Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.708
Filtrar
1.
BJOG ; 127(1): 18-26, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anterior compartment prolapse is the most common pelvic organ prolapse (POP) with a range of surgical treatment options available. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surgical treatments for the repair of anterior POP. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing surgical treatments for women with POP. Network meta-analysis was possible for anterior POP, same-site recurrence outcome. A Markov model was used to compare the cost-utility of surgical treatments for the primary repair of anterior POP from a UK National Health Service perspective. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 27 eligible trials for the network meta-analysis involving eight surgical treatments tested on 3194 women. Synthetic mesh was the most effective in preventing recurrence at the same site. There was no evidence to suggest a difference between synthetic non-absorbable mesh, synthetic partially absorbable mesh, and biological mesh. The cost-utility analysis, which incorporated effectiveness, complications and cost data, found non-mesh repair to have the highest probability of being cost-effective. The conclusions were robust to model inputs including effectiveness, costs and utility values. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior colporrhaphy augmented with mesh appeared to be cost-ineffective in women requiring primary repair of anterior POP. There is a need for further research on long-term effectiveness and the safety of mesh products to establish their relative cost-effectiveness with a greater certainty. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: New study finds mesh cost-ineffective in women with anterior pelvic organ prolapse.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/economia , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/cirurgia , Telas Cirúrgicas/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Humanos , Meta-Análise em Rede , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Prevenção Secundária/economia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(11): 1392-1401, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674241

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in comparison with standard wound management after initial surgical wound debridement in adults with severe open fractures of the lower limb. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An economic evaluation was conducted from the perspective of the United Kingdom NHS and Personal Social Services, based on evidence from the 460 participants in the Wound Management of Open Lower Limb Fractures (WOLLF) trial. Economic outcomes were collected prospectively over the 12-month follow-up period using trial case report forms and participant-completed questionnaires. Bivariate regression of costs (given in £, 2014 to 2015 prices) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), with multiple imputation of missing data, was conducted to estimate the incremental cost per QALY gained associated with NPWT dressings. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were undertaken to assess the impacts of uncertainty and heterogeneity, respectively, surrounding aspects of the economic evaluation. RESULTS: The base case analysis produced an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £267 910 per QALY gained, reflecting higher costs on average (£678; 95% confidence interval (CI) -£1082 to £2438) and only marginally higher QALYS (0.002; 95% CI -0.054 to 0.059) in the NPWT group. The probability that NPWT is cost-effective in this patient population did not exceed 27% regardless of the value of the cost-effectiveness threshold. This result remained robust to several sensitivity and subgroup analyses. CONCLUSION: This trial-based economic evaluation suggests that NPWT is unlikely to be a cost-effective strategy for improving outcomes in adult patients with severe open fractures of the lower limb. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1392-1401.


Assuntos
Ossos da Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Fraturas Expostas/economia , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 993-999, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607044

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccination, compared to no vaccination, for the elderly aged ≥60 years old in China. Methods: A static life-time Markov model is conducted to simulate the Chinese elderly population aged ≥60 years old. Taking the health care system perspective, one-year analytic cycle length is used for each influenza season. The model was assumed to be repeated until the individual reaches 100 years old. Three interventions were evaluated, including no vaccination, annual trivalent influenza vaccination, and annual quadrivalent influenza vaccination. Using the threshold of 3 times GDP per capita per Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) (193 932/QALY), the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated to compare the cost-effectiveness of every two interventions.Model inputs like data for costs and utilities were from studies on Chinese population if they were available. QALY was used to measure health utility. One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were adopted to quantify the level of confidence of the model output. Results: The total influenza associated costs of no vaccination would be 603 CNY per person, while the total costs of annual trivalent vaccination would be 1 027 CNY. Using trivalent vaccine would result in 0.007 QALY gained per person compared to no vaccination, with an increased cost of 424 CNY per person. The ICER of trivalent vaccination over no vaccination for all the elderly population in China would be 64 026 CNY per QALY gained, which was less than the threshold of 3 times GDP per capita. The total costs of annual quadrivalent vaccination would be 1 988 CNY. Using quadrivalent vaccine would result in 0.008 additional QALY gained per person compared to no vaccination, with an increased cost of 1 385 CNY per person. The ICER of quadrivalent vaccination over no vaccination would be 174 081 CNY per QALY gained, which was less than the threshold of 3 times GDP per capita. Conclusion: Vaccinating elderly population would improve health utilities at higher health care costs for the elderly. Using the threshold of 3 times GDP per capita per QALY (193 932/QALY), both trivalent and quadrivalent vaccination would be cost-effective compared to no vaccination in elderly Chinese population.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/economia , Influenza Humana , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Estações do Ano
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1000-1006, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607045

