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2.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 263-284, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802228

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical carcinoma, which and is the third most common cancer, accounting for 275,000 deaths annually worldwide. Adjuvants have a key role in promotion of vaccine efficacy; therefore, using prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines combined with adjuvant could be of great benefit in prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. There are different types of adjuvants, including MF59TM adjuvants, RNA-based, JY (interleukin2/chitosan), cholera toxin (CT), heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), Freund's adjuvant, alum, SA-4-1BBL, λ-carrageenan (λ-CGN), heat shock proteins (HSPs), juzen-taiho-to (JTT) and hochu-ekki-to (HET), ISCOM and ISCOMATRIX™, very small size proteoliposomes (VSSPs), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Adjuvants have various functions, especially in therapeutic vaccines, and they lead to an increase in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), so they are important in the design of vaccines. Here, we review the currently used adjuvants and their combinations with HPV protein vaccines in order to introduce an appropriate adjuvant for HPV vaccines.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 40 p. ilus.
Tese em Português | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IPPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-ESPECIALIZACAOSESPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1053165

RESUMO

A raiva é uma antropozoonose, uma doença infecciosa aguda causada por vírus do gênero Lyssavírus e espécie Rabies vírus. A organização Mundial da Saúde reco-menda que sejam realizados dois testes para diagnóstico da raiva: a imunofluores-cência direta (IFD) e o isolamento viral que pode ser realizado em cultura de células ou em camundongos. A técnica de IVC preconiza que os animais inoculados sejam observados diariamente e que a eutanásia seja realizada quando os animais estive-rem prostrados, apresentando sintomas severos da doença, tais como paralisia de membros, o que acarreta sofrimento animal. Sendo assim, o objetivo principal deste trabalho foi determinar um ponto final humanitário dos animais que adoecem na rotina de diagnóstico da raiva, de modo a reduzir o sofrimento sem que o diagnóstico seja prejudicado. Para tanto, foram utilizadas 20 amostras positivas da rotina laboratorial de diferentes variantes do vírus da raiva. Cada amostra foi inoculada em 5 camundon-gos recém-desmamados, sendo que cada animal foi observado e pesado em balança analítica diariamente. Os animais foram eutanasiados em 3 diferentes momentos: fase 1-no início dos sintomas da doença, quando o animal apresenta perda de peso e sin-tomas inespecíficos (piloereção, apatia); fase 2-aparecimento de sintomas neurológi-cos (incoordenação, alterações de comportamento) e fase 3-fase terminal (dificuldade locomotora, tremores, paralisia de membros). O SNC dos animais eutanasiados foram coletados e submetidos a IFD utilizando anticorpo policlonal e monoclonal, que foi classificada de acordo com a sua intensidade 1 (+) a 4 (+) e para fins de comparação da carga viral obtida em diferentes momentos da doença, foi realizada a titulação viral em cultivo de células N2a para as 3 fases de 4 amostras escolhidas aleatoriamente. Todos os animais foram positivos na IFD e apresentaram intensidade de fluorescência na maioria das amostras entre 2 (+) e 4(+), o que demonstra que não há comprome-timento do diagnóstico pela IFD mesmo que o animal seja eutanasiado em fase inicial da doença. Em relação a titulação viral, não foi observado um aumento do título em relação à evolução da doença. A técnica de IFD apresentou resultados relevantes a partir da primeira fase com vários campos com inclusões. A titulação viral obteve títu-los semelhantes em todas as fases, corroborando que é possível identificar a infecção já no início dos sintomas. Assim, a determinação de um endpoint precoce no diagnós-tico da raiva ou intervenções oportunas deve ser estabelecida, aplicando-se o mais cedo possível, prevenindo, melhorando ou minimizando dores ou angústia desneces-sárias. A observação dos sintomas em fase inicial pode demandar um pouco mais de tempo e pessoal habilitado, podendo ser inviável. A partir da fase 2, a qual os sintomas neurológicos são evidentemente observáveis, pode-se fazer a eutanásia sem a ne-cessidade de esperar a fase terminal, sem causar prejuízo ao diagnóstico como pode ser evidenciado nos resultados obtidos (AU),


Rabies is an anthropozoonosis, an acute infectious disease caused by viruses of the genus Lyssavirus and Rabies virus species. The World Health Organization recom-mends that two tests be performed for rabies diagnosis: direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) and viral isolation that can be carried out in cell culture or in mice. The mouse inoculation test (MIT) recommends daily observation of inoculated animals and eutha-nasia when the animals are prostrate, presenting severe symptoms of the disease, such as limb paralysis, which causes animal suffering. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to determine a humanitarian end point for animals that become ill in the routine of rabies diagnosis, in order to reduction suffering without the diagnosis being harmed. For this purpose, 20 positive samples from the laboratory routine of different rabies virus variants were used. Each sample was inoculated into 5 weaned mice, each animal was observed and weighed on an analytical balance daily. The an-imals were euthanized at 3 different times: phase 1 - at the beginning of the disease symptoms, when the animal shows weight loss and nonspecific symptoms (piloerec-tion, apathy); phase 2 - appearance of neurological symptoms (incoordination, behav-ioral changes) and phase 3 - terminal phase (locomotor difficulties, tremors, limb pa-ralysis). The CNS of the euthanized animals were collected and submitted to DFA us-ing polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, which were classified according to their in-tensity 1 (+) to 4 (+) and for the purpose of comparing the viral load obtained in different moments of the disease, viral titration was performed in N2a cell culture for the 3 phases of 4 samples chosen at random. All animals were positive in IFD and showed fluorescence intensity in most samples between 2 (+) and 4 (+), which demonstrates that there is no impairment of diagnosis by IFD even if the animal is euthanized in the initial phase of disease. Regarding the viral titration, there was no increase in the titre in relation to the evolution of the disease. The DFA technique showed relevant results from the first phase with several fields with inclusions. Viral titration obtained similar titers in all phases, corroborating that it is possible to identify the infection early in the symptoms. Thus, the determination of an early endpoint in the diagnosis of rabies or timely interventions should be established, applying as soon as possible, preventing, improving or minimizing unnecessary pain or distress. The observation of symptoms in the initial phase can demand a little more time and qualified personnel, which may not be viable. From phase 2, which neurological symptoms are clearly observable, euthanasia can be performed without the need to wait for the terminal phase, without causing damage to the diagnosis as can be seen in the results obtained (AU).


Assuntos
Animais , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Determinação de Ponto Final , Alternativas ao Uso de Animais , Raiva/diagnóstico , Eutanásia Animal , Animais de Laboratório , Camundongos
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007930, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815934

RESUMO

The yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), is the primary vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya fever, among other arboviral diseases. It is also a popular laboratory model in vector biology due to its ease of rearing and manipulation in the lab. Established laboratory strains have been used worldwide in thousands of studies for decades. Laboratory evolution of reference strains and contamination among strains are potential severe problems that could dramatically change experimental outcomes and thus is a concern in vector biology. We analyzed laboratory and field colonies of Ae. aegypti and an Ae. aegypti-derived cell line (Aag2) using 12 microsatellites and ~20,000 SNPs to determine the extent of divergence among laboratory strains and relationships to their wild relatives. We found that 1) laboratory populations are less genetically variable than their field counterparts; 2) colonies bearing the same name obtained from different laboratories may be highly divergent; 3) present genetic composition of the LVP strain used as the genome reference is incompatible with its presumed origin; 4) we document changes in two wild caught colonies over ~16 generations of colonization; and 5) the Aag2 Ae. aegypti cell line has experienced minimal genetic changes within and across laboratories. These results illustrate the degree of variability within and among strains of Ae. aegypti, with implications for cross-study comparisons, and highlight the need of a common mosquito repository and the implementation of strain validation tools.


Assuntos
Aedes/classificação , Aedes/genética , Animais de Laboratório/classificação , Animais de Laboratório/genética , Variação Genética , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
5.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (47): 141-157, nov. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184871

RESUMO

La clonación y transgénesis animal son prácticas biotecnológicas en auge, para nada exentas de problemáticas éticas en lo que respecta al uso que hacen de los animales no humanos. En este artículo se examinan los diversos ámbitos de aplicación de la clonación animal (médico-farmacéutico, industria alimentaria, recreación de especies extintas, clonación de animales de compañía e industria artística y deportiva) y se revisan los principales argumentos éticos que cuestionan la clonación y la transgénesis animal desde una perspectiva antiespecista. Esta perspectiva sostiene que los animales no humanos son merecedores de consideración moral como sujetos de vidas significativas, y no únicamente como medios para la realización de fines humanos


La clonació i transgènesi animal són pràctiques biotecnològiques creixents i no exemptes de problemàtiques ètiques pel que fa a l'ús que fan dels animals no humans. En aquest article s'examinen els diversos àmbits d'aplicació de la clonació animal (metge-farmacèutic, indústria alimentària, recreació d'espècies extintes, clonació d'animals de companyia i indústria artística i esportiva) i es revisen els principals arguments ètics que qüestionen la clonació i la transgènesi animal des d'una perspectiva antiespecista. Aquesta perspectiva sosté que els animals no humans són mereixedors de consideració moral com a subjectes de vides significatives, i no únicament com a mitjans per a la realització de finalitats humanes


Animal cloning and animal transgenesis are growing biotechnological practices, not at all exempt from ethical problems regarding the use they make of non-human animals. This article examines the different areas of application of animal cloning (medical-pharmaceutical, food industry, recreating of extinct species, cloning of companion animals and the art and sport industries) and reviews the main ethical arguments that question cloning and animal transgenesis from an antispeciesist perspective. This perspective argues that non-human animals deserve moral consideration as subjects of meaningful lives, and not only as means for the achievement of human ends


Assuntos
Animais , Clonagem de Organismos/ética , Clonagem de Organismos/veterinária , Biotecnologia/ética , Direitos dos Animais/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Animais de Laboratório
10.
Nature ; 573(7773): 297-298, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501583
11.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(3): 370-374, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512423

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to study the migration of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSC) in old laboratory animals under physiological conditions and after liver resection. Different routes of administration were used: to the caudal vein, intraperitoneal, hepatic artery, portal vein. Studies have shown the ability of the old organism to respond to changes in the directed migration of MMSCs in the tissues that have undergone the greatest damage, which may be due to the production of connective tissue of the damaged organ chemoattractant. In contrast intraperitoneal, other delivery methods MMSC: tail vein, v. portae, a. hepatica, are more effective.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular , Fígado , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Fígado/cirurgia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia
12.
Toxicol Pathol ; 47(6): 665-783, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526133

RESUMO

The INHAND Project (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative changes in rats and mice. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying changes observed in the hematolymphoid organs, including the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, and other lymphoid tissues (serosa-associated lymphoid clusters and tertiary lymphoid structures) with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of the lesions. Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. The nomenclature for these organs is divided into 3 terminologies: descriptive, conventional, and enhanced. Three terms are listed for each diagnosis. The rationale for this approach and guidance for its application to toxicologic pathology are described in detail below.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Doenças da Medula Óssea/classificação , Medula Óssea , Doenças Linfáticas/classificação , Tecido Linfoide , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Medula Óssea/anatomia & histologia , Medula Óssea/patologia , Doenças da Medula Óssea/sangue , Doenças da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Doenças da Medula Óssea/patologia , Doenças Linfáticas/sangue , Doenças Linfáticas/imunologia , Doenças Linfáticas/patologia , Tecido Linfoide/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Linfoide/patologia , Camundongos , Ratos , Terminologia como Assunto
16.
Altern Lab Anim ; 47(2): 82-92, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397165

RESUMO

The legal structure that governs animal use in Turkey is in line with that of the European Union (EU). In 2004, legislation on the use of animals for experimental and other scientific purposes was established in Turkey for the first time. The present study aimed to compare the data on experimental animal use in Turkey (during the period 2008-2017) with similar reports from selected countries (the United States, Australia, Canada and the EU). In Turkey, a total of 2,104,828 animals were used for experimental and other scientific purposes during 2008-2017. Of the animals used, 758,887 were fish (36%), 433,417 rats (21%), 302,512 birds other than quail (14%) and 285,531 mice (13%). According to a breakdown by purpose for use, in Turkey during 2009-2017, out of a total number of 1,955,307 animals used, 56% were for fundamental biological studies, with a high proportion used for research on animal disease. Compared with the other countries, fewer animals were used in Turkey although the national trend seems to indicate that the number is fluctuating. Further studies are required to uncover the reasons behind this reduced animal use in Turkey, as compared to other countries.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal , Animais de Laboratório , Experimentação Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Austrália , Canadá , União Europeia , Turquia , Estados Unidos
17.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(8): 1191-1196, 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281141

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is known to cause zoonotic infections from pigs, wild boars and deer. Domestic pigs have been used as an experimental animal model in medical research and training; however, the risks of HEV infection from pigs during animal experiments are largely unknown. Here, we retrospectively investigated the seroprevalence and detection rates of viral RNA in 73 domestic pigs (average 34.5 kg) introduced into an animal experimental facility in a medical school during 2012-2016. We detected anti-HEV immunoglobulin G antibodies in 24 of 73 plasma samples (32.9%), though none of the samples were positive for viral RNA. Plasma samples of 18 pigs were sequentially monitored and were classified into four patterns: sustained positive (5 pigs), sustained negative (5 pigs), conversion to positive (6 pigs) and conversion to negative (2 pigs). HEV genomes were detected in 2 of 4 liver samples from pigs that were transported from the same farm during 2016-2017. Two viral sequences of the overlapping open reading frame (ORF) 2/3 region (97 bp) were identical and phylogenetically fell into genotype 3. A 459-bp length of the ORF2 region of an amplified fragment from a pig transported in 2017 was clustered with the wbJYG1 isolate (subgenotype 3b) with 91.5% (420/459 bp) nucleotide identity. Based on our results, we suggest that domestic pigs introduced into animal facilities carry a potential risk of HEV infection to researchers, trainees and facility staff. Continuous surveillance and precautions are important to prevent HEV infection in animal facilities.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E/transmissão , Hepatite E/veterinária , Hepatite E/virologia , Sus scrofa/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite E/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Faculdades de Medicina , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos
18.
Altern Lab Anim ; 47(2): 71-81, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319697

RESUMO

In Brazil, efforts towards the regulatory acceptance and implementation of innovative methods to replace experimental animal use in various fields began to gather force in 2008, with the approval of Law No. 11,794/2008 (the Arouca Law). This law represented a milestone, as it created the National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA) to deal with the ethical and legal issues related to the use of laboratory animals. In 2014, CONCEA put together a framework for expanding the implementation of non-animal methodologies for use in research and education. It also promoted the regulatory acceptance in Brazil of 24 test guidelines, including 15 in vitro approaches. It should be emphasised that, in Brazilian legislation, replacement is generally based on the toxicological endpoint and not on the category of product, as tends to be the case in other countries (e.g. cosmetics in the European Union). The resolution-dependent deadlines for the obligatory replacement of in vivo methods with the CONCEA-approved tests are 2019 and 2021. Brazil has advanced considerably towards the replacement of animal experimentation, and in certain aspects, this has been in a highly progressive manner. However, there is still a lot of work to be done, especially considering the current political scenario with reduced investment in research, development and innovation. The chronology of significant events following the approval of the Arouca Law, which have contributed to the promotion of the Three Rs alternatives in Brazil, will be examined.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal , Alternativas aos Testes com Animais , Alternativas aos Testes com Animais/tendências , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Brasil , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300123

RESUMO

Encephalitozoon cuniculi infects a wide variety of domestic and wild mammalian species including humans. Although the infection status has been studied in laboratory and pet rabbits worldwide, there is shortage of information regarding the disease in Iran. In the present study, the occurrence of infection in brains of 117 asymptomatic rabbits from six breeding and experimental units with highest population of rabbit colonies in the country (n = 60) as well as pet rabbits of pet stores in two cities (n = 57) were examined by nested-PCR. Histological sections of brains and kidneys were also studied by light microscopy. PCR results revealed that 3.3% of laboratory rabbits (2/60) and 59.6% of pet rabbits (34/57) harboured E. cuniculi in their brains. Histopathology on the other hand showed spores of the parasite in kidney and brain of one and kidney of another pet rabbit. As encephalitozoonosis may interfere with results of experiments performed on laboratory rabbits, routine screenings for identification and culling of infected animals is recommended. Furthermore, infected companion rabbits can transmit E. cuniculi to people in close contact with them, therefore, improving public knowledge of this zoonotic infection is suggested.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório/microbiologia , Encefalitozoonose/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Coelhos/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encephalitozoon cuniculi/genética , Encefalitozoonose/microbiologia , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Rim/microbiologia , Rim/patologia , Masculino
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