animais , Abrigo para Animais , Suínos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0225023, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326450

RESUMO

Dog training methods range broadly from those using mostly positive punishment and negative reinforcement (aversive-based) to those using primarily positive reinforcement (reward-based). Although aversive-based training has been strongly criticized for negatively affecting dog welfare, there is no comprehensive research focusing on companion dogs and mainstream techniques, and most studies rely on owner-reported assessment of training methods and dog behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aversive- and reward-based training methods on companion dog welfare within and outside the training context. Ninety-two companion dogs were recruited from three reward-based schools (Group Reward, n = 42), and from four aversive-based schools, two using low proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Mixed, n = 22) and two using high proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Aversive, n = 28). For evaluating welfare during training, dogs were video recorded for three sessions and six saliva samples were collected, three at home (baseline levels) and three after training (post-training levels). Video recordings were used to examine the frequency of stress-related behaviors (e.g., lip lick, yawn) and the overall behavioral state of the dog (e.g., tense, relaxed), and saliva samples were analyzed for cortisol concentration. For evaluating welfare outside the training context, dogs participated in a cognitive bias task. Results showed that dogs from Group Aversive displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense and low behavioral states and panted more during training, and exhibited higher post-training increases in cortisol levels than dogs from Group Reward. Additionally, dogs from Group Aversive were more 'pessimistic' in the cognitive bias task than dogs from Group Reward. Dogs from Group Mixed displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense states and panted more during training than dogs from Group Reward. Finally, although Groups Mixed and Aversive did not differ in their performance in the cognitive bias task nor in cortisol levels, the former displayed more stress-related behaviors and was more frequently in tense and low behavioral states. These findings indicate that aversive-based training methods, especially if used in high proportions, compromise the welfare of companion dogs both within and outside the training context.


Assuntos
Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Reforço Psicológico , Afeto/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Cães , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Punição/psicologia , Recompensa , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gravação em Vídeo
17.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 535-539, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356057

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Fish mycobacteriosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by several species of bacteria from the genus Mycobacterium, described as nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The most important species causing fish mycobacterioses are M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, and M. marinum. Mycobacteria infecting fish also include zoonotic pathogens. M. marinum is the cause of most cases of fish-related mycobacterial infection in humans. The disease occurs more frequently in workers in the fishing industry, people whose hobbies involve water activities, and aquarists. The aim of the present study was to examine the occurrence of different species of mycobacteria in freshwater ornamental fish. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The occurrence of Mycobacterium spp. in freshwater ornamental fish was studied from January 2015 - December 2016. Material isolated from skin scrapings, contents of the digestive tracts, and internal organs of ornamental fish was stained with Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) and inoculated on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. All isolates found positive by ZN were identified by amplification of the gene encoding the Hsp65 protein. A total of 408 samples obtained from 136 ornamental fish from 36 species were tested. RESULTS: Using the culture method Mycobacterium was isolated from 69 fish (50.1%) and 99 samples (24.3%). Sequence analysis of gene fragments coding for the Hsp65 protein of 99 isolates revealed occurrence of 13 species of mycobacteria: M. abscessus, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. gordonae, M. marinum, M. mucogenicum, M. neoaurum, M. peregrinum, M. salmoniphilum, M. saopaulense, M. senegalense, M. septicum, and M. szulgai. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained results indicate a significant role of ornamental fish as a source of mycobacteria which are potentially dangerous,especially to humans.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Mycobacterium/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Água Doce , Infecções por Mycobacterium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação , Prevalência
18.
Virol J ; 17(1): 143, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008410

RESUMO

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by a pathogen called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic. This ongoing pandemic has now been reported in 215 countries with more than 23 million confirmed cases and more than 803 thousand deaths worldwide as of August 22, 2020. Although efforts are undergoing, there is no approved vaccine or any specific antiretroviral drug to treat COVID-19 so far. It is now known that SARS-CoV-2 can affect not only humans but also pets and other domestic and wild animals, making it a one health global problem. Several published scientific evidence has shown that bats are the initial reservoir hosts of SARS-CoV-2, and pangolins are suggested as an intermediate hosts. So far, little is known concerning the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19. Therefore, updated knowledge about the potential role of pets in the current outbreak will be of paramount importance for effective prevention and control of the disease. This review summarized the current evidence about the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
19.
Vet Rec ; 187(7): 278, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008987
20.
Niger J Physiol Sci ; 35(1): 4-9, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084622

RESUMO

A novel pulmonary illness caused by coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) of unknown origin was first reported in China. This disease has claimed over a million human lives worldwide. This pandemic respiratory disease spread through droplets on surfaces and community spread. Government of different countries adopted a total lockdown to reduce human to human contact and keep families safe from the disease. This compulsory movement restriction reduces physical activity of individuals which could pose cardiovascular risk to physically inactive African population. This brief states the various cultural and one health approaches that could be adopted to increase physical activity within the home setting. Literature search using pubmed, scopus and google scholar and views of one health personnel in the promotion of physical activity at home during the compulsory lockdown were sought for to identify some simple approaches and gaps that need to be researched on. The overview identified culturally related indoor physical activities in Africa such as ampe or tente that could enhance health. It encouraged dog walking, tending backyard farm and catering for indigenous chicken and small ruminants as means of increasing physical activity. Counseling was proffered by nurses to increase health promotion activities such as setting reminders for physical activities and routine house chores. This submission bring to bear indigenous, flexible and simple measures to combat boredom, promote cardiovascular health by increasng physical activity during the compulsory lockdown currently being experienced in Africa, a known cardiovascular risk, physically inactive population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Exercício Físico , Saúde Única , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena , África , Agricultura , Animais , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Animais de Estimação
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