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of potential government fully-funded influenza vaccination for diabetics in our country. Methods: From the societal perspective, a decision tree model was developed to compare outcomes (including impact on the influenza-related outpatient consultation, hospitalization and excess mortality, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY), as well as incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)) of a national fully-funded vaccination programme in the population with diabetes and status quo (i.e., vaccinated with out-of-pocket payment, with a uptake rate of zero), using the published data with regarding to influenza related ILI (influenza-like illness) consultation rate, hospitalization rate and excess mortality rate, health-related quality of life and economic burden, diabetes prevalence, population size, health seeking behaviour, vaccine uptake rate, vaccine efficacy/effectiveness, etc. A time horizon of 1 year was used in the present analysis, and all costs were expressed in CNY in 2016 using the consumer price index. All results are presented in M (P(25), P(75)). Results: In the scenario of 40% vaccination coverage in the population with diabetes, government fully-funded vaccination programme was estimated to cost 1.71 (1.67, 1.75) billions CNY, and expected to prevent 110 000 (81 000, 143 000) influenza-related ILI consultations, 36 000 (28 000, 44 000) influenza-related SARI hospitalizations and 12 000 (9 000, 16 000) influenza-related deaths due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. A total of 108 000 (82 000, 142 000) QALY were estimated to be gained. The ICER was 10 088 (7 365, 14 046) CNY per QALY gained. The probability of cost-effectiveness of the fully-funded vaccination programme was 99.1% at a threshold of 53 680 CNY per QALY gained (GDP per capita in 2016). Conclusion: Government fully-funded influenza vaccination in population with diabetes is cost-effective, and thus is recommended as the key strategy of diabetes prevention and control.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Vacinas contra Influenza/economia , Influenza Humana , Vacinação/economia , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Governo , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
6.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(3): 189-199, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645061

RESUMO

In a sluggish economy, cost containment is a central issue for the national health service, and health authorities are increasingly requiring proof of the economic and clinical value of health interventions. In this context, the integration and/or evolution of techniques to measure the economic sustain- ability of new technologies is essential. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) are two measures used in the assessment of health interventions, which, although based on the same theoretical concept, differ in a number of important aspects. DALY can overcome the limit of using arbitrary economic threshold values since it is a benchmark directly comparable with the GDP per capita, an unbiased measure of sustainability. Indeed, in 2002 the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that interventions costing less than 3 times the per-capita GDP per DALY averted could be considered cost effective. The Expected Value of Information and an estimate of the contribution to GDP (social costs due to presenteeism and absenteeism), along with Health Technology Assessment-based disinvestment decisions and the generation of a comprehensive health dataset (to be analysed using artificial intelligence) should be implemented. These procedures may improve the effectiveness of health governance and lead to better quality of healthcare services.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(10): 1262-1268, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658528

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the burden and to describe the characteristics of spatial distribution caused by malignant tumors among different administrative areas in Guangzhou from 2010- 2013. Methods: Based on data from the Cancer Registry system and population in Guangzhou in 2010- 2013, disability-adjusted life year (DALY) was assessed on the disease burden of cancer, in accordance with the method used in the Global Burden of Disease study. Results: The crude incidence rates of cancer appeared as 256.22/10(5) in 2010-2011 and 270.04/10(5) in 2012-2013, with the crude mortality rates as 143.17/10(5) and 148.01/10(5), respectively, in Guangzhou. Cancers caused 606 238.95 DALYs in 2010-2011 and 623 763.80 DALYs in 2012-2013 for both sexes and 37.63 and 37.81 person year per 1 000 persons, with the standardized DALY rates as 34.51‰, 34.00‰ respectively. Three administrative districts (Yuexiu, Haizhu and Liwan) were with the largest disease burden of cancers that accounted for 45% of the DALYs for the whole Conghua district, with liver cancer was the leading cancer on DALYs, and tracheal, bronchus and lung cancer ranked the first in the other districts. Conclusions: In Guangzhou, disease burden caused by cancers was both prominently seen in the newly developed urban area and the old districts. It remains an arduous task to continue programs on control and prevention of cancers in this city.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Sistema de Registros , Comportamento Sexual , Análise Espacial
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1084-1088, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594150

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the disease burden of pancreatic cancer in China in 1990 and 2017. Methods: Province-specific data in China from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017 were used to describe the change of death status, disease burden of pancreatic cancer in Chinese population by specific province and age groups, including incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALY), years of life lost (YLL) due to premature mortality and years lived with disability (YLD) in 1990 and 2017. Meanwhile the incidence, mortality, DALY rate, YLL rate, YLD rate were standardized by the GBD global standard population in 2017. Results: In 2017, the new cases of pancreatic cancer, incidence and age-standardized incidence accounted for 83.6 thousand, 5.92/100 000 and 4.37/100 000 in China, with an increase of 230.94%, 180.45% and 49.88% compared with 1990, respectively. The total number of deaths, mortality and age-standardized mortality appeared as 85.1 thousand, 6.02/100 000, 4.48/100 000, with an increase of 236.08%, 184.80% and 47.51% respectively. The incidence and mortality of pancreatic cancer increased with age and accelerated from the age of 55 to 59 both in 1990 and 2017. The highest incidence and mortality showed in 85-89 years old in 2017 and in 90-94 years old in 1990. The standardized DALY rate of pancreatic cancer increased from 71.00/100 000 in 1990 to 94.32/100 000 in 2017, increased by 32.84%. The standardized YLL rate increased from 70.39/100 000 to 93.42/100 000, increased by 32.72%. The standardized YLD rate increased from 0.62/100 000 to 0.90/100 000, increased by 45.80%. In terms of age distribution, DALY rate, YLL rate and YLD rate of pancreatic cancer basically showed an increasing trend with age in 1990 and 2017. In 2017, Jiangsu (7.61/100 000), Shanghai (7.52/100 000) and Liaoning (6.84/100 000) ranked the top three provinces in terms of standardized mortality. Compared with 1990, Henan (104.28%), Sichuan (94.02%) and Hebei (90.39%) saw the fastest increase in standardized mortality. Conclusions: The incidence, mortality and disease burden of pancreatic cancer in China increased significantly from 1990 to 2017. Prevention and control measures should be strengthened to reduce the disease burden of pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Padrões de Referência
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1089-1094, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594151

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the disease burden of stroke and its health loss attributable to passive smoking in people aged 60 years and over in Jiangsu province. Methods: Data were retrieved from the Chronic and Non-communicable Diseases and Risk Factors Surveillance in Jiangsu in 2013 and the death registry system in Jiangsu. Combined with the method in Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (GBD2016), the indicators, such as population attributable fraction (PAF) and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) for stroke due to passive smoking were calculated. Results: In 2013, the mortality rate, age-standardized mortality rate, DALY and DALY rate of stroke in people aged 60 years and over in Jiangsu were 718.15/100 000, 439.28/100 000, 1 179 602 person years and 9 234.99/100 000, respectively. Year of life lost (YLL) accounted for 87.00% of the total DALY. The DALY and corresponding rate of stroke increased rapidly with age, and were higher in women (612 084 person years and 9 319.71/100 000, respectively) than those in men (567 518 person years and 9 145.33/100 000, respectively). The prevalence of passive smoking was 34.04% in people aged 60 years and over in Jiangsu. The PAF, attributable DALY, attributable DALY rate and its age- standardized rate of stroke due to passive smoking in people aged 60 years and over in Jiangsu were 3.88%, 45 769 person years, 358.12/100 000 and 920.64/100 000, respectively; and were also higher for men (4.35%, 24 687 person years, 397.82/100 000 and 515.30/100 000, respectively) than those for women (3.44%, 21 056 person years, 320.60/100 000, 405.34/100 000, respectively). Conclusions: The disease burden of stroke was heavy in the elderly in Jiangsu, and passive smoking might have great influence on the disease burden of stroke. Prevention and control of stroke and passive smoking exposure should be taken actively to improve health for the elderly.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia
10.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 817-821, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the disease burden of diet-related chronic diseases in China between 1990 and 2016. METHODS: Based on the Global Burden of Disease 2016, we extracted the absolute number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years( DALYs) of diet-related chronic diseases and the corresponding age-standardized rates in China in 1990 and 2016. Subgroup analyses were conducted in various gender, dietary risk factors and categories of diseases. RESULTS: In 2016, the total number and rate of diet-related NCDs deaths was 2493 thousand and 182. 4/100000. The corresponding number and rate of DALYs was 54995 thousand person-year and 4023. 0/100000. Compared with those in 1990, the rates of death and DALYs in 2016 increased by19. 5% and 9. 3%, respectively. Both death rate and DALYs rate increased with the age. Death rate( 214. 6/100000) and DALYs rate( 4961. 1/100000) in males were 1. 4-fold and 1. 6-fold as that in females( 148. 2/100000 and 3028. 2/100000, respectively). High intake in sodium, low intake in whole grains and low intake in fruits were the three leading dietary risk factors and cardiovascular diseases accounted for 88. 1% DALYs in all chronic diseases. CONCLUSION: The burden of diet-related chronic diseases in China is severe and it continues increasing over years.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Dieta , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
11.
N Engl J Med ; 381(10): 912-922, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovenous laser ablation and ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy are recommended alternatives to surgery for the treatment of primary varicose veins, but their long-term comparative effectiveness remains uncertain. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled trial involving 798 participants with primary varicose veins at 11 centers in the United Kingdom, we compared the outcomes of laser ablation, foam sclerotherapy, and surgery. Primary outcomes at 5 years were disease-specific quality of life and generic quality of life, as well as cost-effectiveness based on models of expected costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained that used data on participants' treatment costs and scores on the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire. RESULTS: Quality-of-life questionnaires were completed by 595 (75%) of the 798 trial participants. After adjustment for baseline scores and other covariates, scores on the Aberdeen Varicose Vein Questionnaire (on which scores range from 0 to 100, with lower scores indicating a better quality of life) were lower among patients who underwent laser ablation or surgery than among those who underwent foam sclerotherapy (effect size [adjusted differences between groups] for laser ablation vs. foam sclerotherapy, -2.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.49 to -1.22; P<0.001; and for surgery vs. foam sclerotherapy, -2.60; 95% CI, -3.99 to -1.22; P<0.001). Generic quality-of-life measures did not differ among treatment groups. At a threshold willingness-to-pay ratio of £20,000 ($28,433 in U.S. dollars) per QALY, 77.2% of the cost-effectiveness model iterations favored laser ablation. In a two-way comparison between foam sclerotherapy and surgery, 54.5% of the model iterations favored surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized trial of treatments for varicose veins, disease-specific quality of life 5 years after treatment was better after laser ablation or surgery than after foam sclerotherapy. The majority of the probabilistic cost-effectiveness model iterations favored laser ablation at a willingness-to-pay ratio of £20,000 ($28,433) per QALY. (Funded by the National Institute for Health Research; CLASS Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN51995477.).


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Terapia a Laser , Qualidade de Vida , Escleroterapia , Varizes/terapia , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Procedimentos Endovasculares/economia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Terapia a Laser/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Escleroterapia/economia , Escleroterapia/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Varizes/cirurgia
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 280-284, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the approaches used for the assessment of disability adjust life years (DALYs) for advanced schistosomiasis japonica, so as to provide scientific evidence for accurate assessment of the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica. METHODS: The patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica receiving treatment and assistance programs in Hunan Province in 2017 were enrolled, and the years lived with disability (YLD) for the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica was calculated using the common global burden of disease (GBD) estimation method, the modified GBD method with addition of common syndromes of advanced schistosomiasis japonica, and the quality of life assessment method. RESULTS: The YLDs of patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica, the mean YLDs per capita, and the percentages of YLD were 673.94, 728.77 person-years and 1 761.99 person-years; 0.181, 0.196 person-years and 0.474 person-years; and 10.61, 11.48 person-years per 100 thousand persons and 27.75 person-years per 100 thousand persons with the common GBD method, modified GBD method and the quality of life method, respectively. The YLDs of the patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province estimated with the modified GBD method and the quality of life method were 8.14% and 2.61 times higher than that with the common GBD method. Of the major symptoms included in the calculation, the 5 symptoms with the greatest contribution to the burden of advanced schistosomiasis japonica included ascites, moderate anemia, severe anemia, diarrhea and hematochezia. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of life method may more comprehensively assess the YLDs in patients with advanced schistosomiasis japonica than the common and modified GBD methods.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Esquistossomose Japônica , China/epidemiologia , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/patologia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1078, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia was among the 15 countries that, together accounted for 64% of the world's severe episodes of pneumonia among children below the age of 5 in 2011. To reduce this burden, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 10) was introduced into the general childhood national immunization program in Ethiopia in 2011. However, there is little evidence on its cost-effectiveness, and the aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the introduction of PCV 10 vaccination in the Ethiopian setting. METHODS: The cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out based on a quasi-experimental evaluation of implementing PCV 10 at the Butajira rural health program site in Ethiopia. The intervention and the control groups consisted 876 and 1010 children, respectively. Using data from program site's surveillance system database as a framework, health outcome and vaccination data were collected from medical records, immunization registration books and reports. Disability- Adjusted Life Year (DALY) was a main health outcome metric complimented by incidence of acute lower respiratory infection/1000-person years. Vaccination and treatment costs were collected by document review and cross-sectional household survey. RESULTS: In the intervention cohort, 626 of 876 (71.5%) children received PCV 10 vaccination. Until the first year of life, the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection was higher in the intervention group. After the first year of life, the incidence rate was 35.2 per 1000-person years in the intervention group compared to 60.4 per 1000-person years in the control group. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per averted DALY for the intervention group during the total follow-up period was (2013 US$) 394.3 (undiscounted) and 413.8 (discounted). The ICER per averted DALY excluding the first year of life was (2013 US$) 225 (undiscounted) and 292.7 (discounted). CONCLUSION: Compared to the WHO's suggested cost-effectiveness threshold value, the results indicate that the general childhood PCV 10 vaccination was a cost-effective intervention in the Butajira rural health program site.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização/economia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/economia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/economia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
14.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 136, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigue has a major influence on the quality of life of people with multiple sclerosis. The Fatigue Severity Scale is a frequently used patient-reported measure of fatigue impact, but does not generate the health state utility values required to inform cost-effectiveness analysis, limiting its applicability within decision-making contexts. The objective of this study was to use statistical mapping methods to convert Fatigue Severity Scale scores to health state utility values from three preference-based measures: the EQ-5D-3L, SF-6D and Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-8D. METHODS: The relationships between the measures were estimated through regression analysis using cohort data from 1056 people with multiple sclerosis in South West England. Estimation errors were assessed and predictive performance of the best models as tested in a separate sample (n = 352). RESULTS: For the EQ-5D and the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-8D, the best performing models used a censored least absolute deviation specification, with Fatigue Severity Scale total score, age and gender as predictors. For the SF-6D, the best performing model used an ordinary least squares specification, with Fatigue Severity Scale total score as the only predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Here we present algorithms to convert Fatigue Severity Scales scores to health state utility values based on three preference-based measures. These values may be used to estimate quality-adjusted life-years for use in cost-effectiveness analyses and to consider the health-related quality of life of people with multiple sclerosis, thereby informing health policy decisions.


Assuntos
Fadiga/psicologia , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inglaterra , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384341

RESUMO

Introduction: approximately eighty million people around the world are living with hepatitis C, and 700,000 people die every year, due to hepatitis C related complications. In Seychelles, a total of 777 cases of hepatitis C were reported from 2002 to 2016, but up to mid of 2016, the cases were not being treated. Treatment with Harvoni, a combination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (SOF/LDV), is now being offered on the condition that the patient does not, or has stopped, injecting drugs. This paper is the first to establish the cost effectiveness of treating all cases of hepatitis C in Seychelles with Harvoni, as compared to no treatment. Methods: data extracted from literature was used to populate an economic model to calculate cost-effectiveness from Seychelles' government perspective. The model structure was also informed by the systematic review and an accompanying grading of economic models using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standard (CHEERS) checklist. A Markov model was developed, employing a lifetime horizon and costs and benefits were analysed from a payer's perspective and combined into incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results: the direct-acting antiviral (DAA), Harvoni, was found to be cost-saving in Seychelles hepatitis C virus (HCV) cohort, as compared to no treatment, with an ICER of € 753.65/QALY. The treatment was also cost-saving when stratified by gender, with the ICER of male and female being € 783.74/QALY and € 635.20/QALY, respectively. Moreover, the results obtained from acceptability curves showed that treating patients with Harvoni is the most cost-effective option, even for low thresholds. Conclusion: treating hepatitis C cases in Seychelles is cost-saving. It is worth developing a treatment programme to include all cases of hepatitis C, regardless of status of drug injection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Uridina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/economia , Benzimidazóis/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Fluorenos/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Sexuais , Seicheles , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Uridina Monofosfato/administração & dosagem , Uridina Monofosfato/economia
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 576-580, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437989

RESUMO

A fast and frugal generic tool can provide decision support to those making decisions about individual cases, particularly clinicians and clinical commissioners operating within the budget and time constraints of their practices. The multi-national Generic Rapid Evaluation Support Tool (GREST) is a standard preference-sensitive Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis-based tool, but innovatory insofar as an equity criterion is introduced as one of six. Equity impact reflects the number of population QALYs lost or gained in moving from Old (current intervention) to New (contemplated intervention). In the exemplar UK implementation Claxton's NHS Willingness to Pay per QALY is the numeraire. Any weight from 0 to 100% may be assigned to the equity criterion but its presence affirms that it is persons-as-citizens who experience any opportunity harms or benefits arising from actions within the health service commons. A fully-operational but demonstration-only version is available on open access, as proof of concept and method.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
17.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(8): 804-810, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378040

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the cost-utility of different immunization strategies for rabies in China, and to provide a reference for determining the optimal immunization strategy. Methods: The system dynamics model was used to simulate the epidemic of canine rabies and a decision tree model was conducted to analysis different immune strategies. Relevant probabilities were obtained through literature search and on-site investigation. Sensitivity analysis was used to explore the important influenced factors. Results: At baseline, from a social perspective, 70% vaccination of dogs was the optimal strategy compared to current vaccination strategy (43% vaccination in dogs, human category-Ⅱ exposure vaccination/category-Ⅲ exposure vaccination combined with RIG). The total cost was 14 084 354 CNY, and the total utility value was 22 078 616.23 QALYs, and the incremental cost-utility ratio was-62 148 147 CNY/QALY; if human vaccination was considered, 55% vaccination of dogs combined with strategy one was the optimal strategy, its incremental cost-utility ratio was-444 620 557 CNY/QALY. The probability that an injured dog carries rabies virus was the most sensitive parameter. When it was greater than 0.005 03, strategy four was the optimal strategy. When it was less than 82/100 000, strategy one was the optimal strategy; when it was between 82/100 000 and 120/100 000, strategy two was the optimal strategy; when it was between 120/100 000 and 503/100 000, strategy two was the optimal strategy. Conclusion: It was conducive to increase the vaccination coverage of canine for the prevention and control of rabies.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Animais , China , Árvores de Decisões , Cães , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Raiva/economia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/economia , Vacinação
18.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(8): 995-1001, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362556

RESUMO

AIMS: The primary aim of this study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of the early fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cost analysis was conducted within a randomized controlled trial comparing conservative management (n = 92) versus early plate fixation (n = 86) of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used to express the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). The Six-Dimension Short-Form Health Survey (SF-6D) score was used as the preference-based health index to calculate the cost per QALY at 12 months after the injury. RESULTS: The mean 12-month SF-6D was 0.9522 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9355 to 0.9689) following conservative management and 0.9607 (95% CI 0.9447 to 0.9767) following fixation, giving an advantage for fixation of 0.0085, which was not statistically significant (p = 0.46). The mean cost per patient was £1322.69 for conservative management and £5405.32 for early fixation. This gave an ICER of £480 309.41 per QALY. For a threshold of £20 000 per QALY, the benefit of fixation would need to be present for 24 years to be cost-effective compared with conservative treatment. Linear regression analysis identified nonunion as the only factor to adversely influence the SF-6D at 12 months (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Routine plate fixation of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures is not cost-effective. Nonunion following conservative management has an increased morbidity with comparable expense to early fixation. This may suggest that a targeted approach of fixation in patients who are at higher risk of nonunion would be more cost-effective than the routine fixation of all displaced fractures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:995-1001.


Assuntos
Clavícula/lesões , Tratamento Conservador/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/economia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Placas Ósseas , Clavícula/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/instrumentação , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Fraturas Ósseas/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
19.
Ceska Slov Farm ; 68(2): 43-47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331174

RESUMO

Targeted therapy is a significant benefit in the treatment of cancer patients. Bevacizumab improves overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The clinical effectiveness of bevacizumab is similar to its efficacy in randomised controlled trials. However, the costs of bevacizumab treatment as well as other agents of targeted treatment are discussed between the health care payers, the regulatory authorities and the members of professional societies. Biomarkers of bevacizumab treatment helpful in the selection of eligible groups of patients are still missing. This review focuses on current bevacizumab therapy of mCRC from the pharmacoeconomic perspective. The cost per a 14-day bevacizumab treatment cycle is approximately 31,000 CZK in the Czech Republic. External published pharmacoeconomics analyses have no clear conclusions. Their results are usually expressed as the cost per QALY gained in comparison with a comparator. They differ according to the economic situation of the particular countries. The pharmacoeconomic results have to be confirmed in the real clinical practice, and then the decision should be reassessed by using the uniform methodology, e.g. the Health Technology Assessment (HTA).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , República Tcheca , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
20.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(2): 395-407, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decision analysis allows clinicians to apply evidence-based medicine to guide objective decisions in uncertain scenarios. There is no comprehensive review summarizing the various decision analysis tools used. The authors aimed to appraise and review the decision analytic models used in hand surgery. METHODS: A search of English articles on the PubMed, Ovid, and Embase databases was performed. All articles, regardless of date of publishing, were considered. Two reviewers, based on strict inclusion criteria, independently assessed each article. RESULTS: The search resulted in 5525 abstracts, which yielded 30 studies that met inclusion criteria. Included studies were grouped according to medical indications, with scaphoid fractures (n = 6) and carpal tunnel syndrome (n = 5) being the most commonly reported. Included articles used decision analysis (n = 15) and/or economic analyses (n = 23) to discuss diagnostic strategies or compare treatments. The three most common outcomes reported were utility (n = 12), cost per quality-adjusted life-year (n = 16), and quality-adjusted life-years (n = 16). The decision analysis models compared diagnostic strategies, management options, and novel treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Decision analysis is increasingly popular in hand surgery. It is useful for comparing surgical strategies through evaluation of quality-of-life outcomes and costing data. The most common model was a simple decision tree. The quality of decision analysis models can be improved with the addition of sensitivity analysis. Surgeons should be familiar with the principles of decision analysis, so that complex decisions can be evaluated using rigorous probabilistic models that combine risks and benefits of multiple strategies.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Mãos/cirurgia , Tratamento Conservador/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/economia , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Terapias em Estudo/economia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA