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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 36(8): 837-840, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and molecular genetic characteristics of patient with Kleefstra syndrome 1. METHODS: Clinical data, chromosomal karyotype and whole genome copy number variations (CNVs) of the patient were analyzed. RESULTS: The patient was found to have a karyotype of 45,XX,-9[4]/46,XX,r(9)(p24q34)[56]. Whole-genome CNVs detection revealed that she has carried a heterozygous deletion of approximately 670 kb at 9q34.3, which encompassed the entire EHMT1 gene. The region is strongly associated with Kleefstra syndrome (1/9q telomere deletion). In addition, the patient also had heterozygous deletion of 9pter, which may predispose to formation of ring chromosome 9. CONCLUSION: The child was diagnosed with Kleefstra syndrome type 1 in conjunct with ring chromosome 9.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Cromossomos em Anel , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185588

RESUMO

A syndrome of multiple paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas, somatostatinoma, and polycythemia due to somatic mosaic gain-of-function mutation of EPAS1, encoding HIF-2α, was previously described. HIF-2α has been implicated in endochondral and intramembranous ossification. Abnormal bone growth of the skull base may lead to Chiari malformation type I. We report two cases of EPAS1 gain-of-function mutation syndrome with Chiari malformation and developmental skull base anomalies. Patients were referred to the Section on Medical Endocrinology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD, NIH for evaluation of recurrent and metastatic paragangliomas or pheochromocytoma. The syndrome was confirmed genetically by identification of the functional EPAS1 gain-of-function mutation in the resected tumors and circulating leukocytes. Both patients were confirmed for characteristics of EPAS1 gain-of-function mutation syndrome by complete blood count (CBC), plasma biochemistry, and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis. Chiari malformation type I and abnormal bony development of the posterior fossa was found on MRI and CT of the head. The present study implicates EPAS1 mutations in abnormal posterior fossa development resulting in Chiari malformation type I.


Assuntos
Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Paraganglioma/genética , Adulto , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/patologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Feminino , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraganglioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Paraganglioma/patologia , Síndrome
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(3)2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934652

RESUMO

The term congenital hypopigmentary disorders refers to a wide group of heterogeneous hereditary diseases, clinically characterized by inborn pigmentary defects of the iris, hair, and/or skin. They include Gray Hair Syndromes (GHSs), a rare group of autosomal recessive genodermatosis hallmarked by inborn silvery gray hair. GHSs encompass Griscelli, Chediak⁻Higashi, Elejalde, and Cross syndromes, which are all characterized by a broad spectrum of severe multisystem disorders, including neurological, ocular, skeletal, and immune system impairment. In this manuscript, we describe in detail the clinical, trichoscopic, and genetic features of a rare case of Griscelli syndrome; moreover, we provide an overview of all the GHSs known to date. Our report highlights how an accurate clinical examination with noninvasive methods, like trichoscopy, may play a crucial rule in diagnosis of rare and potentially lethal genetic syndromes such as Griscelli syndrome, in which timely diagnosis and therapy may modify the clinical course, quality of life, and likelihood of survival.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Pigmentação/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Pigmentação/genética , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/imunologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adulto , Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/genética , Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/imunologia , Síndrome de Chediak-Higashi/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/imunologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Cabelo/anormalidades , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/imunologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/patologia , Humanos , Hipertricose/induzido quimicamente , Iris/anormalidades , Masculino , Mutação , Síndromes Neurocutâneas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neurocutâneas/genética , Síndromes Neurocutâneas/imunologia , Síndromes Neurocutâneas/patologia , Piebaldismo/diagnóstico , Piebaldismo/genética , Piebaldismo/imunologia , Piebaldismo/patologia , Transtornos da Pigmentação/imunologia , Transtornos da Pigmentação/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Doenças Raras/imunologia , Doenças Raras/patologia , Anormalidades da Pele , Proteínas rab27 de Ligação ao GTP/genética
4.
Hum Genet ; 138(6): 601-611, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968251

RESUMO

Facial shape differences are one of the most significant phenotypes in humans. It is affected largely by skull shape. However, research into the genetic basis of the craniofacial morphology has rarely been reported. The present study aimed to identify genetic variants influencing craniofacial morphology in northern Han Chinese through whole-exome sequencing (WES). Phenotypic data of the volunteers' faces and skulls were obtained through three-dimensional CT scan of the skull. A total of 48 phenotypes (35 facial and 13 cranial phenotypes) were used for the bioinformatics analysis. Four genetic loci were identified affecting the craniofacial shapes. The four candidate genes are RGPD3, IGSF3, SLC28A3, and USP40. Four single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site mutations in RGPD3, IGSF3, and USP40 were significantly associated with the skull shape (p < 1×10-6), and three SNP site mutations in RGPD3, IGSF3, and SLC28A3 were significantly associated with the facial shape (p < 1×10-6). The rs62152530 site mutation in the RGPD3 gene may be closely associated with the nasal length, ear length, and alar width. The rs647711 site mutation in the IGSF3 gene may be closely associated with the nasal length, mandibular width, and width between the mental foramina. The rs10868138 site mutation in the SLC28A3 gene may be associated with the nasal length, alar width, width between tragus, and width between the mental foramina. The rs1048603 and rs838543 site mutations in the USP40 gene may be closely associated with the pyriform aperture width. Our findings provide useful genetic information for the determination of face morphology.


Assuntos
Ossos Faciais/metabolismo , Loci Gênicos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Crânio/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sequência de Bases , China , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/etnologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Ossos Faciais/anatomia & histologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
5.
J Hum Genet ; 64(6): 561-572, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858506

RESUMO

Variants have been identified in the embryonic ectoderm development (EED) gene in seven patients with syndromic overgrowth similar to that observed in Weaver syndrome. Here, we present three additional patients with missense variants in the EED gene. All the missense variants reported to date (including the three presented here) have localized to one of seven WD40 domains of the EED protein, which are necessary for interaction with enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2). In addition, among the seven patients reported in the literature and the three new patients presented here, all of the reported pathogenic variants except one occurred at one of four amino acid residues in the EED protein. The recurrence of pathogenic variation at these loci suggests that these residues are functionally important (mutation hotspots). In silico modeling and calculations of the free energy changes resulting from these variants suggested that they not only destabilize the EED protein structure but also adversely affect interactions between EED, EZH2, and/or H3K27me3. These cases help demonstrate the mechanism(s) by which apparently deleterious variants in the EED gene might cause overgrowth and lend further support that amino acid residues in the WD40 domain region may be mutation hotspots.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/etiologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Simulação por Computador , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/etiologia , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/etiologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/fisiopatologia , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/química , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/etiologia , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/fisiopatologia , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/química , Humanos , Masculino , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Taxa de Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/química , Conformação Proteica , Repetições WD40/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1922: 407-452, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838594

RESUMO

Rare genetic disorders are often challenging to diagnose. Anomalies of tooth number, shape, size, mineralized tissue structure, eruption, and resorption may exist as isolated symptoms or diseases but are often part of the clinical synopsis of numerous syndromes (Bloch-Zupan A, Sedano H, Scully C. Dento/oro/craniofacial anomalies and genetics, 1st edn. Elsevier, Boston, MA, 2012). Concerning amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), for example, mutations in a number of genes have been reported to cause isolated AI, including AMELX, ENAM, KLK4, MMP20, FAM83H, WDR72, C4orf26, SLC24A4, and LAMB3. In addition, many other genes such as DLX3, CNNM4, ROGDI, FAM20A, STIM1, ORAI1, and LTBP3 have been shown to be involved in developmental syndromes with enamel defects. The clinical presentation of the enamel phenotype (hypoplastic, hypomineralized, hypomature, or a combination of severities) alone does not allow a reliable prediction of possible causative genetic mutations. Understanding the potential genetic cause(s) of rare diseases is critical for overall health management of affected patient. One effective strategy to reach a genetic diagnosis is to sequence a selected gene panel chosen for a determined range of phenotypes. Here we describe a laboratory protocol to set up a specific gene panel for orodental diseases.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Doenças Raras/genética , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética , Amelogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico , Amelogênese Imperfeita/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , DNA/genética , Desenho de Equipamento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Humanos , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Dentárias/diagnóstico
9.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 12, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous encompassing developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), structural brain abnormalities, and neurological manifestations with variants in a large number of genes (hundreds) associated. To date, a few de novo mutations potentially disrupting TCF20 function in patients with ID, ASD, and hypotonia have been reported. TCF20 encodes a transcriptional co-regulator structurally related to RAI1, the dosage-sensitive gene responsible for Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion/haploinsufficiency) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (duplication/triplosensitivity). METHODS: Genome-wide analyses by exome sequencing (ES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified individuals with heterozygous, likely damaging, loss-of-function alleles in TCF20. We implemented further molecular and clinical analyses to determine the inheritance of the pathogenic variant alleles and studied the spectrum of phenotypes. RESULTS: We report 25 unique inactivating single nucleotide variants/indels (1 missense, 1 canonical splice-site variant, 18 frameshift, and 5 nonsense) and 4 deletions of TCF20. The pathogenic variants were detected in 32 patients and 4 affected parents from 31 unrelated families. Among cases with available parental samples, the variants were de novo in 20 instances and inherited from 4 symptomatic parents in 5, including in one set of monozygotic twins. Two pathogenic loss-of-function variants were recurrent in unrelated families. Patients presented with a phenotype characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, variable dysmorphic features, movement disorders, and sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with a novel syndrome manifesting clinical characteristics similar to those observed in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Together with previously described cases, the clinical entity of TCF20-associated neurodevelopmental disorders (TAND) emerges from a genotype-driven perspective.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação INDEL , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS Genet ; 15(2): e1007962, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721228

RESUMO

Multiple syndromes share congenital heart and craniofacial muscle defects, indicating there is an intimate relationship between the adjacent cardiac and pharyngeal muscle (PM) progenitor fields. However, mechanisms that direct antagonistic lineage decisions of the cardiac and PM progenitors within the anterior mesoderm of vertebrates are not understood. Here, we identify that retinoic acid (RA) signaling directly promotes the expression of the transcription factor Nr2f1a within the anterior lateral plate mesoderm. Using zebrafish nr2f1a and nr2f2 mutants, we find that Nr2f1a and Nr2f2 have redundant requirements restricting ventricular cardiomyocyte (CM) number and promoting development of the posterior PMs. Cre-mediated genetic lineage tracing in nr2f1a; nr2f2 double mutants reveals that tcf21+ progenitor cells, which can give rise to ventricular CMs and PM, more frequently become ventricular CMs potentially at the expense of posterior PMs in nr2f1a; nr2f2 mutants. Our studies reveal insights into the molecular etiology that may underlie developmental syndromes that share heart, neck and facial defects as well as the phenotypic variability of congenital heart defects associated with NR2F mutations in humans.


Assuntos
Fator II de Transcrição COUP/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Músculos Faríngeos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Padronização Corporal/genética , Fator II de Transcrição COUP/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/embriologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/embriologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Ventrículos do Coração/citologia , Ventrículos do Coração/embriologia , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Humanos , Mesoderma/citologia , Mesoderma/embriologia , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Mutação , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Músculos Faríngeos/citologia , Músculos Faríngeos/embriologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Tretinoína/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
11.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(4): e00569, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 12 homolog (MED12, OMIM 300188) cause X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) disorders including FG, Lujan, and Ohdo syndromes. The Gli3-dependent Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway has been implicated in the original FG syndrome and Lujan syndrome. How are SHH-signaling defects related to the complex clinical phenotype of MED12-associated XLID syndromes are not fully understood. METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR was used to study expression levels of three SHH-signaling genes in lymophoblast cell lines carrying four MED12 mutations from four unrelated XLID families. Genotype and phenotype correlation studies were performed on these mutations. RESULTS: Three newly identified and one novel MED12 mutations in six affected males from four unrelated XLID families were studied. Three mutations (c.2692A>G; p.N898D, c.3640C>T; p.R1214C, and c.3884G>A; p.R1295H) are located in the LS domain and one (c.617G>A; p.R206Q) is in the L domain of MED12. These mutations involve highly conserved amino acid residues and segregate with ID and related congenital malformations in respective probands families. Patients with the LS-domain mutations share many features of FG syndrome and some features of Lujan syndrome. The patient with the L-domain mutation presented with ID and predominant neuropsychiatric features but little dysmorphic features of either FG or Lujan syndrome. Transcript levels of three Gli3-dependent SHH-signaling genes, CREB5, BMP4, and NEUROG2, were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and found to be significantly elevated in lymphoblasts from patients with three mutations in the MED12-LS domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a critical role of MED12 in regulating Gli3-dependent SHH signaling and in developing ID and related congenital malformations in XLID syndromes. Differences in the expression profile of SHH-signaling genes potentially contribute to variability in clinical phenotypes in patients with MED12-related XLID disorders.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Complexo Mediador/genética , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adulto , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Proteína A de Ligação a Elemento de Resposta do AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteína A de Ligação a Elemento de Resposta do AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Complexo Mediador/química , Complexo Mediador/metabolismo , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Linhagem , Domínios Proteicos , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Acta pediatr. esp ; 77(1/2): e31-e34, ene.-feb. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182878

RESUMO

El síndrome de Kleefstra se caracteriza por una facies peculiar y la presencia de hipotonía, déficit intelectual y retraso grave en la expresión oral, aunque pueden aparecer otras anomalías: cardiacas, de audición, defectos genitales en varones, epilepsia, infecciones respiratorias severas, sobrepeso y alteraciones del comportamiento. Se trata de una enfermedad genética poco frecuente, ocasionada por mutaciones puntuales en el gen histona-lisina-N-metiltransferasa 1 eucromática (EHMT1) o por una microdeleción cromosómica en 9q34.3 (en el 75% de los casos). Este gen codifica una enzima que modifica la función de la histona, esencial para el desarrollo normal. Presentamos el caso clínico de un niño con hipotonía, retraso psicomotor, ausencia de habla y facies peculiar, cuyo diagnóstico se obtuvo gracias a las nuevas técnicas de genética molecular


The Kleefstra syndrome is characterized by a peculiar facies, intelectual deficit and severe delay in the oral expression. Other anomalies that may occur are cardiac, hearing, genital defects in men, epilepsy, severe respiratory infections, overweight and behavioral abnormalities. It’s a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the eucromatic histone-lysine-N-methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) or a chromosome microdeletion 9q34.3 (in 75% of the cases). This gene encodes an enzyme that modifies the function of histone, essential for normal development. We present the case of a child with hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, absence of speech and peculiar facies, whose diagnosis was obtained due to the new techniques in molecular genetics


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Síndrome
14.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210097, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GLI2 encodes for a transcription factor that controls the expression of several genes in the Hedgehog pathway. Mutations in GLI2 have been described as causative of a spectrum of clinical phenotypes, notably holoprosencephaly, hypopituitarism and postaxial polydactyl. METHODS: In order to identify causative genetic variant, we performed exome sequencing of a trio from an Italian family with multiple affected individuals presenting clinical phenotypes in the Culler-Jones syndrome spectrum. We performed a series of cell-based assays to test the functional properties of mutant GLI2. RESULTS: Here we report a novel deletion c.3493delC (p.P1167LfsX52) in the C-terminal activation domain of GLI2. Functional assays confirmed the pathogenicity of the identified variant and revealed a dominant-negative effect of mutant GLI2 on Hedgehog signalling. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the variable clinical manifestation of GLI2 mutations and emphasize the value of functional characterisation of novel gene variants to assist genetic counselling and diagnosis.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Dedos/anormalidades , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Hipopituitarismo/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polidactilia/genética , Dedos do Pé/anormalidades , Proteína Gli2 com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Células HEK293 , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/deficiência , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/congênito , Masculino , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Linhagem , Adeno-Hipófise/anormalidades , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Síndrome
15.
Int J Oncol ; 54(3): 797-806, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628659

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are diffusible polypeptides released by a variety of cell types. FGF8 subfamily members regulate embryonic development processes through controlling progenitor cell growth and differentiation, and are also functional in adults in tissue repair to maintain tissue homeostasis. FGF8 family members exhibit unique binding affinities with FGF receptors and tissue distribution patterns. Increasing evidence suggests that, by regulating multiple cellular signaling pathways, alterations in the FGF8 subfamily are involved in craniofacial development, odontogenesis, tongue development and salivary gland branching morphogenesis. Aberrant FGF signaling transduction, caused by mutations as well as abnormal expression or isoform splicing, plays an important role in the development of oral diseases. Targeting FGF8 subfamily members provides a new promising strategy for the treatment of oral diseases. The aim of this review was to summarize the aberrant regulations of FGF8 subfamily members and their potential implications in oral­maxillofacial diseases.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Fator 8 de Crescimento de Fibroblasto/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Animais , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Fator 8 de Crescimento de Fibroblasto/genética , Fator 8 de Crescimento de Fibroblasto/metabolismo , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial , Boca/embriologia , Transdução de Sinais
16.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 99-105, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617623

RESUMO

DNA ligase IV (LIG4) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, manifesting with variable immune deficiency, growth failure, predisposition to malignancy, and cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiation. The facial features are subtle and variable, as well. Herein, we described an 18-year-old boy, the first child of consanguineous parents who presented with Behçet's disease (BD)-like phenotype, developmental delay, and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET). Whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous p.Arg871His (c.2612G > A) mutation in LIG4. To date, 35 cases have been reported with LIG4 syndrome. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patient displayed notable sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Flow cytometric annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) and eFluor670 proliferation assays showed accelerated radiation-induced apoptosis and diminished proliferation, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first case presenting with a BD-like phenotype. This case provides further evidence that rare monogenic defects could be the underlying cause of atypical presentations of some well-described disorders. Moreover, this clinical report further expands the phenotypical spectrum of LIG4 deficiency.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Behçet/genética , DNA Ligase Dependente de ATP/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Adolescente , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
18.
Genesis ; 57(1): e23259, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375152

RESUMO

A recent convergence of technological innovations has re-energized the ability to apply genetics to research in human craniofacial development. Next-generation exome and whole genome sequencing have significantly dropped in price, making it relatively trivial to sequence and analyze patients and families with congenital craniofacial anomalies. A concurrent revolution in genome editing with the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system enables the rapid generation of animal models, including mouse, which can precisely recapitulate human variants. Here, we summarize the choices currently available to the research community. We illustrate this approach with the study of a family with a novel craniofacial syndrome with dominant inheritance pattern. The genomic analysis suggested a causal variant in AMOTL1 which we modeled in mice. We also made a novel deletion allele of Amotl1. Our results indicate that Amotl1 is not required in the mouse for survival to weaning. Mice carrying the variant identified in the human sequencing studies, however, do not survive to weaning in normal ratios. The cause of death is not understood for these mice complicating our conclusions about the pathogenicity in the index patient. Thus, we highlight some of the powerful opportunities and confounding factors confronting current craniofacial genetic research.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Adulto , Animais , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
19.
J Hum Genet ; 64(2): 183-189, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459466

RESUMO

We report on a sib pair of Indian origin born of a consanguineous parentage with a novel phenotype of distinct facial dysmorphism, cerebellar ataxia, dystonia, and exudative retinopathy due to homozygous PCDH12 nonsense variations. cDNA studies showed >90% reduction in transcript levels in both patients, indicating nonsense-mediated decay and loss of function as the probable causative molecular mechanism of the phenotype.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Caderinas/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/patologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Distonia/patologia , Homozigoto , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Mutação , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Criança , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Distonia/genética , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Linhagem , Prognóstico , Doenças Retinianas/genética
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