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2.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051368

RESUMO

Despite numerous barriers to transmission, zoonoses are the major cause of emerging infectious diseases in humans. Among these, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and ebolaviruses have killed thousands; the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has killed millions. Zoonoses and human-to-animal cross-species transmission are driven by human actions and have important management, conservation, and public health implications. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which presumably originated from an animal reservoir, has killed more than half a million people around the world and cases continue to rise. In March 2020, New York City was a global epicenter for SARS-CoV-2 infections. During this time, four tigers and three lions at the Bronx Zoo, NY, developed mild, abnormal respiratory signs. We detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory secretions and/or feces from all seven animals, live virus in three, and colocalized viral RNA with cellular damage in one. We produced nine whole SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the animals and keepers and identified different SARS-CoV-2 genotypes in the tigers and lions. Epidemiologic and genomic data indicated human-to-tiger transmission. These were the first confirmed cases of natural SARS-CoV-2 animal infections in the United States and the first in nondomestic species in the world. We highlight disease transmission at a nontraditional interface and provide information that contributes to understanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission across species.IMPORTANCE The human-animal-environment interface of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an important aspect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that requires robust One Health-based investigations. Despite this, few reports describe natural infections in animals or directly link them to human infections using genomic data. In the present study, we describe the first cases of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in tigers and lions in the United States and provide epidemiological and genetic evidence for human-to-animal transmission of the virus. Our data show that tigers and lions were infected with different genotypes of SARS-CoV-2, indicating two independent transmission events to the animals. Importantly, infected animals shed infectious virus in respiratory secretions and feces. A better understanding of the susceptibility of animal species to SARS-CoV-2 may help to elucidate transmission mechanisms and identify potential reservoirs and sources of infection that are important in both animal and human health.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Panthera/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
3.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 52, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental changes contribute to the development of ophthalmic diseases in sea turtles, but information on their eye biometrics is scarce. The aim of this study was to describe ophthalmic ultrasonographic features of four different sea turtle species; Caretta caretta (Loggerhead turtle; n = 10), Chelonia mydas (Green turtle; n = 8), Eretmochelys imbricata (Hawksbill turtle; n = 8) and Lepidochelys olivacea (Olive ridley; n = 6) under human care. Corneal thickness, scleral ossicle width and thickness, anterior chamber depth, axial length of the lens, vitreous chamber depth and axial globe length were measured by B-mode sonography with a linear transducer. Carapace size and animal weight were recorded. A sonographic description of the eye structures was established. RESULTS: The four species presented an ovate eyeball, a relatively thin cornea, and a small-sized lens positioned rostrally in the eye bulb, near the cornea, resulting in a shallow anterior chamber. The scleral ossicles did not prevent the evaluation of intraocular structures, even with a rotated eye or closed eyelids; image formation beyond the ossicles and measurements of all proposed structures were possible. B-mode sonography was easily performed in all animals studied. The sonographic characteristics of the eye were similar among the four species. Since there was a correlation between the size of the eye structures and the size of the individual, especially its carapace size, the differences found between E. imbricata and Caretta caretta are believed to be due to their overall difference in size. CONCLUSIONS: Sonography is a valuable tool in ophthalmic evaluation of these species. Only minor differences were found between the species in this study, reinforcing their phylogenetic proximity and their similar functions and habitats.


Assuntos
Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Tartarugas/anatomia & histologia , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/anatomia & histologia , Brasil , Valores de Referência , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3659-3673, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960371

RESUMO

Alongside exotic reptiles, amphibians, such as toads, frogs, salamanders, and newts, are nowadays considered popular pets worldwide. As reported for other exotic pet animals, amphibians are known to harbor numerous gastrointestinal parasites. Nonetheless, very little data are available on captive amphibian parasitic diseases. In this study, we applied direct saline fecal smears (DSFS) to examine in total 161 stool samples from 41 different amphibian species belonging to the orders Anura and Caudata. In addition, carbolfuchsin-smear (CFS) staining (n = 74 samples) was used to detect amphibian Cryptosporidium oocysts. Also, complete dissections of deceased amphibians (n = 107) were performed to specify parasite infections and to address parasite-associated pathogenicity. Overall, examined amphibian fecal samples contained 12 different parasite taxa. The order Rhabditida with the species Rhabdias spp. and Strongyloides spp. were the most prevalent nematode species (19.3%), followed by flagellated protozoans (8.7%), Amphibiocapillaria spp./Neocapillaria spp. (7.5%), Oswaldocruzia spp. (4.3%), Blastocystis spp. (3.1%), Cosmocerca spp. (3.1%), oxyurids (Pharyngonoidae) (3.1%), spirurids (1.2%), un-sporulated coccidian oocysts (0.6%), Tritrichomonas spp. (0.6%), Karotomorpha spp. (0.6%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (0.6%). One CFS-stained fecal sample (1.4%) was positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Within dissected amphibians, 31 (48.4%) of the anurans and 11 (26.2%) of the salamanders were infected with gastrointestinal parasites. One cutaneous Pseudocapillaroides xenopi infection was diagnosed in an adult African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). Etiologically, 17 (15.9%) of them died due to severe parasitic and/or bacterial infections (e.g., Chryseobacterium indologenes, Citrobacter freudii, Sphingobacterium multivorum, Klebsiella pneumoniae). High prevalence and pathological findings of several clinical amphibian parasitoses call for more detailed investigation on gastrointestinal parasite-derived molecular mechanisms associated with detrimental lesions or even death.


Assuntos
Animais Exóticos , Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Anuros/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Urodelos/parasitologia , Animais , Anuros/microbiologia , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Chryseobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Oocistos , Sphingobacterium , Strongyloides/isolamento & purificação , Urodelos/microbiologia
5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(10): 5439-5444, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886601

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccobacillus-shaped, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain H23T48T, was isolated from the faecal sample of an oriental stork collected from the Seoul Grand Park Zoo in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Optimal growth of strain H23T48T was observed at 30-37 °C, pH 8 and with 3 % (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain H23T48T was closely related to the genus Flaviflexus, with 97.0 and 96.7 % sequence similarities to Flaviflexus salsibiostraticola EBR4-1-2T and Flaviflexus huanghaiensis H5T, respectively. Strain H23T48T possessed MK-9(H4) as the major menaquinone and C16 : 0 (42.4 %), C18 : 1 ω9c (31.3 %) and C14 : 0 (17.7 %) as the major cellular fatty acids. The polar lipids included phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified lipids, six unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified glycophospholipids. The amino acid composition of the cell-wall peptidoglycan was l-alanine, l-lysine, d-glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid and glycine. The genomic G+C content of strain H23T48T is 59.5 mol% and the average nucleotide identity value between H23T48T and F. salsibiostraticola KCT C33148T (=EBR4-1-2T) is 75.5 %. Based on the obtained data, strain H23T48T represents a novel species of the genus Flaviflexus, for which the name Flaviflexus ciconiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H23T48T (=KCTC 49253T=JCM 33282T).


Assuntos
Actinomycetaceae/classificação , Aves/microbiologia , Filogenia , Actinomycetaceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Peptidoglicano/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760155

RESUMO

Disease transmission can be identified in a social network from the structural patterns of contact. However, it is difficult to separate contagious processes from those driven by homophily, and multiple pathways of transmission or inexact information on the timing of infection can obscure the detection of true transmission events. Here, we analyze the dynamic social network of a large, and near-complete population of 16,430 zoo birds tracked daily over 22 years to test a novel "friends-of-friends" strategy for detecting contagion in a social network. The results show that cases of avian mycobacteriosis were significantly clustered among pairs of birds that had been in direct contact. However, since these clusters might result due to correlated traits or a shared environment, we also analyzed pairs of birds that had never been in direct contact but were indirectly connected in the network via other birds. The disease was also significantly clustered among these friends of friends and a reverse-time placebo test shows that homophily could not be causing the clustering. These results provide empirical evidence that at least some avian mycobacteriosis infections are transmitted between birds, and provide new methods for detecting contagious processes in large-scale global network structures with indirect contacts, even when transmission pathways, timing of cases, or etiologic agents are unknown.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Infecções por Mycobacterium/transmissão , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Modelos Estatísticos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785261

RESUMO

Iron Overload Disorder (IOD) is a syndrome developed by captive browsing rhinoceroses like black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), in which hemosiderosis develops in vital organs while free iron accumulates in the body, potentially predisposing to various secondary diseases. Captive grazing species like white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) do not seem to be affected. The authors hypothesized that inflammation and oxidative stress may be implicated in the pathogenesis of IOD in captive black rhinoceroses, making this syndrome a potential common denominator to various diseases described in captivity in this species. In this prospective study, 15 black (BR) and 29 white rhinoceroses (WR) originating from 22 European zoos were blood-sampled and compared for their iron status (serum iron), liver/muscle biochemical parameters (AST, GGT, cholesterol), inflammatory status (total proteins, protein electrophoresis) and oxidative stress markers (SOD, GPX, dROMs). Results showed higher serum iron and liver enzyme levels in black rhinoceroses (P < 0.01), as well as higher dROMs (P < 0.01) and a trend for higher GPX (P = 0.06) levels. The albumin/globulin ratio was lower in black rhinoceroses (P < 0.05) due to higher α2-globulin levels (P < 0.001). The present study suggests a higher inflammatory and oxidative profile in captive BR than in WR, possibly in relation to iron status. This could be either a consequence or a cause of iron accumulation. Further investigations are needed to assess the prognostic value of the inflammatory and oxidative markers in captive black rhinoceroses, particularly for evaluating the impact of reduced-iron and antioxidant-supplemented diets.


Assuntos
Sobrecarga de Ferro/imunologia , Sobrecarga de Ferro/metabolismo , Perissodáctilos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0223207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645022

RESUMO

A retrospective study of admission data of 401 West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) presented to the David A. Straz Jr. Manatee Critical Care Center at ZooTampa at Lowry Park (ZooTampa) for rehabilitation from August 1991 through October 2017. Causes of admittance, location of rescue, gender, and age class were all recorded for each manatee admitted. Admittance categories as defined by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) included watercraft collisions, natural causes, entanglement, entrapment, orphaned calves, captive born, mothers of rescued calves, calves of rescued mothers, human, and other. The admitted population was primarily from the southwest and northwest coasts and related waterways of Florida. The gender difference was relatively equivocal (54% female) while the adults comprised 79% of the admissions. The overall total admissions increased steadily over the study period as did the admissions for each individual categories of admission. Watercraft collisions and natural causes combined were 71% of all admissions for the entire study period and are the dominant causes of admission. Watercraft collisions are more likely to occur during May through October, whereas natural causes of admittance are more likely to occur between December and March. Rehabilitated manatees may reduce overall manatee mortality and can provide insight into population-based health concerns if evaluated appropriately. Future efforts can incorporate physical examination findings, hematology, biochemistry profiles, and ancillary diagnostic testing to continue to improve the individual welfare of this marine mammal in its natural range. Admissions data could also potentially serve the wider conservation and recovery efforts if it is proven that the data obtained is at least as informative as that obtained by the carcass salvage program. Limited conservation resources could then be re-directed as new challenges arise with the expanding population and potentially expanding range of this species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/terapia , Trichechus manatus , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Masculino , Reabilitação , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 921-925, May-June, 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129597

RESUMO

A male 15-year-old captive Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) developed pelvic limb hypermetry over the past 10 years. Recently, an ulcerated black nodule located caudally to the right ear was observed. The animal was submitted to surgery for removing the tumor, but died during anesthetic recovery. At necropsy, another infiltrative nodule was observed caudally to the right ear. Histologically, both nodules corresponded to melanocytic neoplasia, varying from heavily pigmented to amelanotic, with metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes, spleen and lung. Lipofuscinosis and corpora amylacea were histologically observed in the central nervous system. Macroscopic and histologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of skin metastatic melanoma in a captive adult Siberian tiger.(AU)


Um tigre-siberiano (Panthera tigris altaica) de cativeiro, macho, de 15 anos de idade, apresentou hipermetria dos membros pélvicos nos últimos 10 anos, e recentemente, foi observado um nódulo preto e ulcerado caudalmente à orelha direita. O animal foi submetido à cirurgia para remoção do nódulo e morreu durante a recuperação anestésica. À necropsia, outro nódulo infiltrativo, foi detectado caudalmente a orelha direita. Histologicamente, ambos os nódulos correspondiam à neoplasia melanocítica, com células variando de fortemente pigmentadas a amelanóticas, com metástase para linfonodos mediastinais, baço e pulmão. Havia lipofucsinose e corpora amilácea no sistema nervoso central. Os achados macroscópicos e histológicos confirmam o diagnóstico de melanoma cutâneo metastático em um tigre-siberiano adulto de cativeiro.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Tigres , Melanoma/veterinária , Metástase Neoplásica , Animais Selvagens , Animais de Zoológico
11.
Am J Primatol ; 82(8): e23158, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495390

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has radically changed the human activities worldwide. Although we are still learning about the disease, it is necessary that primatologists, veterinarians, and all that are living with nonhuman primates (NHP) be concerned about the probable health impacts as these animals face this new pandemic. We want to increase discussion with the scientific community that is directly involved with these animals, because preliminary studies report that NHP may become infected and develop symptoms similar to those in human beings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas/virologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Doenças dos Primatas/sangue , Doenças dos Primatas/etiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/transmissão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/veterinária , Perda de Peso
12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 259-264, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549553

RESUMO

Failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPT) leads to increased calf morbidity and mortality and requires intensive, time-sensitive, and often expensive management for nondomestic ruminants. Without species-specific information with which to make informed decisions, neonatal data from domestic ruminants are often extrapolated to nondomestic zoo-housed species. To date, there have been no studies evaluating FPT in sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekii). The goal of the present study was to establish parameters to characterize adequate passive transfer in sitatunga calves and compare them to published reference intervals in other species. Medical records of 22 sitatunga calves (12 female, 10 male) were reviewed. Seventeen of these calves were defined as "healthy," having survived at least 60 days without colostrum administration or a plasma transfusion. Calf weight, serum glucose, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein (TP), globulin concentrations, and results of a zinc sulfate turbidity test (ZSTT) were noted where possible. Mean birth weight of healthy calves at 24 hr was 4.5 kg (range: 3.76.5 kg, n = 12). The mean blood glucose in healthy calves was 152 mg/dl (range: 80-182, n = 16), mean serum TP concentration was 5.9 g/dl (range: 4.9-7.5, n = 16), mean serum globulin concentration was 3.3 g/dl (range: 1.7-4.7, n = 17), and mean serum GGT concentration was 466 U/L (range: 91-1901, n = 16). A ZSTT was performed for 10 healthy calves, resulting in four negative ZSTT results despite having no clinical signs of FPT and the calves having been observed nursing before testing. Sitatunga appear to have lower values for normal FPT parameters than those developed for domestic cattle. This study illustrates the difficulty of cross-species comparisons, as even closely related species can vary greatly in biologic parameters.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/imunologia , Antílopes/imunologia , Imunização Passiva/veterinária , Animais , Baltimore , Feminino , Masculino
13.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 290-296, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549557

RESUMO

Fourteen lowland nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) in managed care were successfully anesthetized for a total of 17 anesthetic events using either a combination of butorphanol (0.75 ± 0.15 mg/kg), azaperone (0.25 ± 0.05 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.30 ± 0.06 mg/kg) (BAM) or medetomidine (0.17 ± 0.01 mg/kg), azaperone (0.22 ± 0.02 mg/kg), and alfaxalone (0.52 ± 0.08 mg/kg) (MAA) delivered intramuscularly via dart. Mean time to initial effect, sternal recumbency, lateral recumbency, handling, and intubation were recorded. The nyala were maintained in sternal recumbency with supplemental oxygenation until 60 min after initial injection. Cardiopulmonary effects were recorded every 5 min after handling until reversal. Arterial blood samples were collected every 15 min for analysis. Level of sedation and quality of recovery were scored. Anesthesia was antagonized with atipamezole (at 5 mg per mg of medetomidine) for both protocols and naltrexone (at 2 mg per mg of butorphanol) for the BAM protocol delivered intramuscularly via hand injection. Mean time to extubation, head control, and standing post reversal were recorded. No hyperthermia, acidemia, apnea, or tachycardia occurred; however, animals did display hypoxemia. Two animals in the BAM cohort required supplementation to facilitate handling. These drug combinations provided satisfactory levels of sedation in most cases for safe handling and minor procedures in lowland nyala under managed care.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Antílopes/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Azaperona/administração & dosagem , Azaperona/efeitos adversos , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Butorfanol/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Masculino , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Medetomidina/efeitos adversos , Pregnanodionas/administração & dosagem , Pregnanodionas/efeitos adversos
14.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 297-302, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549558

RESUMO

Contraception is needed to prevent overpopulation and inbreeding in highly fecund captive bat colonies. Reports on surgical contraception in bats are limited. The objective of this study was to describe surgical castration techniques in a megachiropteran and a microchiropteran fruit bat species. Open orchiectomy by transfixing ligation of the spermatic cord was performed in 14 Ruwenzori long-haired fruit bats (Rousettus lanosus) (RL-LIG), and orchiectomy with radiosurgery alone was performed in 125 Jamaican fruit-eating bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) (AJ-RS) and one Ruwenzori bat (RL-RS). The surgical techniques were not compared in different species with the exception of the one Ruwenzori bat operated with RS. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen via facemask. Preoperatively, all bats received butorphanol and subcutaneous fluids. Meloxicam was administered postoperatively for the RL-LIG. For the RL-LIG, anesthesia lasted 49 ± 15 min (mean ± SD) with a total surgery time of 26 ± 12 min. In comparison, the RS was considerably shorter, lasting 10 ± 3 min for anesthesia and 5 ± 2 min for surgery. Complications were rare, with a morbidity rate of 6.7% with the RL-LIG (prolonged recovery [n = 1]) and of 4.8% with the RS (dyspnea [n = 3], hemorrhage [n = 2], and prolonged recovery [n = 1]). One of the cases of hemorrhage was in the single Ruwenzori bat castrated using the RS technique. Mortality rate was 1.6% (n = 2) with the RS. No mortality occurred with the RL-LIG. In conclusion, using radiosurgery alone appears to be a safe and rapid surgical technique in smaller species of fruit bats. For larger species, such as the Ruwenzori fruit bats, ligation or use of an advanced vessel sealing system is recommended.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/cirurgia , Quirópteros/cirurgia , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/classificação , Quirópteros/classificação , Masculino , Orquiectomia/métodos , Quebeque
15.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 303-307, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549559

RESUMO

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) causes a disease that primarily affects juvenile Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants, causing acute hemorrhage and death. Due to the severity of the disease, many zoos have developed EEHV active surveillance programs. Currently, trunk washes are the standard for testing elephants for shedding of EEHV, but it has also been detected from other mucosal surfaces. This study compared the efficacy of oral swabs and trunk washes for the detection of EEHV shedding using previously validated quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods. Oral swab and trunk wash samples from three juvenile elephants at the Dublin Zoo in Ireland were collected in tandem and tested from April to September 2017. Of the 51 paired samples, 21 trunk wash samples were positive for EEHV1, while only 2 of the oral swab samples were positive for EEHV1, suggesting that trunk wash samples are more effective for detecting shedding of EEHV in Asian elephants compared with oral swabs.


Assuntos
Betaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Elefantes , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Viremia/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Irlanda , Masculino , Viremia/diagnóstico , Viremia/virologia
16.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 321-325, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549561

RESUMO

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are native to western North America and are found in 24 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited institutions. Acute-phase proteins (APP) are a broad class of proteins that are stimulated in response to inflammation and have been shown to be a sensitive measure of inflammation in equids and ruminants. In this study, blood samples from clinically normal free-ranging and captive populations of pronghorn were analyzed using assays for protein electrophoresis (EPH) and APP, including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (HP), to develop preliminary ranges to gauge potential differences between these populations. Additional samples were taken from clinically abnormal captive pronghorn with facial abscesses. By EPH measurements, albumin: globulin ratio mean and SE were significantly different (P <0.05) with 1.02 (0.08) for captive populations and 1.91 (0.05) for free-ranging populations. Total protein mean and SE were significantly different (P <0.05) for captive and free-ranging populations, respectively 5.6 (0.3) g/dl and 6.9 (0.1) g/dl. Mean and SD of SAA for captive pronghorn were 1.4 (3.2) mg/L, and were significantly different from the free-ranging population, which was below the limits of detection for (P <0.05). There was no difference in HP levels between these groups. In a case study of a pronghorn with facial abscesses, elevated levels of HP, but not SAA, suggested that HP maybe useful in certain disease states. Future studies should explore the use of these biomarkers as tools to monitor general health, prognosis, and subclinical disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Animais de Zoológico/sangue , Eletroforese das Proteínas Sanguíneas/veterinária , Ruminantes/sangue , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , América do Norte , Valores de Referência , Texas
17.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 334-349, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549563

RESUMO

There is an unmet need for specific diagnostics of immune perturbations and inflammation in beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) clinical care. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been used to measure immunomediator gene transcription in beluga whales. The study hypothesis was that a qPCR-based immunomediator assay would supplement routine clinical data with specific and sensitive information on immune status. Two beluga whale clinical cases provided an opportunity to test this hypothesis: a whale with a skin laceration and a whale with gastrointestinal inflammation. Mitogen-stimulated immunomediator gene transcription (MSIGT) was compared between the cases and healthy contact whales. In both case studies, mitogens increased transcription of IL1B, PTGS2 (Cox-2), TNF, HIF1A, and IL2 but decreased IL10 transcription in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the abnormal whale over the control. Correlations were identified between most immunomediators tested and one or more standard blood clinical values. Considering all 15 immunomediators tested, the whale with gastrointestinal inflammation had a more unique MSIGT signature than the whale with a laceration. These results support further elucidation of beluga whale PBMC cytokine profiles for use as immune biomarkers.


Assuntos
Beluga/genética , Imunomodulação/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/genética , Animais de Zoológico/imunologia , Beluga/imunologia , Feminino , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Mitógenos
18.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 371-378, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549567

RESUMO

The anatomy of the avian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is uniquely suited to each species' dietary requirements. African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) are charismatic and popular exhibit animals. As their prevalence grows, there is a need to understand their unique digestive tract to diagnose abnormalities. Reference material specific to the digestive tract of piscivores is scant, and knowledge of the GI tract of a healthy penguin is based on information from other birds. The purpose of this study is to determine the normal gross anatomy, transit time, and histopathologic structures of the penguin GI tract. Twelve clinically healthy penguins were selected for this study from the colony at the Maryland Zoo in Baltimore, which, at the time of this study, consisted of 55 birds. All penguins underwent a barium contrast study, and radiographic images were obtained until the entire GI tract was empty. Approximately 2 wk later, each penguin was anesthetized, and an endoscopic evaluation of the anterior GI tract was performed. Time from barium administration to defecation ranged from 17 to 70 min, and on average, barium clearance was 17.6 hr (range, 5-36 hr). Fluid from the ventriculus had an average pH of 2.75 and contained a mixed bacterial population. Koilin presence and thickness appreciated on endoscopy did not correspond with the thickness determined on histopathology. The results of this study provide a comparative baseline to use during diagnostic workups and help guide treatment decisions.


Assuntos
Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Radiografia Abdominal/veterinária , Spheniscidae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/anatomia & histologia , Baltimore , Digestão , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino
19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 379-384, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549568

RESUMO

Pododermatitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in flamingos under human care; management and treatment options vary widely based on subjective assessment from veterinarians or animal care staff (ACS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the agreement of pododermatitis severity scores assigned by veterinarians, ACS, and veterinary students when given a standardized rubric. Twenty-four greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) from a single zoo-managed flock were evaluated over time for pododermatitis. The individual feet of each bird were imaged, blinded, randomized, and scored for hyperkeratosis, fissures, nodules, papillomatous growth, and overall subjective score by seven evaluators (three veterinary specialists, two ACS, and two veterinary students) using a previously established flamingo pododermatitis scoring rubric. Interindividual reliability between evaluators and intraindividual agreement among specialists was determined. Reliable interindividual agreement was seen for fissures (Krippendorff's α [KA] = 0.807) between all seven evaluators, whereas the other individual lesions had very low reliability. Between the specialists, fissures had low interindividual reliability (KA = 0.782). Two specialists had strong intraindividual agreement for fissure score and one specialist had strong intraindividual agreement for overall subjective score (Cohen's κ [CK] 0.8-0.9, P < 0.01). Hyperkeratosis, papillomatous growth, nodules, and overall subjective score had low to moderate inter- and intraindividual reliability or agreement (KA, 0.06-0.49; CK, 0.02-0.8). In conclusion, the current scoring method for flamingo pododermatitis does not supply a reliable method for tracking foot health based on images alone across timepoints, except for fissures. Further analysis of the scoring system being used during a physical examination is warranted.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Aves , Dermatite/veterinária , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Dermatite/patologia , Doenças do Pé/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 416-425, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549573

RESUMO

Moxidectin is a commonly used lipophilic anthelmintic with activity against a wide range of nematodes. It is labeled for use in cattle by oral, topical, and subcutaneous routes. In semi-free ranging conditions, many anthelmintics are remotely administered intramuscularly due to an inability to administer by other routes without restraint. During 2015-2016, three animals including a roan (Hippotragus equinus), sable (Hippotragus niger), and Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) treated with moxidectin developed clinical signs consistent with toxicosis. The primary sign was severe neurologic depression within 12 to 24 hr. Based on recommendations in domestic cases, animals were treated with intravenous lipid therapy and supportive care while diagnostic testing was performed. All three initially improved prior to succumbing to secondary problems associated with prolonged recumbency. Moxidectin has been administered remotely on 97 occasions in eight different exotic ruminant species at Fossil Rim, with only the above three cases showing clinical signs of toxicosis. Two potential causes in these cases include poor body condition leading to a smaller volume of distribution, thus allowing higher concentrations to overwhelm the blood-brain barrier, or a genetic defect similar to some herding dog breeds. Given that cases were seen in three different species at an overall low incidence within a given species, a genetic defect is considered unlikely. The animals affected did have significantly lower body condition score than conspecifics, and it is considered likely that this predisposed these animals to toxicosis. Therefore, caution should be used when administering moxidectin intramuscularly in animals in poor body condition.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Antiparasitários/toxicidade , Macrolídeos/toxicidade , Envenenamento/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Masculino , Envenenamento/etiologia , Texas
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