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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 751-757, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926504

RESUMO

Although biochemical analytes have typically been measured using serum or whole blood samples, an increasing number of assays are validated for measurement of analytes from dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper. DBS techniques are minimally invasive, require only a small sample volume, and simplify processing, storage, and shipment of samples. These qualities make DBS-based assays ideal for sampling of wildlife species in both captive and field settings. In this study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay was evaluated for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in sloths. Paired serum and DBS samples were collected from nine healthy captive Hoffmann's two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni). Statistical analysis using Passing-Bablok regression analysis, Bland-Altman plots, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank tests found good agreement between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 measurements in serum and DBS samples. Constant and proportional bias were absent. Results from this study support the use of DBS samples for the evaluation of vitamin D status in Hoffmann's two-toed sloths and provide a foundation for further studies to validate this technique.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/veterinária , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/veterinária , Bichos-Preguiça/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/veterinária , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Feminino , Vitamina D/sangue
2.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 813-821, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926511

RESUMO

Accredited zoos and animal parks play an important role in animal health research and conservation, providing important insights on matters of public health including zoonotic infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The emergence and spread of AMR is a complex phenomenon that jeopardizes human and animal health and also threatens the long-term survival of endangered species. The presence of ß-lactamases in clinical isolates is particularly significant as they can jeopardize the efficacy of critically important antimicrobials. Although the presence of ß-lactamases and extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) producing Enterobacteriaceae in zoo animals has been reported, data are not available for northern European countries. In addition, few data are available on phylogenetic grouping of Escherichia coli isolated from zoo animals that can provide additional information on the host-bacterium relationship and on the pathogenicity of isolates. This study aimed to characterize fecal E. coli isolated from 33 healthy zoo animals from 22 species in Ireland, using conventional and molecular microbiological methods. All E. coli isolates were ampicillin resistant, but combined resistance to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was not detected. Three E. coli isolates sampled from one Amur tiger, one Bornean orangutan, and one Southern white rhino were multidrug resistant, and blaTEM was detected in E. coli recovered from the Amur tiger and the Bornean orangutan. Other ß-lactamases, including ESBLs and AmpCs and plasmid-mediated mcr-1 and mcr-2, were not detected. Overall, E. coli isolates investigated were susceptible to the majority of the antimicrobials tested, and only two animals shed E. coli carrying ß-lactamase-encoding genes. The majority of isolates belonged to phylogenetic group B1. The screening of the AMR phenotype and genotype of zoo animal E. coli provides useful data that is relevant to antimicrobial stewardship in the zoo veterinary services and relevant to the bank of knowledge needed for tackling AMR.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Filogenia
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 822-836, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926512

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been identified as a major cause of mortality in all four great ape taxa in zoologic institutions. In an effort to better understand and treat CVD in captive great apes, a program called the Great Ape Heart Project (GAHP), based at Zoo Atlanta, collects and maintains a database of echocardiograms and other relevant medical information relating to the cardiac health status of great apes. Cardiac health assessments have become standard practice among North American zoos that house great apes and are recommended by all four great ape Species Survival Plans (SSP) for the assessment of CVD in captive great apes. As of December 31, 2017, more than 70 ape-holding institutions have submitted approximately 1,100 cardiac examinations of great apes to the GAHP, information from which is stored in the GAHP database. Transthoracic echocardiography is one of the most practical and cost-effective diagnostic imaging techniques for the evaluation of cardiac function in great apes. Standardization of echocardiographic measurements is critical for maximizing the diagnostic value of an echocardiographic exam and for utilization of stored information in comparative studies within and between the great ape taxa. The following manuscript offers suggestions for standardization of nomenclature, imaging technique, echocardiographic measurements, data storage, and reporting of cardiac exams for submission into the GAHP database with the goal of promoting consistency and quality in data collection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Hominidae , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 837-844, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926513

RESUMO

This study surveyed six North American zoologic institutions to collect retrospective information on the incidence of ocular disease in the giant panda. Reported information included sex and age at presentation, as well as diagnosis, treatment, duration, and clinical outcome for each episode of ocular disease. Among the 42 animals included in the survey, 10 (23.8%) had clinical ocular abnormalities reported. Multiple disease episodes were reported in four animals, with 20 clinical episodes, and one additional animal who presented with corneal scarring from historic keratitis. Age at presentation varied from 0.4 to 26 yr (mean, 11.8 yr; median, 10.4 yr). Corneal abnormalities (including corneal opacity or haze, keratitis, corneal ulcers, and bullous keratopathy) were the most common pathologies reported, followed by conjunctivitis and/or ocular discharge. Additional reported abnormalities included limbal squamous cell carcinoma and lipid degeneration. Six cases resolved without intervention. Treatment protocols included topical and/or systemic medication with or without surgical intervention, which commonly resulted in resolution with or without persistent corneal scar. The prevalence of ocular disease identified in the giant panda in this study is higher than previous publications surveying ocular disease in the family Ursidae, indicating that this is an important source of morbidity in this species.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Ursidae , Animais , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia
5.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 853-860, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926515

RESUMO

Parenteral nutrition (PN) is one method of providing nutrient support to hospitalized, nondomestic ruminants that have a decreased appetite in hospital or have high metabolic demands caused by illness. There are a limited number of published reports of the use of PN in nondomestic ruminants. A retrospective evaluation of PN use in adult (>6 mo of age) hospitalized ruminants at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park was conducted from 2014 to 2018 (n = 24). Discharge rate for animals that received PN was 34%. Poor survival was likely caused by case selection of animals that had severe disease or malnutrition necessitating the need for PN. Common metabolic changes among the study animals included the following: hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperphosphatemia or hypophosphatemia. Bivariable analysis revealed no clinically significant factors that influenced odds of survival. There was little evidence of adverse effects with the administration of PN during the study period. Parenteral nutrition requires specialized equipment and technical skills, but is a viable means of nutrient support for hospitalized nondomestic ruminants.


Assuntos
Nutrição Parenteral/veterinária , Ruminantes , Doenças dos Animais/mortalidade , Doenças dos Animais/terapia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 879-890, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926519

RESUMO

Between July 2007 and June 2017 there were 86 deaths in the populations of eight caecilian species at the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) London Zoo. The mortality rate (deaths per animal-year at risk) ranged from 0.03 in the Congo caecilian (Herpele squalostoma) to 0.85 in Kaup's caecilian (Potomotyphlus kaupii). Among the 73 individuals examined post mortem, no cause of death or primary diagnosis could be established in 35 cases, but of the others the most common cause of death was dermatitis (22 cases). When all significant pathological findings were considered, skin lesions of varying types were again the commonest (56 cases), particularly among the aquatic species: Typhlonectes compressicauda (18 out of 21 cases), T. natans (8/10) and P. kaupii (12/14). Other common findings were poor gut-fill (35 cases), kidney and gastrointestinal lesions (10 cases each), generalized congestion (8 cases) and poor body condition (6 cases). This review adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding the presentations and causes of disease in captive caecilians.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/classificação , Animais de Zoológico , Animais , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 910-916, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926523

RESUMO

Assessment of pododermatitis, osteoarthritis, and other causes of lameness in penguins can be challenging. Subjective gait analysis using visual observation and response to analgesic therapy can be affected by observer variation and caregiver placebo bias. A pressure-sensitive walkway (PSW), however, allows for objective gait analysis and assessment of analgesic therapeutic response. In this study, a 3-m-long PSW was used to analyze gait in 21 adult Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti). Medical record reviews and comprehensive examinations were performed on all penguins; five penguins were considered abnormal, with either right-sided (n = 3) or bilateral historical lameness-causing disease (n = 2) and were analyzed separately from the normal data set. All penguins walked across the PSW four times and gait parameters (step and stride distances and velocities, maximum force, impulse, and peak pressure) were calculated for each foot in each penguin. Statistical comparisons were made between right and left feet, sexes, and normal and abnormal penguins for each gait parameter. Among normal penguins, there were no significant differences between feet or sex. Left step width was shorter in abnormal penguins than that of normal penguins. Study results established baseline values for Humboldt penguins. This will allow objective monitoring of progression and response to therapy in penguin lameness cases, both current and future. The data also provide a foundation to compare gait parameters with other penguin populations and species.


Assuntos
Análise da Marcha/veterinária , Marcha , Spheniscidae/fisiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Análise da Marcha/instrumentação , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Masculino
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 917-926, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926524

RESUMO

Abnormal molting, including partial or incomplete molt, arrested molt cycle, or inappropriate frequency of molt, is a primary concern for the managed African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) population and is documented across institutions. To identify factors associated with increased odds of abnormal molts and characterize intervention opportunities, a comprehensive survey evaluating numerous husbandry and medical parameters was created. Survey results represent 45 North American African penguin holding facilities and 736 unique animals. Of these individuals, 135 (18.3%) demonstrated an abnormal molt over the 5-yr study period (2012-2017). Increased odds ratios for abnormal molt included biologic (age, sex, etc.), geographic (elevation, latitude), and husbandry (exhibit design, diet, etc.) variables. The mean age of affected animals was 15.2 yr (1-45 yr, n = 135) compared with 9.92 yr (4 mo-38 yr, n = 601) for unaffected animals. In addition, although statistically insignificant, males were overrepresented in the affected cohort compared with a near even distribution among unaffected animals. Identified factors with increased odds for abnormal molting included advanced age and facilities using freshwater pools. Normally molting penguins were more commonly found with saltwater pool access and natural lighting exposure. Anecdotal medical intervention attempts are discussed, although further research is needed to define their use. Of attempted interventions, subcutaneous 5.4-mg melatonin implants placed in anticipation of environmental molting cues showed the most promise at inducing catastrophic molt, with 14 of 17 (82.3%) of affected individuals molting normally following this treatment. Survey analysis indicated that abnormal molt is a complex, multifactorial process, and modifiable factors that may predispose animals to abnormally molt exist. Addressing these factors in future exhibit design may mitigate the prevalence of this condition. Despite these efforts, it is likely that medical interventions will be required to aid in the treatment of abnormal molting in this species.


Assuntos
Plumas , Muda/fisiologia , Spheniscidae , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , América do Norte
9.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 983-987, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926532

RESUMO

Two species of sloths in the family Megalonychidae, Hoffmann's (Choloepus hoffmanni) and Linnaeus's (Choloepus didactylus) two-toed sloths, are commonly held in zoological institutions. Despite frequent published reports of urinary tract disease in these species, reports of diagnostics are mostly limited to descriptions of hematology and serum chemistry. In this study, repeated urinalysis, urinary chemistry, serum chemistry, and radiographs were collected opportunistically from six Hoffmann's and five Linnaeus's sloths. Proteinuria, bacteriuria, low urine specific gravity, and crystalluria were common in the absence of other signs of urinary tract pathology.


Assuntos
Rim/fisiologia , Bichos-Preguiça/fisiologia , Urinálise/veterinária , Urina/química , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Masculino , Bichos-Preguiça/sangue , Bichos-Preguiça/urina
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 1000-1004, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926536

RESUMO

Mycobacterium orygis, a newly identified member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, has been isolated predominantly from hoofstock in eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and sporadically in cattle (Bos taurus indicus), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), humans, and a greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) in South Asia. In rhinoceros, tuberculosis typically presents as a chronic progressive respiratory disease. The report describes the postmortem diagnosis of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium orygis in a greater one-horned rhinoceros with hind limb paresis due to neural granulomatosis. Serologic assays for detection of antibodies to M. tuberculosis complex proteins before culture results allowed for appropriate herd management protocols to be initiated. Mycobacterium genus-specific polymerase chain reaction assays with direct sequencing allowed timely confirmation of the serologic results. This is the first isolation of M. orygis in the western hemisphere, showing the need for mycobacterial testing of rhinoceros before international shipments and the urgency for validated antemortem M. tuberculosis complex screening assays in rhinoceros species.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Perissodáctilos/microbiologia , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Masculino , Nitrilos , Triazinas , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/microbiologia , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 1008-1011, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926538

RESUMO

Curvularia spp. are globally distributed saprophytic fungi, classified in the literature as dematiaceous, or darkly pigmented fungi. These fungi have been increasingly recognized as causing cutaneous, ocular, respiratory, and central nervous system infections in humans, but have been infrequently documented as pathogens in the veterinary literature. A 5-yr-old male Chinese goral (Naemorhedus griseus) presented with bilateral fungal dermatitis of the pinnae, and subsequent pyogranulomatous rhinosinusitis. Clinical signs included epistaxis, mucosanguineous nasal discharge, and dyspnea. Sequential histologic examinations of cutaneous and nasal lesions revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation with extracellular and phagocytized nonpigmented yeasts. Fungal culture and polymerase chain reaction identified Curvularia sp. The absence of pigmentation in tissue in this case suggests that pigmentation may not be a consistent histologic finding for this fungus, emphasizing the importance of molecular identification to prevent misidentification. Despite intensive interventions in this goral, the disease progressed, and was ultimately fatal.


Assuntos
Dermatomiosite/veterinária , Rinite/veterinária , Sinusite/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Clotrimazol/uso terapêutico , Dermatomiosite/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomiosite/microbiologia , Griseofulvina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico , Rinite/microbiologia , Ruminantes , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/microbiologia
12.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107791, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704144

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, causing serious public health problems. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in captive jaguars in 10 Mexican zoos was determined using single and mixtures of recombinant surface antigens (SAG1) and dense granular antigens (GRA1 and GRA7) in immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Their efficacy was compared with the tachyzoite lysate antigen. All recombinant antigens were characterised by high sensitivity (92.5-97.5%); the specificity of the IgG ELISAs was variable (83.3-91.6%). Mixtures of the two recombinant proteins were generally more reactive than single antigens. GRA7 + SAG1 showed the highest sensitivity (97.5%) and specificity (91.6%), almost perfect agreement (96.2%), and a kappa value of 0.89. An area under the curve value of 0.998 represented a highly accurate test with a cutoff value of 0.8. The seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in the single and mixed recombinant antigen ELISAs was 75.0-76.9%. This study shows that GRA7 + SAG1 can be successfully used to diagnose T. gondii infection in jaguars for effective monitoring of prevalence and for devising control methods and prevention strategies against toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Panthera/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Área Sob a Curva , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Proteínas de Protozoários/normas , Curva ROC , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/prevenção & controle
13.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 3151-3155, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616994

RESUMO

Astroviruses (AstVs) have a very wide range of hosts and are associated with enteric and extra-enteric disease in mammals and birds. Cross-species transmission of AstVs has been observed frequently. In the present study, the genome of a novel astrovirus from Amur tigers (Panthera tigris) from a zoo in China was characterized and was found to have the typical genomic features of other mammal AstVs. It showed the highest nucleotide sequence similarity (46.1-87.3% identity) to AstVs from cats, indicating a close phylogenetic relationship and possible cross-species transmission between them. To our knowledge, this is the first identification and characterization of AstV from tigers, and this virus is the third astrovirus identified in hosts of the family Felidae. The results of this study will be helpful for understanding the origin, genetic diversity, and cross-species transmission of AstV.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Tigres/virologia , Animais , Astroviridae/classificação , Astroviridae/genética , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Gatos , China , Fezes/virologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Aust Vet J ; 97(11): 473-481, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631313

RESUMO

Malocclusions are a misalignment or incorrect positioning of the teeth when the upper and lower jaws close. These are poorly described in the koala and can result in irregular mastication which can have lifelong effects on body condition and oral health. A total of 370 koalas from two populations in Queensland (295) and one in South Australia (75) were examined for malocclusions. The prevalence of malocclusions in South Australian free-ranging koalas, captive Queensland koalas and Queensland free-ranging koalas was 39% (44), 30% (29) and 22% (29) respectively. Four types of malocclusion were identified based on severity of misalignment of the incisor/canine region, types 1, 2, 3 and 4. Maxillary overbite measurements of the molariform teeth were determined and these anisognathic values were then used to describe malocclusions within familial relationships in captive colonies. Captive koalas with a malocclusion had narrower mandibular width that ranged between 0.5 and 1% less than the normal measurements. The specific malocclusions reported in this study affected individuals by leading to tooth rotation, mobility and erosion with inefficient mastication of food and vegetation compaction. These changes increased the oral cavity pathology, by placing animals at risk of periodontal disease. There was evidence of familial links to malocclusion types in captive animals. Therefore captive breeding recommendations should consider known koala malocclusion traits to minimise their effect on future generations.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão/veterinária , Phascolarctidae , Desgaste dos Dentes/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Animais de Zoológico , Incisivo , Má Oclusão/complicações , Má Oclusão/epidemiologia , Queensland/epidemiologia , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Desgaste dos Dentes/epidemiologia , Desgaste dos Dentes/etiologia
15.
Zoo Biol ; 38(6): 498-507, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517405

RESUMO

The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is common in animal-monitoring applications in the wild and in zoological and agricultural settings. RFID is used to track animals and to collect information about movements and other behaviors, as well as to automate or improve husbandry. Disney's Animal Kingdom® uses passive RFID technology to monitor nest usage by a breeding colony of northern carmine bee-eaters. We implemented RFID technologies in various equipment configurations, initially deploying low-frequency (LF) 125 kHz RFID and later changing to high-frequency (HF) 13.56 MHz RFID technology, to monitor breeding behavior in the flock. We installed antennas connected to RFID readers at the entrances of nest tunnels to detect RFID transponders attached to leg bands as birds entered and exited tunnels. Both LF-RFID and HF-RFID systems allowed the characterization of nest visitation, including the timing of nest activity, breeding pair formation, identification of egg-laying females, participation by nonresidents, and detection of nest disruptions. However, we collected a substantially larger volume of data using the increased bandwidth and polling speed inherent with HF-RFID, which permitted tag capture of multiple birds simultaneously and resulted in fewer missed nest visits in comparison to LF-RFID. Herein, we describe the evolution of the RFID setups used to monitor nest usage for more than 7 years, the types of data that can be gained using RFID at nests, and how we used these data to gain insights into carmine bee-eater breeding behavior and improve husbandry.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Dispositivo de Identificação por Radiofrequência , Telemetria , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 449, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infections and cases of clinical toxoplasmosis have been recorded in zoo animals. Wild felids in human care can serve as definitive hosts that shed oocysts, but also as intermediate hosts for the parasite. Some felid species, such as the Pallas's cat (Otocolobus manul) or sand cat (Felis margarita), may suffer from clinically apparent toxoplasmosis. In the present study, our main aim was to assess risk factors for T. gondii infections in small exotic felids. METHODS: A seroepidemiological study was conducted using the reduviid bug Dipetalogaster maxima for blood sample collection, a method previously evaluated on domestic cats. A total of 336 samples from 17 felid species were collected in 51 institutions, 48 of which were within Europe and the remaining three in the Middle East (United Arabic Emirates and Qatar). These samples were analyzed for T. gondii antibodies by immunoblotting and an immunofluorescent antibody test. Potential risk factors in zoos for seropositivity regarding T. gondii among members of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) were evaluated using a questionnaire and individual data from the Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS). RESULTS: The sampled felids showed an overall seroprevalence for T. gondii of 63%. The risk factor study including data of 311 small exotic cats of 10 species resulted in a final generalized linear mixed model comprised of five variables: the likelihood of seropositivity increased statistically significantly with "Age", while feeding "Cattle: frozen" relative to "Cattle: fresh", "Outdoor housing fenced in on all sides", "Mesh size 2-5 cm" relative to "Mesh size > 5 cm" and "Wearing gloves: yes" had statistically significant protective effects. CONCLUSIONS: Wild felids, including endangered species, kept in human care in European and Middle Eastern institutions, are widely exposed to T. gondii. Risk factor analysis revealed that feeding previously frozen tissues, keeping animals in enclosures that are fenced on all sides using fences with small mesh sizes, and wearing gloves when working inside enclosures seem to be the most relevant protective measures to prevent T. gondii infections in these animals .


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Felidae/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Gatos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2735-2745, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486907

RESUMO

Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is unique among endogenous retroviruses because its endogenization is still active. Two major KoRV subtypes, KoRV-A and B, have been described, and KoRV-B is associated with disease and poses a health threat to koalas. Here, we investigated the co-prevalence of KoRV-A and KoRV-B, detected by type-specific PCR and sequencing, and their impact on the health of koalas in three Japanese zoos. We also investigated KoRV proviral loads and found varying amounts of genomic DNA (gDNA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that 100% of the koalas examined were infected with KoRV-A and 60% (12/20) were coinfected with KoRV-B. The KoRV-A sequence was highly conserved, whereas the KoRV-B sequence varied among individuals. Interestingly, we observed possible vertical transmission of KoRV-B in one offspring in which the KoRV-B sequence was similar to that of the father but not the mother. Moreover, we characterized the KoRV growth patterns in concanavalin-A-stimulated PBMCs isolated from KoRV-B-coinfected or KoRV-B-uninfected koalas. We quantified the KoRV provirus in gDNA and the KoRV RNA copy numbers in cells and culture supernatants by real-time PCR at days 4, 7, and 14 post-seeding. As the study population is housed in captivity, a longitudinal study of these koalas may provide an opportunity to study the transmission mode of KoRV-B. In addition, we characterized KoRV isolates by infecting tupaia cells. The results suggested that tupaia may be used as an infection model for KoRV. Thus, this study may enhance our understanding of KoRV-B coinfection and transmission in the captive koalas.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Gammaretrovirus/patogenicidade , Phascolarctidae/virologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Retrovirus Endógenos/classificação , Retrovirus Endógenos/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Gammaretrovirus/classificação , Gammaretrovirus/genética , Gammaretrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Provírus/genética , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Tupaia/virologia , Carga Viral
18.
Zoo Biol ; 38(6): 461-470, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397012

RESUMO

Connection with a zoo animal may increase conservation-mindedness in zoo visitors, potentially resulting in conservation-oriented behavior change. No research has attempted to establish what this "connection" actually means. Visitors (N = 85) to Melbourne Zoo were asked to name the animal with which they most connected, the extent to which they connected with it, and to qualitatively describe what it meant to connect with that animal. Many (but not all) participants connected with charismatic megafauna: primate, great ape, large carnivore, or large herbivore. Qualitative analysis revealed five common themes in the meaning of connection: Appreciation, Attribution, Inspires Emotions, Interaction, and Proximity. Overall connection level was significantly correlated with perceptions of conservation caring for the chosen species. Future research should aim to determine what factors affect a zoo visitor's connection level, which could impact attitudes and behaviors toward conservation.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Atitude , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Empatia , Opinião Pública , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Austrália , Coleta de Dados , Humanos
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3041-3048, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395120

RESUMO

A novel irregularly shaped and slightly curved rod bacterial strain, GLDI4/2T, showing activity of fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase was isolated from a faecal sample of an adult gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA genes as well as multilocus sequences (representing fusA, gyrB and xfp genes) and the core genome revealed that GLDI4/2T exhibited phylogenetic relatedness to Alloscardovia omnicolens DSM 21503T and to Alloscardovia macacae DSM 24762T. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the phylogenetic results showing the highest gene sequence identity with strain A. omnicolens DSM 21503T (96.0 %). Activities of α- and ß-gluco(galacto)sidases were detected in strain GLDI4/2T, which is characteristic for almost all members of the family Bifidobacteriaceae. Compared to other Alloscardovia species its DNA G+C content (43.8 mol%) was very low. Phylogenetic studies and the evaluation of phenotypic characteristics, including the results of biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic analyses, confirmed the novel species status for strain GLDI4/2T, for which the name Alloscardoviatheropitheci sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GLDI4/2T (=DSM 106019T=JCM 32430T).


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/classificação , Filogenia , Theropithecus/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Aldeído Liases , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Itália , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 22(3): 331-348, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395318

RESUMO

Medical 3-dimensional printing allows the creation of anatomic models by using a sequence of computer software programs. Diagnostic imaging data are used to create a physical model that allows clinicians to plan for surgical procedures and create prosthetics and surgical implants and instruments, among other applications. Its use in zoological medicine is limited, but is an area with a great growth potential. This publication reviews the process of creating a 3-dimensional anatomic model, its application in human and small animal medicine and surgery, and reviews peer-reviewed data regarding its use in exotic animals, wildlife, and zoo animals.


Assuntos
Impressão Tridimensional/tendências , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Medicina Veterinária/tendências , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Animais de Zoológico , Humanos , Modelos Anatômicos , Estereolitografia
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