Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.609
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0224718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the interactions between increased insecticide resistance and resting behaviour patterns of malaria mosquitoes is important for planning of adequate vector control. This study was designed to investigate the resting behavior, host preference and rates of Plasmodium falciparum infection in relation to insecticide resistance of malaria vectors in different ecologies of western Kenya. METHODS: Anopheles mosquito collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons in Kisian (lowland site) and Bungoma (highland site), both in western Kenya using pyrethrum spray catches (PSC), mechanical aspiration (Prokopack) for indoor collections, clay pots, pit shelter and Prokopack for outdoor collections. WHO tube bioassay was used to determine levels of phenotypic resistance of indoor and outdoor collected mosquitoes to deltamethrin. PCR-based molecular diagnostics were used for mosquito speciation, genotype for knockdown resistance mutations (1014S and 1014F) and to determine specific host blood meal origins. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to determine mosquito sporozoite infections. RESULTS: Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the most predominant species (75%, n = 2706) followed by An. funestus s.l. (25%, n = 860). An. gambiae s.s hereafter (An. gambiae) accounted for 91% (95% CI: 89-93) and An. arabiensis 8% (95% CI: 6-9) in Bungoma, while in Kisian, An. arabiensis composition was 60% (95% CI: 55-66) and An. gambiae 39% (95% CI: 34-44). The resting densities of An. gambiae s.l and An. funestus were higher indoors than outdoor in both sites (An. gambiae s.l; F1, 655 = 41.928, p < 0.0001, An. funestus; F1, 655 = 36.555, p < 0.0001). The mortality rate for indoor and outdoor resting An. gambiae s.l F1 progeny was 37% (95% CI: 34-39) vs 67% (95% CI: 62-69) respectively in Bungoma. In Kisian, the mortality rate was 67% (95% CI: 61-73) vs 76% (95% CI: 71-80) respectively. The mortality rate for F1 progeny of An. funestus resting indoors in Bungoma was 32% (95% CI: 28-35). The 1014S mutation was only detected in indoor resitng An. arabiensis. Similarly, the 1014F mutation was present only in indoor resting An. gambiae. The sporozoite rates were highest in An. funestus followed by An. gambiae, and An. arabiensis resting indoors at 11% (34/311), 8% (47/618) and 4% (1/27) respectively in Bungoma. Overall, in Bungoma, the sporozoite rate for indoor resting mosquitoes was 9% (82/956) and 4% (8/190) for outdoors. In Kisian, the sporozoite rate was 1% (1/112) for indoor resting An. gambiae. None of the outdoor collected mosquitoes in Kisian tested positive for sporozoite infections (n = 73). CONCLUSION: The study reports high indoor resting densities of An. gambiae and An. funestus, insecticide resistance, and persistence of malaria transmission indoors regardless of the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). These findings underline the difficulties of controlling malaria vectors resting and biting indoors using the current interventions. Supplemental vector control tools and implementation of sustainable insecticide resistance management strategies are needed in western Kenya.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Anopheles/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Genótipo , Comportamento de Busca por Hospedeiro/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Esporozoítos/imunologia
2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190211, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994661

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Recently, plant-sourced larvicides are attracting great interests. METHODS: The essential oil was extracted from the leaf of Cinnamomum camphora (L.), and a bioassay was conducted to determine the larvicidal efficacy. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS analysis. RESULTS: The oil showed strong, dose-dependent larvicidal activities. The onset of larvicidal efficiency was rapid. The LC50 and LC95 were determined as 0.146% and 1.057% at 1 h, 0.031% and 0.237% at 12 h, 0.026% and 0.128% at 24 h, respectively. The oil contains 32 compounds. CONCLUSIONS: The essential oil of C. camphora leaf has an excellent larvicidal potential for the control of A. stephensi.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinnamomum camphora/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Bioensaio , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Dose Letal Mediana , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
3.
Parasitol Res ; 119(1): 75-84, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832758

RESUMO

Between May and September 2016, mosquitoes were collected on a biweekly basis at 55 locations with CO2-baited encephalitis vector surveillance traps along the Upper Rhine, Germany, to evaluate the species composition, geographical distribution and abundance of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, some members of this complex being considered vectors of historical malaria in Germany. A total of 2115 Anopheles maculipennis complex specimens were collected during the season, of which a sample of 1252 individuals was determined to species level by amplification of species-specific internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences. A total of 856 individuals of Anopheles daciae (68.37%), 394 Anopheles messeae (31.47%) and 2 Anopheles maculipennis s.s. (0.16%) were recorded. The number and proportion of A. daciae was remarkably higher in the northern meandering zone of the Upper Rhine (843 specimens, 79.90%), than in the more canalised southern furcation zone where A. messeae with 183 collected specimens represented 92.89% of 197 classified individuals. The average number of collected A. maculipennis s.l. individuals per trapping site was 38.45, equalling 0.64% of the total mosquito collection. Despite an increase in imported malaria cases, this comparatively low abundance of A. maculipennis s.l. may indicate a low risk of endemic malaria transmission by members of the A. maculipennis complex today. The proportionally dominance of A. daciae suggests that this species could be suspected the main historical vector of malaria in the Upper Rhine region. Sequence analyses of the ITS2 fragment revealed intraindividual polymorphisms within 3 of 5 diagnostic nucleotides in all specimens of A. daciae, raising the question if additional loci should be considered, to gain further insight into the taxonomical relation to A. messeae.


Assuntos
Anopheles/classificação , Anopheles/genética , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Encefalite/epidemiologia , Encefalite/parasitologia , Geografia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Polimorfismo Genético , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 522, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insecticides formulated into products that target Anopheles mosquitos have had an immense impact on reducing malaria cases in Africa. However, resistance to currently used insecticides is spreading rapidly and there is an urgent need for alternative public health insecticides. Potential new insecticides must be screened against a range of characterized mosquito strains to identify potential resistance liabilities. The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine maintains three susceptible and four resistant Anopheles strains that are widely used for screening for new insecticides. The properties of these strains are described in this paper. METHODS: WHO tube susceptibility bioassays were used for colony selection and to screen for resistance to the major classes of public health insecticides. Topical and tarsal contact bioassays were used to produce dose response curves to assess resistance intensity. Bioassays with the synergist piperonyl butoxide were also performed. Taqman™ assays were used to screen for known target site resistance alleles (kdr and ace-1). RT-qPCR was used to quantify expression of genes associated with pyrethroid resistance. RESULTS: Pyrethroid selection pressure has maintained resistance to this class in all four resistant strains. Some carbamate and organophosphate resistance has been lost through lack of exposure to these insecticide classes. The Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato) strains, VK7 2014, Banfora M and Tiassalé 13 have higher levels of pyrethroid resistance than the An. funestus FUMOZ-R strain. Elevated expression of P450s is found in all four strains and the 1014F kdr mutation is present in all three An. gambiae strains at varying frequencies. Tarsal contact data and overexpression of CYP4G16 and SAP2 suggest penetration barriers and/or sequestration also confer resistance in Banfora M. CONCLUSIONS: Continual selection with deltamethrin has maintained a stable pyrethroid-resistant phenotype over many generations. In conjunction with a standardized rearing regime, this ensures quality control of strains over time allowing for robust product comparison and selection of optimal products for further development. The identification of multiple mechanisms underpinning insecticide resistance highlights the importance of screening new compounds against a range of mosquito strains.


Assuntos
Anopheles/classificação , Inseticidas , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Bioensaio , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/análise , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Resistência a Inseticidas , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos/normas , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mutação Puntual , Piretrinas
5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 161: 61-67, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685198

RESUMO

Extensive use of pyrethroids for malaria control in Africa has led to widespread pyrethroid resistance in the two major African vectors of malaria An. gambiae and An. funestus. This is often associated with constitutively elevated levels of cytochrome P450s involved with pyrethroid metabolism and detoxification. P450s have the capacity to metabolise diverse substrates, which raises concerns about their potential to cause cross-resistance. A bank of seven recombinant P450s from An. gambiae (CYPs 6M2, 6P2, 6P3, 6P4, 6P5, 9J5) and An. funestus (CYP6P9a) commonly associated with pyrethroid resistance were screened against twelve insecticides representing the five major classes of insecticides recommended by WHO for malaria control; permethrin, etofenprox and bifenthrin (type I pyrethroids), deltamethrin, lambda cyhalothrin and cypermethrin (type II pyrethroids), DDT (organochlorine), bendiocarb (carbamate), malathion, pirimiphos methyl and fenitrothion (organophosphates) and pyriproxyfen (juvenile hormone analogue). DDT was not metabolised by the P450 panel, while bendiocarb was only metabolised by CYP6P3. Pyrethroids and pyriproxyfen were largely susceptible to metabolism by the P450 panel, as were organophosphates, which are activated by P450s. Primiphos-methyl is increasingly used for malaria control. Examination of the pirimiphos-methyl metabolites generated by CYP6P3 revealed both the active pirimiphos-methyl-oxon form and the inactive oxidative cleavage product 2-diethylamino-6-hydroxy-4-methylpyrimidine. The inhibition profile of CYPs 6M2, 6P2, 6P3, 6P9a and 9J5 was also examined using diethoxyfluorescein (DEF) as the probe substrate. Bendiocarb was the weakest inhibitor with IC50 > 100 µM across the P450 panel, while CYP6M2 showed strongest inhibition by malathion (IC50 0.7 µM). The results suggest that P450s present at elevated levels in two major Anopheline vectors of malaria in Africa have the capacity to metabolise a diverse range of pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides as well as pyriproxyfen that could impact vector control.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Anopheles/enzimologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 91, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Species of the Anopheles hyrcanus group are widely distributed in Palearctic and Oriental regions and some of them are important malaria vectors. The cryptic species of An. hyrcanus group was almost impossible to identify based only on their morphology. The phylogenetic relationship of An. hyrcanus group was also not clear. METHODS: Five members of An. hyrcanus group were identified by rDNA ITS2 sequencing as An. yatsushiroensis, An. belenrae, An. kleini, An. lesteri and An. sineroides. The mitochondrial genome fragments were sequenced and annotated using the mitochondrial genome of An. sinensis as reference. Based on the four segments and Joint Data sequences of these species, and other four anopheline species downloaded from GenBank, intraspecific as well as interspecific genetic distances were calculated and the phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by the methods of neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, minimum evolution and maximum likelihood. FINDINGS: Four parts of mitochondrial genomes, which were partial fragments COI + tRNA + COII (F5), ATP6 + COIII(F7 + F8), ND1(F19) and lrRNA (F21), were obtained. All fragments were connected as one sequence (referred as Joint Data), which had a total length of 3393 bp. All fragment sequences were highly conservative within species, with the maximum p distance (0.026) calculated by F19 of An. belenrae. The pairwise interspecific p distance calculated by each fragment showed minor or even no difference among An. sinensis, An. kleini and An. belenrae. However, interspecific p distances calculated by the Joint Data sequence ranged from 0.004 (An. belenrae vs An. kleini) to 0.089 (An. sineroides vs An. minimus), and the p distances of the six members of An. hyrcanus group were all less than 0.029. The phylogenetic tree showed two major clades: all subgenus Anopheles species (including six members of An. hyrcanus group, An. atroparvus and An. quadrimaculatus A) and subgenus Cellia (including An. dirus and An. minimus). The An. hyrcanus group was divided into two clusters as ((An. lesteri, An. sineroides) An. yatsushiroensis) and ((An. belenrae, An. sinensis) An. kleini)). CONCLUSIONS: The An. hyrcanus group in this study could be divided into two clusters, in one of which An. belenrae, An. sinensis and An. kleini were most closely related. More molecular markers would make greater contribution to phylogenetic analysis.


Assuntos
Anopheles/classificação , Genoma Mitocondrial , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Anopheles/genética , China , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 501, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655608

RESUMO

Malaria still has a devastating impact on public health and welfare in Cameroon. Despite the increasing number of studies conducted on disease prevalence, transmission patterns or treatment, there are to date, not enough studies summarising findings from previous works in order to identify gaps in knowledge and areas of interest where further evidence is needed to drive malaria elimination efforts. The present study seeks to address these gaps by providing a review of studies conducted so far on malaria in Cameroon since the 1940s to date. Over 250 scientific publications were consulted for this purpose. Although there has been increased scale-up of vector control interventions which significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality to malaria across the country from a prevalence of 41% of the population reporting at least one malaria case episode in 2000 to a prevalence of 24% in 2017, the situation is not yet under control. There is a high variability in disease endemicity between epidemiological settings with prevalence of Plasmodium parasitaemia varying from 7 to 85% in children aged 6 months to 15 years after long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) scale-up. Four species of Plasmodium have been recorded across the country: Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax. Several primate-infecting Plasmodium spp. are also circulating in Cameroon. A decline of artemisinin-based combinations therapeutic efficacy from 97% in 2006 to 90% in 2016 have been reported. Several mutations in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance (Pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (Pfmdr1) genes conferring resistance to either 4-amino-quinoleine, mefloquine, halofanthrine and quinine have been documented. Mutations in the Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes involved in sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine are also on the rise. No mutation associated with artemisinin resistance has been recorded. Sixteen anopheline species contribute to malaria parasite transmission with six recognized as major vectors: An. gambiae, An. coluzzii, An. arabiensis, An. funestus, An. nili and An. moucheti. Studies conducted so far, indicated rapid expansion of DDT, pyrethroid and carbamate resistance in An. gambiae, An. coluzzii, An. arabiensis and An. funestus threatening the performance of LLINs. This review highlights the complex situation of malaria in Cameroon and the need to urgently implement and reinforce integrated control strategies in different epidemiological settings, as part of the substantial efforts to consolidate gains and advance towards malaria elimination in the country.


Assuntos
Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/parasitologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Malária/terapia , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos/tendências , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/patogenicidade , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
8.
Pathog Glob Health ; 113(5): 246-253, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544624

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne arbo-viral disease with seasonal occurrence. Since 2009, AES/JE cases have been reported from Malkangiri district of Odisha State, India at an interval of one year.In the current study, the entomological parameters of known JE vector mosquito species were assessed for one year in Malkangiri district. Mosquito collections were done fortnightly in the index villages from August 2015 to July 2016 to record the density, their breeding habitats, feeding behaviour, parity, dusk index (DI) and infection status with JE virus. A total of 2347 JE vector mosquitoes belonging to nine species were collected from dusk collections. Culex vishnui (38.3%) was the predominant species followed by Cx. whitmorei (17.3%), Cx. fuscocephalus (13.6%), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (11.1%), Cx. bitaeniorhynchus (6.1%), Anopheles subpictus (4.8%), An. barbirostris (4.4%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (2.3%) and Cx. gelidus (2.2%). The average DI of Cx. vishnui was 0.37 which was highest among all JE vector species and varied between 0.02 (April) and 0.9 (November). The human blood indexof Cx. vishnui was 0.026. A total of 1835 JE vector mosquitoes were screened for the isolation of JE virus, but none was found positive. Presence of paddy fields and ponds, abundance of JE vectors and their human feeding habit indicate the risk of JE transmission in the study area. Detection of JE virus in Cx. vishnui during 2016 outbreak in Malkangiri district further confirms that there would be a threat of JE transmission during the favourable period.


Assuntos
Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Culex/classificação , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação
9.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0219523, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479460

RESUMO

Whole mitogenome sequences (mtDNA) have been exploited for insect ecology studies, using them as molecular markers to reconstruct phylogenies, or to infer phylogeographic relationships and gene flow. Recent Anopheles phylogenomic studies have provided information regarding the time of deep lineage divergences within the genus. Here we report the complete 15,393 bp mtDNA sequences of Anopheles aquasalis, a Neotropical human malaria vector. When comparing its structure and base composition with other relevant and available anopheline mitogenomes, high similarity and conserved genomic features were observed. Furthermore, 22 mtDNA sequences comprising anopheline and Dipteran sibling species were analyzed to reconstruct phylogenies and estimate dates of divergence between taxa. Phylogenetic analysis using complete mtDNA sequences suggests that A. aquasalis diverged from the Anopheles albitarsis complex ~28 million years ago (MYA), and ~38 MYA from Anopheles darlingi. Bayesian analysis suggests that the most recent ancestor of Nyssorhynchus and Anopheles + Cellia was extant ~83 MYA, corroborating current estimates of ~79-100 MYA. Additional sampling and publication of African, Asian, and North American anopheline mitogenomes would improve the resolution of the Anopheles phylogeny and clarify early continental dispersal routes.


Assuntos
Anopheles/classificação , Anopheles/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Genômica , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Animais , Composição de Bases , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Evolução Molecular , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105124, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394077

RESUMO

This study reports the molecular differentiation of females of Anopheles maculatus s.l. collected in eight localities on five islands in the Indonesian Archipelago: Hargowilis and Hargotirto villages of Central Java Province, North Kalimantan Province, Sabang off the northern tip of Sumatra Province, Sumba Island of East Nusa Tenggara Province and Sulawesi Province. Analyses based on rDNA (ITS2 and D3) and mtDNA (COII) sequences revealed the presence of An. greeni for the first time in North Kalimantan, and at least one novel (previously unrecognized) species of the Maculatus Group in Central Java (Hargowilis). Despite the similarity of rDNA markers of specimens of An. maculatus s.l. from Central Java and Sulawesi, their COII sequences are highly divergent (3.3%), which might indicate the presence of a further new species. Specimens of An. maculatus s.l. from the other localities had identical rDNA sequences to most An. maculatus s.s. from mainland Southeast Asia, but moderate divergence in their COII sequences (1.2-2.1%). The latter might indicate there are further novel species within the Maculatus Complex. However, as the divergence at COII may be the result of geographical structuring within species related to the historical biogeography of the region, further studies are needed to shed light on this possibility.


Assuntos
Anopheles/classificação , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Intergênico/química , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/isolamento & purificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Indonésia , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência
11.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(10): 3249-3262, 2019 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391198

RESUMO

Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms play an important role in adaptation to environmental heterogeneities. For mosquito species in the Anopheles gambiae complex that are significant vectors of human malaria, paracentric inversion polymorphisms are abundant and are associated with ecologically and epidemiologically important phenotypes. Improved understanding of these traits relies on determining mosquito karyotype, which currently depends upon laborious cytogenetic methods whose application is limited both by the requirement for specialized expertise and for properly preserved adult females at specific gonotrophic stages. To overcome this limitation, we developed sets of tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) inside inversions whose biallelic genotype is strongly correlated with inversion genotype. We leveraged 1,347 fully sequenced An. gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii genomes in the Ag1000G database of natural variation. Beginning with principal components analysis (PCA) of population samples, applied to windows of the genome containing individual chromosomal rearrangements, we classified samples into three inversion genotypes, distinguishing homozygous inverted and homozygous uninverted groups by inclusion of the small subset of specimens in Ag1000G that are associated with cytogenetic metadata. We then assessed the correlation between candidate tag SNP genotypes and PCA-based inversion genotypes in our training sets, selecting those candidates with >80% agreement. Our initial tests both in held-back validation samples from Ag1000G and in data independent of Ag1000G suggest that when used for in silico inversion genotyping of sequenced mosquitoes, these tags perform better than traditional cytogenetics, even for specimens where only a small subset of the tag SNPs can be successfully ascertained.


Assuntos
Anopheles/classificação , Anopheles/genética , Cromossomos de Insetos , Cariotipagem , Polimorfismo Genético , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Inversão Cromossômica , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0209451, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is currently complementing techniques to age-grade mosquitoes. NIRS classifies lab-reared and semi-field raised mosquitoes into < or ≥ 7 days old with an average accuracy of 80%, achieved by training a regression model using partial least squares (PLS) and interpreted as a binary classifier. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We explore whether using an artificial neural network (ANN) analysis instead of PLS regression improves the current accuracy of NIRS models for age-grading malaria transmitting mosquitoes. We also explore if directly training a binary classifier instead of training a regression model and interpreting it as a binary classifier improves the accuracy. A total of 786 and 870 NIR spectra collected from laboratory reared An. gambiae and An. arabiensis, respectively, were used and pre-processed according to previously published protocols. The ANN regression model scored root mean squared error (RMSE) of 1.6 ± 0.2 for An. gambiae and 2.8 ± 0.2 for An. arabiensis; whereas the PLS regression model scored RMSE of 3.7 ± 0.2 for An. gambiae, and 4.5 ± 0.1 for An. arabiensis. When we interpreted regression models as binary classifiers, the accuracy of the ANN regression model was 93.7 ± 1.0% for An. gambiae, and 90.2 ± 1.7% for An. arabiensis; while PLS regression model scored the accuracy of 83.9 ± 2.3% for An. gambiae, and 80.3 ± 2.1% for An. arabiensis. We also find that a directly trained binary classifier yields higher age estimation accuracy than a regression model interpreted as a binary classifier. A directly trained ANN binary classifier scored an accuracy of 99.4 ± 1.0 for An. gambiae and 99.0 ± 0.6% for An. arabiensis; while a directly trained PLS binary classifier scored 93.6 ± 1.2% for An. gambiae and 88.7 ± 1.1% for An. arabiensis. We further tested the reproducibility of these results on different independent mosquito datasets. ANNs scored higher estimation accuracies than when the same age models are trained using PLS. Regardless of the model architecture, directly trained binary classifiers scored higher accuracies on classifying age of mosquitoes than regression models translated as binary classifiers. CONCLUSION: We recommend training models to estimate age of An. arabiensis and An. gambiae using ANN model architectures (especially for datasets with at least 70 mosquitoes per age group) and direct training of binary classifier instead of training a regression model and interpreting it as a binary classifier.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Anopheles/fisiologia , Malária/diagnóstico , Redes Neurais de Computação , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Feminino , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Densidade Demográfica
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 351, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anopheles maculatus (s.s.) is an important vector of malaria in Indonesia. Previously it was considered the only member of the Maculatus Group present in Indonesia. A novel species was recently identified in the Kulon Progo District in Central Java. Until recently, few investigations have been conducted looking at An. maculatus genetic diversity in Indonesia, including allopatric island populations. METHODS: Indonesian An. maculatus (s.l.) samples were collected in several locations in Java, Lesser Sunda Island group, Sumatra and in Kulon Progo (Yogyakarta, central Java) where a novel species has been identified. Samples from a 30-year-old colony of the Kulon Progo population were also included in the analysis. Maximum-likelihood analysis established the phylogenies of the ITS2 (nuclear) and cox1 (mitochondrial) markers. Putative times of separation were based on cox1 genetic distances. RESULTS: Two species of the Maculatus Group are present in Indonesia. The novel sibling species is more closely related to Anopheles dispar than to An. maculatus (s.s.). Anopheles maculatus (s.s.) samples are homogeneous based on the ITS2 sequences. Indonesian samples and An. dispar belong to the same cox1 maternal lineage and differ from all other known members of the Maculatus Group. Divergence time between the different populations found in Java was estimated using an established cox1 mutation rate. CONCLUSIONS: A novel species within the Maculatus Group, most closely related to An. dispar, is confirmed present in the Kulon Progo area of Central Java. The divergence of this species from An. maculatus (s.s.) is explained by the stable refugia in the Kulon Progo area during the quaternary period of intense volcanic activity throughout most of Java. This novel species awaits detailed morphological description before applying a formal species name. For the interim, it is proposed that the Kulon Progo population be designated An. maculatus var. menoreh to distinguish it from An. maculatus (s.s.).


Assuntos
Anopheles/classificação , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , Indonésia , Ilhas , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mutação
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 295, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Baseline information that is essential for determining the areas to target with larval control includes estimates of vector diversity and larval habitat preferences. Due to a lack of such information in Baringo County, Kenya, this study assessed species diversity and larval habitat preference of potential mosquito vectors of Rift Valley fever (RVF) and malaria. METHODS: Mosquito larvae were sampled from nine types of larval habitats and were identified morphologically. Species diversity was estimated by the Shannon's diversity index while larval habitat preference by RVF and malaria vectors was determined by ANOVA. RESULTS: A total of 7724 immature mosquitoes comprising 17 species belonging to four genera, namely Anopheles, Culex, Aedes and Mansonia, were identified. Among the 17 species, three Anopheles species are responsible for malaria transmission: An. gambiae (s.l.), An. funestus (s.l.) and An. pharoensis. Rift Valley fever vectors included Mansonia spp. and Culex spp. The highest Shannon's diversity index was observed during the cold dry season (H = 2.487) and in the highland zone (H = 2.539) while the lowest diversity was recorded during the long rain season (H = 2.354) and in the riverine zone (H = 2.085). Ditches had the highest mean number of Anopheles larvae (16.6 larvae per sample) followed by swamp (12.4) and seasonal riverbed (10.7). Water pit and water pan had low mean numbers of Anopheles larvae (1.4 and 1.8, respectively) but relatively high mean numbers of culicines (16.9 and 13.7, respectively). Concrete tank was the least sampled type of habitat but had highest mean number of culicine larvae (333.7 l) followed distantly by water spring (38.9) and swamp (23.5). Overall, larval habitats were significantly different in terms of larval density (F(8,334) = 2.090, P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, the present study reports culicine larval species diversity in Baringo for the first time and the most preferred habitats were concrete tanks, water springs and swamps. Habitats preferred by Anopheles were mainly riverbed pools, ditches and swamps. Environmental management targeting the habitats most preferred by potential vectors can be part of integrated vector control in Baringo, especially during dry seasons.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Aedes/classificação , Aedes/parasitologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Anopheles/parasitologia , Anopheles/virologia , Culex/classificação , Culex/parasitologia , Culex/virologia , Quênia , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Plasmodium , Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Estações do Ano , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Malar J ; 18(1): 152, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies carried out in Benin have shown the involvement of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), the Anopheles funestus group in malaria transmission, but none of them reported the contribution of the Anopheles nili group to the transmission of this disease. The current study investigated the question through an entomological cross-sectional survey performed in Northern Benin. METHODS: Mosquito samplings were performed in September and October 2017 in 4 villages located in two districts: Bambaba and Wodara (Kérou district) and, Péhunco 2 and Béké (Péhunco district). The collections were carried out indoors and outdoors using human landing catches (HLC) to assess the human biting rate (HBR) and pyrethrum spray catches (PSC) to evaluate the blood feeding rate and the blood meal origin using the ELISA test. All collected mosquitoes were morphologically identified and, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for molecular identification of sibling species of An. gambiae s.l., An. funestus group and An. nili group sporozoite index (SI) was also assessed by the ELISA test. RESULTS: Overall, An. gambiae s.l., An. funestus group and An. nili group were the three vectors found in the study area. A significantly higher human biting rate (HBR) was recorded in An. nili group (5 bites/human/night) compared to An. funestus group (0.656 bites/human/night) in the Kérou district (p < 0.0001). Anopheles gambiae s.l. displayed the highest HBR (26.19 bites/human/night) in the same district. The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was 1.875 infected bites/human/month in An. nili group against 13.05 infected bites/human/month in An. gambiae s.l. and 0.938 infected bites/human/month in An. funestus group in Kérou. In Péhunco, the EIR was 1.02 infected bites/human/month in An. gambiae s.l. PCR results showed that An. nili sensu stricto (s.s.) and An. funestus s.s. were the only species of the An. nili and An. funestus groups, respectively. The anthropophagic character of An. gambiae s.l. was also highlighted. CONCLUSION: This study provides useful information on the contribution of An. nili group as secondary vector to malaria transmission in northern Benin. Broader studies must also be carried out in a larger study area to assess the involvement of other Anopheles species to malaria transmission. This will aid to better plan malaria vector control interventions.


Assuntos
Anopheles/classificação , Anopheles/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Animais , Benin/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estações do Ano , Esporozoítos
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 257, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vector control interventions using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are commonly practiced tools for the control of malaria in Ethiopia. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of these control interventions, and understand the prevailing malaria vectors, their incrimination in disease transmission, and their resting and feeding behavior, we set out to identify the Anopheles species, their blood meal sources, and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) in Ghibe and Darge within the Ghibe River basin, southwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled both indoors and outdoors from January 2015 to October 2016 using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catch (PSC), artificial pit shelters and mouth aspirators. Mosquito species were morphologically identified, and their blood meal sources and malaria sporozoite rates were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: In total, 13 species of Anopheles mosquitoes were identified, among which Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) was the predominant species: 87.9 and 67.7% in Ghibe and Darge, respectively. The mean density of An. gambiae (s.l.) collected per night using CDC light traps was 1.8 and 0.7 outdoors and indoors, respectively, in Ghibe, and 0.125 and 0.07 indoors and outdoors, respectively, in Darge. Anopheles mosquito abundance was higher in houses near the river than in houses far from the river in both study sites. Among Anopheles mosquitoes sampled using CDC light trap catches, 67.6% were unfed and the indoor and outdoor human blood indices of An. gambiae (s.l.) were 58.4 and 15.8%, respectively in Ghibe, while in Darge, they were 57.1 and 50%, respectively. Sporozoite rates were 0.07% for P. vivax and 0.07% for P. falciparum in Ghibe and zero in Darge. In Ghibe, the overall EIRs for P. falciparum and P. vivax were zero and 8.4 infective bites/person/year, respectively, in 2015, while zero and 5.4 infective bites/person/year for P. vivax and P. falciparum, respectively, in 2016. No Plasmodium-positive Anopheles mosquitoes were identified from Darge. CONCLUSIONS: Anopheles gambiae (s.l.), the principal vector of malaria in Ethiopia was the most abundant species both indoors and outdoors, fed both on human and cattle blood and occurred at higher frequencies near rivers. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) that were circumsporozoite-positive for Plasmodium species were collected from Ghibe, but not Darge.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Anopheles/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Sangue , Bovinos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Plasmodium falciparum , Rios , Esporozoítos
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 223, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Barbirostris Complex comprises six formally described species that cannot be differentiated based on morphology alone. Out of these six species, two have been reported as putative malaria vectors, An. campestris and An. wejchoochotei. Five species are present in Thailand, An. barbirostris, An. campestris, An. dissidens, An. saeungae and An. wejchoochotei, while An. vanderwulpi occurs in Indonesia. As these species cannot be accurately differentiated by morphological characters, there is a crucial lack of information on their bionomics and role in the transmission of malaria and filariasis agents. RESULTS: For differentiating the six species, an allele-specific amplification (AS-PCR) based on the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequence was developed. From 862 mosquitoes in the Barbirostris Complex collected in 23 provinces throughout Thailand, the AS-PCR was able to identify five species and its validation was undertaken on 185 specimens. CONCLUSIONS: This multiplex-PCR assay is potentially able to definitely identify all six species of the Barbirostris Complex and was validated on five species present in Thailand.


Assuntos
Anopheles/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Alelos , Animais , Primers do DNA , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Indonésia , Filogenia , Tailândia
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007412, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091236

RESUMO

In Amazonian Peru, the primary malaria vector, Nyssorhynchus darlingi (formerly Anopheles darlingi), is difficult to target using standard vector control methods because it mainly feeds and rests outdoors. Larval source management could be a useful supplementary intervention, but to determine its feasibility, more detailed studies on the larval ecology of Ny. darlingi are essential. We conducted a multi-level study of the larval ecology of Anophelinae mosquitoes in the peri-Iquitos region of Amazonian Peru, examining the environmental characteristics of the larval habitats of four species, comparing the larval microbiota among species and habitats, and placing Ny. darlingi larval habitats in the context of spatial heterogeneity in human malaria transmission. We collected Ny. darlingi, Nyssorhynchus rangeli (formerly Anopheles rangeli), Nyssorhynchus triannulatus s.l. (formerly Anopheles triannulatus s.l.), and Nyssorhynchus sp. nr. konderi (formerly Anopheles sp. nr. konderi) from natural and artificial water bodies throughout the rainy and dry seasons. We found that, consistent with previous studies in this region and in Brazil, the presence of Ny. darlingi was significantly associated with water bodies in landscapes with more recent deforestation and lower light intensity. Nyssorhynchus darlingi presence was also significantly associated with a lower vegetation index, other Anophelinae species, and emergent vegetation. Though they were collected in the same water bodies, the microbial communities of Ny. darlingi larvae were distinct from those of Ny. rangeli and Ny. triannulatus s.l., providing evidence either for a species-specific larval microbiome or for segregation of these species in distinct microhabitats within each water body. We demonstrated that houses with more reported malaria cases were located closer to Ny. darlingi larval habitats; thus, targeted control of these sites could help ameliorate malaria risk. The co-occurrence of Ny. darlingi larvae in water bodies with other putative malaria vectors increases the potential impact of larval source management in this region.


Assuntos
Anopheles/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Larva/microbiologia , Malária/transmissão , Microbiota , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Brasil , Ecossistema , Humanos , Larva/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Peru
19.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180598, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090862

RESUMO

Anopheles bellator is a primary malaria vector in the Atlantic Forest. Partial sequences of timeless and Clock genes were used to assess the genetic differentiation of five Brazilian populations, which showed strong population structure (e.g. high F ST values and fixed differences) in all pairwise comparisons between Bahia sample and the others from Paraná, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro states. Also, the resulting phylogenetic trees clearly grouped the sequences from Bahia in a different cluster with high bootstrap values. Among southern and southeastern populations low levels of genetic differentiation were found suggesting a general stability of the genetic structure.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Brasil , Florestas , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Int J Parasitol ; 49(6): 455-462, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954453

RESUMO

Over the past decades, the malaria burden in Thailand has substantially declined. Most infections now originate from the national border regions. In these areas, the prevalence of asymptomatic infections is still substantial and poses a challenge for the national malaria elimination program. To determine epidemiological parameters as well as risk factors for malaria infection in western Thailand, we carried out a cohort study in Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi provinces on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Blood samples from 999 local participants were examined for malaria infection every 4 weeks between May 2013 and Jun 2014. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax was determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and showed a seasonal variation with values fluctuating from 1.7% to 4.2% for P. vivax and 0% to 1.3% for P. falciparum. Ninety percent of infections were asymptomatic. The annual molecular force of blood-stage infection (molFOB) was estimated by microsatellite genotyping to be 0.24 new infections per person-year for P. vivax and 0.02 new infections per person-year for P. falciparum. The distribution of infections was heterogenous, that is, the vast majority of infections (>80%) were found in a small number of individuals (<8% of the study population) who tested positive at multiple timepoints. Significant risk factors were detected for P. vivax infections, including previous clinical malaria, occupation in agriculture and travel to Myanmar. In contrast, indoor residual spraying was associated with a protection from infection. These findings provide a recent landscape of malaria epidemiology and emphasize the importance of novel strategies to target asymptomatic and imported infections.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária Falciparum/sangue , Malária Vivax/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mianmar , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA