Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.202
Filtrar
1.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 51(4): 604-609, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trend of disease burden of stroke attributable to ambient PM_(2.5) exposure among Chinese residents from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: On the basis of the data of global burden of disease study 2019(GBD 2019) in China, the burden of stroke attributable to the ambient PM_(2.5) exposure in China from 1990 to 2019 were analyzed using the number and rate of deaths, disability adjusted life year(DALY), DALY rate and its standardized rate and estimated annual percentage change(EAPC). RESULTS: In 2019, 24.7% of stroke deaths among people aged 15 years and above in China were due to ambient PM_(2.5) exposure. Compared with 1990, in China the number of stroke deaths and mortality attributable to ambient PM_(2.5) exposure increased to 541 800 and 39.08/100 000, respectively in 2019, and the attributable DALY and DALY rates increased by 2.07% and 1.56%, respectively, in 2019. And the attributable DALY and DALY in males were higher than those in females, and they were all increasing with aging. The attributed standardized mortality and DALY rates in China were higher than those of the global and different socio-demographic index(SDI) regions, and showed an increasing trend, with EAPCs of 1.11(95% CI 0.47-1.75) and 1.11(95% CI 0.53-1.69), respectively. CONCLUSION: The burden of stroke disease due to ambient PM_(2.5) exposure is heavy in China, with differences in gender and age, and is higher than those of the global and different SDI regions.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
2.
Glob Heart ; 17(1): 59, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051318

RESUMO

Background: Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected tropical disease, endemic in Latin America, but due to migration and environmental changes it has become a global public health issue. Objectives: To assess the global prevalence and disability-adjusted life years due to CD using findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Methods: The Global Burden of Disease data was obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Collaborative Network; results were provided by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. The prevalence and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were described at a global, regional, and national level, including data from 1990 to 2019. Results: Globally, CD prevalence decreased by 11.3% during the study period, from 7,292,889 cases estimated in 1990 to 6,469,283 in 2019. Moreover, the global DALY rate of CD decreased by 23.7% during the evaluated period, from 360,872 in 1990 to 275,377 in 2019. In addition, significant differences in the burden by sex, being men the most affected, age, with the elderly having the highest burden of the disease, and sociodemographic index (SDI), with countries with the lowest SDI values having the highest prevalence of the disease, were observed. Finally, the prevalence trends have followed different patterns according to the region, with a sustained decrease in Latin America, compared to an increasing trend in North America and Europe until 2010. Conclusion: The global burden of CD has changed in recent decades, with a sustained decline in the number of cases. Although the majority of cases remain concentrated in Latin America, the increase observed in countries in North America and Europe highlights the importance of screening at-risk populations and raising awareness of this neglected tropical disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Carga Global da Doença , Idoso , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doenças Negligenciadas , Prevalência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15223, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076061

RESUMO

The timely diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is an important medical problem. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of Single-Photon Emission-Computed Tomography (SPECT) compared with stress echocardiography in stable chest pain patients. An economic evaluation study was conducted to assess the cost-effectiveness of SPECT versus stress echocardiography in stable chest pain patients without known CAD between April 1, 2017, and September 1, 2018 in Tehran, Iran. This study was performed from a societal perspective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated using a decision tree model. In addition, the robustness of results was examined by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. This study showed that the expected cost and expected QALY for Stress echocardiography was $1106.75 and 0.83 respectively. Also, SPECT had expected cost and expected QALY equal to $1622.39 and 0.80 respectively. Finally, Stress echocardiography was the dominant strategy for CAD, with a lower cost and greater effectiveness than SPECT. The stress echocardiography can saved $18,528.17 per QALY. A deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of the results. Stress echocardiography was a more cost-effective method for diagnosing CAD disease in stable chest pain patients without known CAD compared to SPECT.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Ecocardiografia sob Estresse , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 891929, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051998

RESUMO

Background: To demonstrate the real-word situation of burdens that are attributed to the risk factor of high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at the global, regional, national levels, among different age groups and between genders. Methods: We analyzed data from the Global Burden of Disease study 2019 related to global deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), summary exposure value (SEV), average annual percentage change (AAPC), and observed to expected ratios (O/E ratios) attributable to high LDL-C from 1990 to 2019. Results: Globally, in 2019, the total numbers of deaths and DALYs attributed to high LDL cholesterol were 1.47 and 1.41 times higher than that in 1990. The age-standardized deaths and DALYs rate was 1.45 and 1.70 times in males compared to females, while the age-standardized SEVs rate was 1.10 times in females compared to males. The deaths, DALYs, and SEV rates increased with age. In 2019, the highest age-standardized rates of both deaths and DALYs occurred in Eastern Europe while the lowest occurred in high-income Asia Pacific. High-income North America experienced a dramatic reduction of risk related to high LDL-C. Correlation analysis identified that the age-standardized SEV rate was positively correlated with Socio-demographic Index (SDI; r = 0.7753, P < 0.001). The average annual percentage change (AAPC) of age-standardized SEV rate decreased in the high SDI and high-middle SDI regions but increased in the middle SDI, low-middle SDI, and low SDI regions. High LDL-C mainly contributed to ischemic heart diseases. Conclusion: High LDL-C contributed considerably to health burden worldwide. Males suffered worse health outcomes attributed to high LDL-C when compared to females. The burden attributed to high LDL-C increased with age. Lower SDI regions and countries experienced more health problem challenges attributed to high LDL-C as the result of social development and this should be reflected in policymaking.


Assuntos
Colesterol , Carga Global da Doença , HDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
5.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 236, 2022 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper reports on the cost-effectiveness evaluation of Link-me - a digitally supported, systematic approach to triaging care for depression and anxiety in primary care that uses a patient-completed Decision Support Tool (DST). METHODS: The economic evaluation was conducted alongside a parallel, stratified individually randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing prognosis-matched care to usual care at six- and 12-month follow-up. Twenty-three general practices in three Australian Primary Health Networks recruited 1,671 adults (aged 18 - 75 years), predicted by the DST to have minimal/mild or severe depressive or anxiety symptoms in three months. The minimal/mild prognostic group was referred to low intensity services. Participants screened in the severe prognostic group were offered high intensity care navigation, a model of care coordination. The outcome measures included in this evaluation were health sector costs (including development and delivery of the DST, care navigation and other healthcare services used) and societal costs (health sector costs plus lost productivity), psychological distress [Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10)] and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) derived from the EuroQol 5-dimension quality of life questionnaire with Australian general population preference weights applied. Costs were valued in 2018-19 Australian dollars (A$). RESULTS: Across all participants, the health sector incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of Link-me per point decrease in K10 at six months was estimated at $1,082 (95% CI $391 to $6,204) increasing to $2,371 (95% CI $191 to Dominated) at 12 months. From a societal perspective, the ICER was estimated at $1,257/K10 point decrease (95% CI Dominant to Dominated) at six months, decreasing to $1,217 (95% CI Dominant to Dominated) at 12 months. No significant differences in QALYs were detected between trial arms and the intervention was dominated (less effective, more costly) based on the cost/QALY ICER. CONCLUSIONS: The Link-me approach to stepped mental health care would not be considered cost-effective utilising a cost/QALY outcome metric commonly adopted by health technology assessment agencies. Rather, Link-me showed a trend toward cost-effectiveness by providing improvement in mental health symptoms, measured by the K10, at an additional cost. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ANZCTRN 12617001333303.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Austrália , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(9): 1381-1387, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117343

RESUMO

Objective: From a screening-focused perspective, to analyze the 30-year changes in disability adjusted life years (DALYs) caused by colorectal cancer (CRC) in China and in some other selected populations, to inform extent of burden of CRC and future related prevention and control in populations in China. Methods: Based on the data of Global Burden of Disease 2019 (GBD 2019), the DALYs, world standardized DALY rate, and the composition of different subgroups in China were collected. Joinpoint regression model was used to analyze the trend during 1990-2019, and comparison was made with the international data and population screening situation. The trend of DALY burden caused by CRC in China was predicted. Results: In 2019, the DALYs due to CRC in China was 6.395 million person-years, accounting for 26.3% of the global burden and 9.5% of all cancers burden in China; the DALYs in men accounted for 65.2%, in those aged ≥65 years old accounted for 44.8%, in the age group recommended by local screening guidelines (40-75 years) accounted for 73.7%. The years lived with disability accounted for 4.8%. Compared with 1990, the CRC-caused DALYs in China increased by 181.5% in 2019. Factors with the largest increase in the attributable percentage were high Body Mass Index (151.1%), diet high in red meat (86.4%) and diet high in processed meat (78.8%), etc. For DALY rate, it was 245.6/100 000 in 1990 and 320.6/100 000 in 2019, an increase of 30.5%. For reference, Australia (began in 2006), the UK (2006), and Japan (1992), where CRC population-wide screening has been conducted, had decreases in DALY rate of 36.0%, 28.6%, and 17.8%, respectively. The predication of DALYs suggested that without continued expansion of population-based screening, the DALYs in China would reach 7.7 million person-year-9.1 million person-year by 2030, an increase of 19.9%-41.8% compared with 2019. Conclusions: The burden of CRC-caused DALYs in China increased over the past 30 years, and would become more serious because of population aging and the concomitant disability problem. The age range recommended by the current local screening guideline could theoretically include 70% of the population from which the DALYs burden originates, however, the real-world population screening coverage is still limited. The observed decline in CRC-related DALY rate in selected countries was substantially due to the implementation of mass screening, indicating the importance of speedily expanding the population coverage of CRC screening in China.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
7.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 935931, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051388

RESUMO

Background: The trends in deaths from and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) of endometriosis in China remain largely unknown. This study revealed these trends and the effects of age, period, and cohort on the death from and DALY of endometriosis in China from 1990 to 2019. Methods: Data on endometriosis death and DALY in China between 1990 and 2019 were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019). The annual percentage change and average annual percent change (AAPC) were analyzed by joinpoint regression. The effects of age, period, and birth cohort on death and DALYs were estimated using an age-period-cohort analysis. Results: The age-standardized death rate (ASDR) and age-standardized DALY rate for endometriosis significantly decreased in China, with AAPC values of -4.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.10, -4.30) and -1.2 (95% CI: -1.20, -1.10), respectively. The joinpoint regression analysis showed that the ASDR and age-standardized DALY rate decreased across all age groups. Moreover, the effect of age on endometriosis death and DALY decreased with advancing age. Both the period and cohort effects on endometriosis death and DALY showed decreasing trends, with the effects on death decreasing faster than the effects on DALY. Conclusions: The endometriosis ASDR and age-standardized DALY rate decreased from 1990 to 2019. The effects of the period and birth cohort on endometriosis death and DALY showed a declining trend across all age groups. The effect of age on endometriosis deaths and DALYs decreased with advancing age.


Assuntos
Endometriose , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
8.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274468, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious infectious disease that emerged in 2019. This disease is causing devastating health, socio-economic, and economic crises. More specifically COVID-19 is affecting both the quality and length of human life. The overall health impact of this disease is measured by the disability-adjusted life years which is the sum of the life years lost due to disability (the effect on the health quality) and the years life lost due to premature death (effect on the length of life). The purpose of this review is to summarise DALYs-based health impact publications and produce compiled and informative literature that can aid the health regulators to make evidence-based decisions on mitigating COVID-19. METHODS: The review will be conducted using the PRISMA 2020 guidelines. The DALYs-based original observational and cross-sectional studies will be collected for assessing the health impact of COVID-19. Both the life quality and length impacts of COVID-19 will be reviewed. The life quality impact of COVID-19 will be measured using the life years lost due to disability (pre-recovery illness, pre-death illness, and post-acute consequences), and its impact on the length of life will be measured with years of life lost due to premature death (shortening of life expectancy). The combined health impact of COVID-19 on the quality and length of life will be measured in disability-adjusted life years. DISCUSSION: The impacts of COVID-19 on the two health outcomes (quality and length of life) will indicate the level of COVID-19 health burden. The increase or decrease of COVID-19 health impact might be due to the sample size differences of different studies and the omission of years lost due to post-acute consequences in some studies. After having a summarized systematic review health decision-makers will apply an impact-based response to COVID-19. TRAIL REGISTRATION: Systematic review registration: This protocol is pre-registered in PROSPERO with the registration number CRD42022324931.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas com Deficiência , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 955120, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36033760

RESUMO

Objective: Current guidelines recommend the gastric cancer risk score scale (GCRSS) for screening in gastric cancer (GC) high-risk populations in China. This study aimed to estimate the clinical benefits, harms, cost, and cost-effectiveness of the GCRSS screening strategy from a Chinese healthcare system perspective. Materials and methods: Using a microsimulation model, we evaluated 7 screening scenarios of the GCRSS with varying starting ages. We simulated 100,000 individuals from the age of 20 for each screening scenario. The main outcomes included GC incidence reduction, number of cause-specific deaths, costs, quality-adjusted life year (QALY), incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), and benefit-to-harm ratio. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were done to explore the robustness of model findings. Results: Screening with the GCRSS strategy at the age of 40 years (40-GCRSS) provided the greatest reduction of GC incidence by 70.6%, with 7,374 GC deaths averted per 100,000 individuals and the lowest benefit-to-harm ratio of 0.392. Compared with no screening or previous less costly strategy, at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $37,655 per QALY, the 40-GCRSS strategy was cost-effective, with ICERs of $12,586 and $29,115 per QALY, respectively. Results were robust across univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The 40-GCRSS strategy showed a 0.856 probability of being cost-effective at a $37,655 per QALY WTP threshold. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the GCRSS strategy is effective and cost-effective in reducing the GC disease burden in China from a Chinese healthcare system perspective. Screening from the age of 40 would be the optimal strategy.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Gástricas , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Governo , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
10.
Lancet ; 400(10352): 563-591, 2022 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. METHODS: The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. FINDINGS: Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4·45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4·01-4·94) deaths and 105 million (95·0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44·4% (41·3-48·4) of all cancer deaths and 42·0% (39·1-45·6) of all DALYs. There were 2·88 million (2·60-3·18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50·6% [47·8-54·1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1·58 million (1·36-1·84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36·3% [32·5-41·3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20·4% (12·6-28·4) and DALYs by 16·8% (8·8-25·0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34·7% [27·9-42·8] and 33·3% [25·8-42·0]). INTERPRETATION: The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Neoplasias , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1039, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Newborn screening (NBS) can prevent inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), which may cause long-term disability and even death in newborns. However, in China, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) screening has just started. This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of NBS using MS/MS in Shenzhen under the nationally recommended program, as well as evaluate the value and affordability of introducing this new screening technology. METHODS: A Markov model was built to estimate the cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of different screening programs. We compared PKU screening using traditional immunofluorescence (IF) with the other 11 IEMs not screened and all 12 IEMs screened using MS/MS, and the programs detecting different numbers of IEMs chosen from the national recommended program were also compared. A sensitivity analysis and budget impact analysis (BIA) were performed. RESULTS: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of detecting all 12 IEMs in the national program is 277,823 RMB per QALY, below three times per capita GDP in Shenzhen. MS/MS screening in Shenzhen can be cost-effective only if at least three diseases (PKU, PCD and MMA) are covered and when the screening program covers five diseases (PKU, PCD, MMA, MSUD, IVA), the ICER closely approaches its critical threshold. The BIA indicated the implementation cost of the national program to be around 490 million RMB over 10 years and showed no difference in budget between programs detecting different numbers of IEMs. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the newborn screening using MS/MS in Shenzhen is cost-effective, and the budget affordable for the Shenzhen government. Two concepts for selecting the IEMs to be detected are also presented. One is to choose the most cost-effective screening programs detecting highest number of IEMs to achieve a minimal ICER. The other considers the curability and affordability of the disease as the basis of healthcare decisions to screen suitable IEMs, achieving an ICER under the threshold and close to the minimum value.


Assuntos
Triagem Neonatal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Programas de Rastreamento , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Tecnologia
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0269006, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the cost-effectiveness of the add-on exenatide to conventional pharmacotherapy in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) when considering the coexistence of diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: We used the Keelung and Community-based Integrated Screening databases to understand the medical utilisation in the Hoehn and Yahr stages of patients with PD. A Markov model with 1-year cycle length and 50-year time horizon was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of add-on exenatide to conventional pharmacotherapy compared to conventional pharmacotherapy alone. All costs were adjusted to the value of the new Taiwanese dollar (NT$) as of the year 2020. One-way sensitivity and probability analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: From a societal perspective, the add-on exenatide brought an average of 0.39 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, and a cost increment of NT$104,744 per person in a 50-year horizon compared to conventional pharmacotherapy. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was NT$268,333 per QALY gained. As the ICER was less than the gross domestic product per capita (NT$839,558), the add-on exenatide was considered to be very cost-effective in the two models, according to the World Health Organization recommendation. Add-on exenatide had a 96.9% probability of being cost-effective in patients with PD, and a 100% probability of being cost-effective in patients with PD and DM. CONCLUSION: Add-on exenatide is cost-effective in PD combined with DM. Considering that DM may be a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, exenatide provides both clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness when considering both PD and DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Doença de Parkinson , Análise Custo-Benefício , Exenatida/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
13.
J Comp Eff Res ; 11(14): 1021-1030, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924662

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of atezolizumab plus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC). Materials & methods: A Markov model was established for the analysis. Parametric survival models were used to fit to progression-free survival and overall survival data in the IMvigor130 study. A series of one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the model. Results: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for atezolizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone were US$475,633.17 and $207,488.17 per quality-adjusted life year in the USA and China, respectively. Utility for the progression-free survival and progressive disease states, the cost of atezolizumab had the most significant impact on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Conclusion: Atezolizumab plus chemotherapy is not a cost-effective treatment option as a first-line treatment for metastatic urothelial cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 905367, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937829

RESUMO

Objectives: Growing epidemiological studies have reported the relationship between tobacco and health loss among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aimed to explore the secular trend and spatial distribution of the T2D burden attributable to tobacco on a global scale to better understand regional disparities and judge the gap between current conditions and expectations. Methods: As a secondary analysis, we extracted data of tobacco-attributable T2D burden from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD). Joinpoint regression was adopted to determine the secular trend of age-standardized rates (ASR), with average annual percentage change (AAPC). Gaussian process regression (GPR) was used to explore the average expected relationship between ASRs and the socio-demographic index (SDI). Spatial autocorrelation was used to indicate if there is clustering of age-standardized DALY rate (ASDR) with Moran's I value. Multi-scale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) was to investigate the spatial distribution and scales of influencing factors in ASDR attributable to tobacco, with the regression coefficients for each influencing factor among 204 countries. Results: Tobacco posed a challenge to global T2D health, particularly for the elderly and men from lower SDI regions. For women, mortality attributable to secondhand smoke was higher than smoking. A downward trend in age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of T2D attributable to tobacco was observed (AAPCs= -0.24; 95% CI -0.30 to -0.18), while the ASDR increased globally since 1990 (AAPCs= 0.19; 0.11 to 0.27). Oceania, Southern Sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia had the highest ASMRs and ASDRs, exceeding expectations based on the SDI. Also, "high-high" clusters were mainly observed in South Africa and Southeast Asian countries, which means a high-ASDR country is surrounded by high-ASDR neighborhoods in the above areas. According to MGWR model, smoking prevalence was the most sensitive influencing factor, with regression coefficients from 0.15 to 1.80. Conclusion: The tobacco-attributable burden of T2D should be considered as an important health issue, especially in low-middle and middle-SDI regions. Meanwhile, secondhand smoke posed a greater risk to women. Regional disparities existed, with hot spots mainly concentrated in South Africa and Southeast Asian countries.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
15.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270833, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The economic and social costs of autism are significant. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of early intensive Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-based interventions for autistic pre-school children in the UK. METHODS: A de novo economic analysis was developed in Microsoft Excel comparing early intensive ABA-based interventions compared with treatment as usual (TAU). The analysis used 15.5-year time horizon, with costs and benefits discounted a 3.5%. The model structure was based on cohort structure to capture changes in adaptive behaviour and cognitive ability over time. The analysis was informed by an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of available evidence. RESULTS: Adopting a public sector perspective, early intensive ABA-based therapies were associated with greater incremental costs and greater benefits. When pessimistic assumptions were made regarding the long-term effects of treatment incremental costs were £46,103 and incremental quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were 0.24, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £189,122 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). When optimistic assumptions were made about long-term effects, incremental costs were £39,233 with incremental benefits of 0.84 QALYs. The resulting ICER was £46,768 per QALY. Scenario analyses emphasised the importance of assumptions made regarding adult outcomes and type of school attended, both of which significantly affect the results of the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this economic analysis suggest that early intensive ABA-based interventions are unlikely to represent value for money, based on a £20,000 to £30,000 per QALY threshold typically adopted to inform UK healthcare funding decisions. However, important gaps in the available evidence, limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn from the presented analysis. Further research, focusing on the trajectory of autistic children following intervention is likely to be highly beneficial to resolving some of these uncertainties.


Assuntos
Análise do Comportamento Aplicada , Transtorno Autístico , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
16.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271519, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Centrifugal-flow pumps are novel treatment options for patients with advanced heart failure (HF). This study estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of centrifugal-flow pumps for patients with advanced HF in Argentina. METHODS: Two Markov models were developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a centrifugal-flow pump as destination therapy (DT) in patients with contraindication for heart transplantation, and as bridge-to-transplant (BTT), with a lifetime horizon using the third-party payer Social Security (SS) and Private Sector (PS) perspectives. Clinical, epidemiological, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) parameters were retrieved from the literature. Direct medical costs were estimated through a micro-costing approach (exchange rate USD 1 = ARS 59.95). RESULTS: The centrifugal-flow pump as a DT increased the per patient QALYs by 3.5 and costs by ARS 8.1 million in both the SS and PS, with an ICER of ARS 2.3 million per QALY. Corresponding values for a centrifugal-flow pump as BTT were 0.74 QALYs and more than ARS 8 million, yielding ICERs of ARS 11 million per QALY (highly dependent on waiting times). For the 1, 3, and 5 GDP per QALY thresholds, the probability of a centrifugal-flow pump to be cost-effective for DT/BTT was around 2%/0%, 40%/0%, and 80%/1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The centrifugal-flow pump prolongs life and improves the quality of life at significantly higher costs. As in Argentina there is no current explicit cost-effectiveness threshold, the final decision on reimbursement will depend on the willingness to pay in each subsector. Nevertheless, the centrifugal-flow pump as a DT was more cost-effective than as a BTT.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Qualidade de Vida , Argentina/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271284, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) affects four million people worldwide annually and has an estimated lifetime prevalence of 5-10% in the general population. Worldwide, there are significant heterogeneities in coping approaches of healthcare systems with PUD in prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Quantifying and benchmarking health systems' performance is crucial yet challenging to provide a clearer picture of the potential global inequities in the quality of care. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the health-system quality-of-care and inequities for PUD among age groups and sexes worldwide. METHODS: Data were derived from the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2019. Principal-Component-Analysis was used to combine age-standardized mortality-to-incidence-ratio, disability-adjusted-life-years-to-prevalence-ratio, prevalence-to-incidence-ratio, and years-of-life-lost-to-years-lived-with-disability-into a single proxy named Quality-of-Care-Index (QCI). QCI was used to compare the quality of care among countries. QCI's validity was investigated via correlation with the cause-specific Healthcare-Access-and-Quality-index, which was acceptable. Inequities were presented among age groups and sexes. Gender Disparity Ratio was obtained by dividing the score of women by that of men. RESULTS: Global QCI was 72.6 in 1990, which increased by 14.6% to 83.2 in 2019. High-income-Asia-pacific had the highest QCI, while Central Latin America had the lowest. QCI of high-SDI countries was 82.9 in 1990, which increased to 92.9 in 2019. The QCI of low-SDI countries was 65.0 in 1990, which increased to 76.9 in 2019. There was heterogeneity among the QCI-level of countries with the same SDI level. QCI typically decreased as people aged; however, this gap was more significant among low-SDI countries. The global Gender Disparity Ratio was close to one and ranged from 0.97 to 1.03 in 100 of 204 countries. CONCLUSION: QCI of PUD improved dramatically during 1990-2019 worldwide. There are still significant heterogeneities among countries on different and similar SDI levels.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Úlcera Péptica , Idoso , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Úlcera Péptica/terapia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
18.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273439, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037210

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is inadequate information on the cost-effectiveness of hypertension based on evidence-based guidelines. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of hypertension treatment based on 2020 International Society of Hypertension (ISH) guidelines from a societal perspective. METHODS: We developed a state-transition Markov model based on the cardiovascular disease policy model adapted to the Sub-Saharan African perspective to simulate costs of treated and untreated hypertension and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted by treating previously untreated adults above 30 years from a societal perspective for a lifetime. RESULTS: The full implementation of the ISH 2020 hypertension guidelines can prevent approximately 22,348.66 total productive life-year losses annually. The incremental net monetary benefit of treating hypertension based was $128,520,077.61 US by considering a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 US per DALY averted. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of treating hypertension when compared with null was $1,125.44 US per DALY averted. Treating hypertension among adults aged 40-64 years was very cost-effective 625.27 USD per DALY averted. Treating hypertensive adults aged 40-64 years with diabetes and CKD is very cost-effective in both women and men (i.e., 559.48 USD and 905.40 USD/DALY averted respectively). CONCLUSION: The implementation of the ISH 2020 guidelines among hypertensive adults in Southern Ethiopia could result in $9,574,118.47 US economic savings. Controlling hypertension in all patients with or with diabetes and or CKD could be effective and cost-saving. Therefore, improving treatment coverage, blood pressure control rate, and adherence to treatment by involving all relevant stakeholders is critical to saving scarce health resources.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
19.
J Diabetes ; 14(8): 495-513, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High fasting plasma glucose (HFPG) is the leading risk factor contributing to the increase of stroke burden in the past three decades. However, the global distribution of stroke burden specifically attributable to HFPG was not studied in depth. Therefore, we analyzed the HFPG-attributable burden in stroke and its subtypes in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: Detailed data on stroke burden attributable to HFPG were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The numbers and age-standardized rates of stroke disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), deaths, years lived with disability, and years of life lost between 1990 and 2019 were estimated by age, sex, and region. RESULTS: In 2019, the age-standardized rate of DALYs (ASDR) of HFPG-attributable stroke was 354.95 per 100 000 population, among which 49.0% was from ischemic stroke, 44.3% from intracerebral hemorrhage, and 6.6% from subarachnoid hemorrhage. The ASDRs of HFPG-attributable stroke in lower sociodemographic index (SDI) regions surpassed those in higher SDI regions in the past three decades. Generally, the population aged over 50 years old accounted for 92% of stroke DALYs attributable to HFPG, and males are more susceptible to HFPG-attributable stroke than females across their lifetime. CONCLUSIONS: Successful key population initiatives targeting HFPG may mitigate the stroke disease burden. Given the soaring population-attributable fractions of HFPG for stroke burden worldwide, each country should assess its disease burden and determine targeted prevention and control strategies.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Glicemia , Jejum , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 941284, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910886

RESUMO

Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are an important component of the tumor. This study aimed to investigate the burden of six major GI cancers in China and globally from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019. Indicators on incidence, deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and risk factors for esophageal, stomach, liver, pancreatic, colon and rectum, and gallbladder and biliary tract cancers were collected and analyzed for time trends. The contribution of each cancer and the proportion of cases in China among global cases were further reported. Results: Global incidence cases, death cases, and DALYs of GI cancers showed an overall ascending trend over the past 30 years, but there was temporal and geographical variation across cancer types. By 2019, colon and rectum cancer had overtaken stomach cancer as the most burdensome GI cancer globally. However, stomach cancer narrowly continued to be the most burdensome GI in China. In addition, the proportion of incidence and death cases of stomach, pancreatic, colon and rectum, and gallbladder and biliary tract cancers among global cases had further increased. It was noteworthy that the burden of liver cancer in China has been alleviated significantly. Conclusion: GI cancers remain a major public health problem in China and globally. Despite the temporal and geographic diversity of different cancers, targeted primary and secondary prevention are still necessary for the future to face these unknown challenges.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Neoplasias Gástricas , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...