Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 208
Filtrar
1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 505, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is generally reassuring but yet not definitive. METHODS: To specifically assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in late pregnancy, we prospectively recruited 315 consecutive women delivering in a referral hospital located in Lombardy, Italy in the early phase of the epidemic. Restriction of the recruitment to this peculiar historical time period allowed to exclude infections occurring early in pregnancy and to limit the recall bias. All recruited subjects underwent a nasopharyngeal swab to assess the presence of Sars-Cov-2 using Real-time PCR. In addition, two different types of antibodies for the virus were evaluated in peripheral blood, those against the spike proteins S1 and S2 of the envelope and those against the nucleoprotein of the nucleocapsid. Women were considered to have had SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy if at least one of the three assessments was positive. RESULTS: Overall, 28 women had a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy (8.9%). Women diagnosed with the infection were more likely to report one or more episodes of symptoms suggestive for Covid-19 (n = 11, 39.3%) compared to unaffected women (n = 39, 13.6%). The corresponding OR was 4.11 (95%CI: 1.79-9.44). Symptoms significantly associated with Covid-19 in pregnancy included fever, cough, dyspnea and anosmia. Only one woman necessitated intensive care. Pregnancy outcome in women with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection did not also differ. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is asymptomatic in three out of five women in late pregnancy and is rarely severe. In addition, pregnancy outcome may not be markedly affected.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , Infecções Assintomáticas , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Febre/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
3.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed) ; 13(1): 97-104, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256532

RESUMO

The tale COVID infection pandemic or as far as we might be concerned better, COVID-19, has assaulted society on a worldwide scale. For the unenlightened, the sickness is brought about by the specific infection Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is only from time to time that we have a pandemic seething on that has carried with itself a particularly humongous size of harm and on each and every front of the human culture, be it clinical, practical, social or pretty much anything. Theemerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has neurological symptoms comparable to that of the Extreme Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and MERS-CoV. Medical symptoms such as pain in head, vomiting, nausea, dizziness, muscle pain, anosmia, ageusia, and disorder of consciousness are present in COVID-19 affected people. These signs confirm that the COVID-19 infection affects the nervous system. But nerve affecting manifestations of COVID-19 infection are underreported. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is a condition that often arises in various forms. According to the evaluation case reports so far from the start of COVID-19 infection, GBS could be associated with COVID-19 infection. There was a systematic review and published cases that suggested that a broad age range with male predominance was affected. There were respiratory and/or systemic symptoms in most patients and they developed GBS manifestations after COVID-19. However, asymptomatic cases of COVID-19 have also been identified. The distribution of clinical variants and electrophysiological subtypes is close to that of classical GBS, with a higher prevalence of classical sensorimotor form and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. It seems like it is important to pay attention to the neurological effects of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Anosmia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 880, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267318

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to a collective scientific effort to study its viral causing agent SARS-CoV-2. Research is focusing in particular on its infection mechanisms and on the associated-disease symptoms. Interestingly, this environmental pathogen directly affects the human chemosensory systems leading to anosmia and ageusia. Evidence for the presence of the cellular entry sites of the virus, the ACE2/TMPRSS2 proteins, has been reported in non-chemosensory cells in the rodent's nose and mouth, missing a direct correlation between the symptoms reported in patients and the observed direct viral infection in human sensory cells. Here, mapping the gene and protein expression of ACE2/TMPRSS2 in the mouse olfactory and gustatory cells, we precisely identify the virus target cells to be of basal and sensory origin and reveal the age-dependent appearance of viral entry-sites. Our results propose an alternative interpretation of the human viral-induced sensory symptoms and give investigative perspectives on animal models.


Assuntos
Ageusia/fisiopatologia , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Ageusia/virologia , Animais , Anosmia/virologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Percepção Olfatória , Percepção Gustatória
5.
J Correct Health Care ; 27(1): 8-10, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232758

RESUMO

A prison setting with its congregate environment is at high risk for widespread transmission of respiratory illnesses. Identifying COVID-19 cases as early as possible and isolating cases and tracing contacts is critical to halting the spread of this disease. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) added new loss of taste or smell to its list of symptoms and, initially, only if associated with at least one of six other symptoms. The CDC has since updated the guidance to remove this qualifier as of May 13, 2020. New loss of taste or smell, alone, can help to identify COVID-19 cases. Solitary anosmia/ageusia should be strongly considered in routine symptom screening protocols for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ageusia/diagnóstico , Anosmia/diagnóstico , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Ageusia/epidemiologia , Anosmia/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato , Paladar
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12775, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140539

RESUMO

With increasing numbers of patients recovering from COVID-19, there is increasing evidence for persistent symptoms and the need for follow-up studies. This retrospective study included patients without comorbidities, who recovered from COVID-19 and attended an outpatient clinic at a university hospital for follow-up care and potential convalescent plasma donation. Network analysis was applied to visualize symptom combinations and persistent symptoms. Comprehensive lab-testing was ascertained at each follow-up to analyze differences regarding patients with vs without persistent symptoms. 116 patients were included, age range was 18-69 years (median: 41) with follow-ups ranging from 22 to 102 days. The three most frequent persistent symptoms were Fatigue (54%), Dyspnea (29%) and Anosmia (25%). Lymphopenia was present in 13 of 112 (12%) cases. Five of 35 cases (14%) had Lymphopenia in the later follow-up range of 80-102 days. Serum IgA concentration was the only lab parameter with significant difference between patients with vs without persistent symptoms with reduced serum IgA concentrations in the patient cohort of persistent symptoms (p = 0.0219). Moreover, subgroup analyses showed that patients with lymphopenia experienced more frequently persistent symptoms. In conclusion, lymphopenia persisted in a noticeable percentage of recovered patients. Patients with persistent symptoms had significantly lower serum IgA levels. Furthermore, our data provides evidence that lymphopenia is associated with persistence of COVID-19 symptoms.


Assuntos
Anosmia/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Dispneia/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Linfopenia/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e932962, 2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145211

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of the recent pandemic of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). As the infection spreads, there is increasing evidence of neurological and psychiatric involvement in COVID-19. Headache, impaired consciousness, and olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions are common neurological manifestations described in the literature. Studies demonstrating more specific and more severe neurological involvement such as cerebrovascular insults, encephalitis and Guillain-Barre syndrome are also emerging. Respiratory failure, a significant condition that leads to mortality in COVID-19, is hypothesized to be partly due to brainstem impairment. Notably, some of these neurological complications seem to persist long after infection. This review aims to provide an update on what is currently known about neurological involvement in patients with COVID-19 due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we demonstrate invasion routes of SARS-CoV-2, provide evidence to support the neurotropism hypothesis of the virus, and investigate the pathological mechanisms that underlie neurological complications associated with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Ageusia/virologia , Anosmia/virologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Encefalite/virologia , Cefaleia/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia/virologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Neuroimunomodulação/fisiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12492, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127693

RESUMO

The early identification of patients suffering from SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary care is of outmost importance in the current pandemic. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of primary care patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We conducted a cross-sectional study between March 24 and May 7, 2020, involving consecutive patients undergoing RT-PCR testing in two community-based laboratories in Lyon (France) for a suspicion of COVID-19. We examined the association between symptoms and a positive test using univariable and multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for clustering within laboratories, and calculated the diagnostic performance of these symptoms. Of the 1561 patients tested, 1543 patients (99%) agreed to participate. Among them, 253 were positive for SARS-CoV-2 (16%). The three most frequently reported 'ear-nose-throat' and non-'ear-nose-throat' symptoms in patients who tested positive were dry throat (42%), loss of smell (36%) and loss of taste (31%), respectively fever (58%), cough (52%) and headache (45%). In multivariable analyses, loss of taste (OR 3.8 [95% CI 3.3-4.4], p-value < 0.001), loss of smell (OR 3.0 [95% CI 1.9-4.8], p < 0.001), muscle pain (OR 1.6 [95% CI 1.2-2.0], p = 0.001) and dry nose (OR 1.3 [95% CI 1.1-1.6], p = 0.01) were significantly associated with a positive result. In contrast, sore throat (OR 0.6 [95% CI 0.4-0.8], p = 0.003), stuffy nose (OR 0.6 [95% CI 0.6-0.7], p < 0.001), diarrhea (OR 0.6 [95% CI 0.5-0.6], p < 0.001) and dyspnea (OR 0.5 [95% CI 0.3-0.7], p < 0.001) were inversely associated with a positive test. The combination of loss of taste or smell had the highest diagnostic performance (OR 6.7 [95% CI 5.9-7.5], sensitivity 44.7% [95% CI 38.4-51.0], specificity 90.8% [95% CI 89.1-92.3]). No other combination of symptoms had a higher performance. Our data could contribute to the triage and early identification of new clusters of cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Anosmia/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Tosse/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , França/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
10.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54288

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To evaluate the seroprevalence of COVID-19 infection in pauci-symptomatic and asymptomatic people, the associated epidemiological factors, and IgG antibody kinetic over a 5-month period to get a better knowledge of the disease transmissibility and the rate of susceptible persons that might be infected. Methods. Seroprevalence was evaluated by a cross-sectional study based on the general population of Santa Fe, Argentina (non-probabilistic sample) carried out between July and November 2020. A subgroup of 20 seropositive individuals was followed-up to analyze IgG persistence. For the IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detection, the COVID-AR IgG® ELISA kit was used. Results. 3 000 individuals were included conforming asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic groups (n=1 500 each). From the total sample, only 8.83% (n=265) presented reactivity for IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2. A significant association was observed between positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and a history of contact with a confirmed case; the transmission rate within households was approximately 30%. In the pauci-symptomatic group, among the seropositive ones, anosmia and fever presented an OR of 16.8 (95% CI 9.5-29.8) and 2.7 (95% CI 1.6-4.6), respectively (p <0.001). In asymptomatic patients, IgG levels were lower compared to pauci-symptomatic patients, tending to decline after 4 months since the symptoms onset. Conclusion. We observed a low seroprevalence, suggestive of a large population susceptible to the infection. Anosmia and fever were independent significant predictors for seropositivity. Asymptomatic patients showed lower levels of antibodies during the 5-month follow-up. IgG antibodies tended to decrease over the end of this period regardless of symptoms.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar la seroprevalencia de la infección por el virus causante de la COVID-19 en personas paucisintomáticas y asintomáticas, los factores epidemiológicos asociados y la cinética de los anticuerpos IgG durante un período de cinco meses para conocer mejor la transmisibilidad de la enfermedad y la tasa de personas susceptibles a estar infectadas. Métodos. Se evaluó la seroprevalencia mediante un estudio transversal basado en la población general de Santa Fe, Argentina (muestra no probabilística) llevado a cabo entre julio y noviembre del 2020. Se realizó un seguimiento de un subgrupo de 20 personas seropositivas para analizar la persistencia de los anticuerpos IgG. Para la detección de los anticuerpos IgG contra SARS-COV-2, se empleó el kit ELISA COVID-AR IgG®. Resultados. Hubo 3 000 participantes divididos en un grupo asintomático y un grupo paucisintomático (n=1 500 cada grupo). De la muestra total, solo 8,83% (n=265) presentó una reactividad de IgG contra el SARS-CoV-2. Se observó una asociación significativa entre anticuerpos IgG positivos contra el SARS-CoV-2 y antecedente de contacto con un caso confirmado. La tasa de transmisión en el hogar fue de 30% aproximadamente. En el grupo paucisintomático, entre las personas seropositivas, la anosmia y la fiebre presentaron un OR de 16,8 (IC 95% 9,5-29,8) y 2,7 (IC 95% 1,6-4,6), respectivamente (p <0,001). En los pacientes asintomáticos, los niveles de IgG fueron inferiores en comparación con los pacientes paucisintomáticos, con tendencia a la baja pasados cuatro meses desde la aparición de los síntomas. Conclusiones. Se observó una seroprevalencia baja, indicadora de una gran población susceptible a la infección. La anosmia y la fiebre fueron factores predictivos independientes de relevancia para la seropositividad. Los pacientes asintomáticos mostraron niveles inferiores de anticuerpos durante el seguimiento de cinco meses. Los anticuerpos IgG tendieron a disminuir hacia el final del período con independencia de los síntomas.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Avaliar a soroprevalência de anticorpos contra a COVID-19 em indivíduos paucissintomáticos e assintomáticos, os fatores epidemiológicos associados e a cinética dos anticorpos da classe IgG em um período de 5 meses, visando aprimorar o conhecimento sobre a transmissibilidade da doença e a taxa de suscetíveis à infecção. Métodos. Inquérito transversal de soroprevalência realizado na população geral (amostra não probabilística) de Santa Fé, na Argentina, entre julho e novembro de 2020. Um subgrupo de 20 indivíduos soropositivos foi acompanhado para analisar a persistência de anticorpos IgG. O kit de ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) COVID-AR IgG® foi usado para a detecção de anticorpos IgG contra SARS-CoV-2. Resultados. A amostra compreendeu 3 000 indivíduos, divididos entre assintomáticos e paucissintomáticos (n = 1.500 por grupo). Deste total, somente 8,83% (n = 265) apresentaram reatividade, com a detecção de anticorpos IgG contra SARS-CoV-2. Observou-se uma associação significativa entre a presença de anticorpos IgG contra SARS-CoV-2 e histórico de contato com caso confirmado. A taxa de transmissão intradomiciliar foi de aproximadamente 30%. No grupo paucissintomático, entre os soropositivos, o odds ratio (OR) para anosmia foi de 16,8 (IC 95% 9,5–29,8), e para febre, 2,7 (IC 95% 1,6–4,6) (p <0,001). Os indivíduos assintomáticos apresentaram níveis de IgG mais baixos que os paucissintomáticos, com uma tendência de declínio após 4 meses do início dos sintomas. Conclusões. Observou-se uma soroprevalência baixa de anticorpos contra a COVID-19 na população estudada, o que indica um grande número de pessoas suscetíveis à infecção. Anosmia e febre foram preditores importantes independentes de soropositividade. Os assintomáticos apresentaram níveis mais baixos de anticorpos aos 5 meses de acompanhamento. Houve uma tendência de redução dos anticorpos IgG ao final deste período, independentemente da presença de sintomas.


Assuntos
Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Assintomáticas , Anosmia , Epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Argentina , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Assintomáticas , Epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Assintomáticas , Epidemiologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(24): e26371, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128896

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Most patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have mild to moderate illness not requiring hospitalization. However, no study has detailed the evolution of symptoms in the first month of illness.At our institution, we conducted remote (telephone and video) visits for all adult outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 within 24 h of a positive nasopharyngeal polymerase chain test for SARS-CoV-2. We repeated regular video visits at 7, 14, and 28 days after the positive test, retrospectively reviewed the prospective data collected in the remote visits, and constructed a week by week profile of clinical illness, through week 4 of illness.We reviewed the courses of 458 symptomatic patients diagnosed between March 12, 2020, and June 22, 2020, and characterized their weekly courses. Common initial symptoms included fever, headache, cough, and chest pain, which frequently persisted through week 3 or longer. Upper respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms were much shorter lived, present primarily in week 1. Anosmia/ageusia peaked in weeks 2 to 3. Emergency department visits were frequent, with 128 visits in the 423 patients who were not hospitalized and 48 visits among the 35 outpatients (7.6%) who were eventually hospitalized (2 subsequently died). By the fourth week, 28.9% said their illness had completely resolved. After the 4-week follow up, 20 (4.7%) of the 423 nonhospitalized patients had further medical evaluation and management for subacute or chronic COVID-19 symptoms.Mild to moderate outpatient COVID-19 is a prolonged illness, with evolving symptoms commonly lasting into the fourth week of illness.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anosmia/etiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3664, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135322

RESUMO

A central problem in the COVID-19 pandemic is that there is not enough testing to prevent infectious spread of SARS-CoV-2, causing surges and lockdowns with human and economic toll. Molecular tests that detect viral RNAs or antigens will be unable to rise to this challenge unless testing capacity increases by at least an order of magnitude while decreasing turnaround times. Here, we evaluate an alternative strategy based on the monitoring of olfactory dysfunction, a symptom identified in 76-83% of SARS-CoV-2 infections-including those with no other symptoms-when a standardized olfaction test is used. We model how screening for olfactory dysfunction, with reflexive molecular tests, could be beneficial in reducing community spread of SARS-CoV-2 by varying testing frequency and the prevalence, duration, and onset time of olfactory dysfunction. We find that monitoring olfactory dysfunction could reduce spread via regular screening, and could reduce risk when used at point-of-entry for single-day events. In light of these estimated impacts, and because olfactory tests can be mass produced at low cost and self-administered, we suggest that screening for olfactory dysfunction could be a high impact and cost-effective method for broad COVID-19 screening and surveillance.


Assuntos
Anosmia/diagnóstico , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Anosmia/epidemiologia , Anosmia/virologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Viral
14.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(7): 665-676, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, much of the research on individual difference correlates of coronavirus guideline adherence is cross-sectional, leaving prospective associations between these factors unaddressed. Additionally, investigations of prospective predictors of mask-wearing, COVID-19 symptoms, and viral testing remain wanting. PURPOSE: The present study examined prospective relations between demographic factors, personality traits, social cognitions and guideline adherence, mask-wearing, symptoms, and viral testing in a U.S. sample (N = 500) during the initial surge of COVID-19 deaths in the United State between late March and early May 2020. METHODS: Guided by a disposition-belief-motivation framework, correlational analyses, and path models tested associations among baseline personality traits, guideline adherence social cognitions, health beliefs, guideline adherence and follow-up guideline adherence, mask-wearing, symptom counts, and 30-day viral testing. RESULTS: Modeling results showed greater baseline agreeableness, conscientiousness, and extraversion were associated with more frequent baseline guideline adherence. More liberal political beliefs, greater guideline adherence intentions, and more frequent guideline adherence at baseline predicted more frequent mask-wearing at follow-up. Sex (female), lower perceived health, and greater neuroticism at baseline predicted greater symptom counts at follow-up. Reports of viral testing were quite low (1.80%), yet were consistent with concurrent national reporting and limited availability of testing. CONCLUSIONS: Results show how inconsistencies and politicization of health policy communication were concomitant with the effects of individual-level political beliefs on mask-wearing during the initial surge. The results further clarify how personality traits related to social responsibility (i.e., agreeableness, conscientiousness) are associated with following new norms for prescribed behaviors and how symptom reporting can be as much a marker of perceived health as emotional stability.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Máscaras , Personalidade , Cognição Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anosmia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Calafrios , Dispneia , Extroversão Psicológica , Feminino , Febre , Cefaleia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Modelo de Crenças de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Mialgia , Neuroticismo , Faringite , Política , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais , Distúrbios do Paladar , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(596)2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941622

RESUMO

Whereas recent investigations have revealed viral, inflammatory, and vascular factors involved in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lung pathogenesis, the pathophysiology of neurological disorders in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains poorly understood. Olfactory and taste dysfunction are common in COVID-19, especially in mildly symptomatic patients. Here, we conducted a virologic, molecular, and cellular study of the olfactory neuroepithelium of seven patients with COVID-19 presenting with acute loss of smell. We report evidence that the olfactory neuroepithelium is a major site of SARS-CoV2 infection with multiple cell types, including olfactory sensory neurons, support cells, and immune cells, becoming infected. SARS-CoV-2 replication in the olfactory neuroepithelium was associated with local inflammation. Furthermore, we showed that SARS-CoV-2 induced acute anosmia and ageusia in golden Syrian hamsters, lasting as long as the virus remained in the olfactory epithelium and the olfactory bulb. Last, olfactory mucosa sampling from patients showing long-term persistence of COVID-19-associated anosmia revealed the presence of virus transcripts and of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, together with protracted inflammation. SARS-CoV-2 persistence and associated inflammation in the olfactory neuroepithelium may account for prolonged or relapsing symptoms of COVID-19, such as loss of smell, which should be considered for optimal medical management of this disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Anosmia , Encéfalo , Cricetinae , Humanos , Inflamação , Mucosa Olfatória , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 115: 101965, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989761

RESUMO

Anosmia, a neuropathogenic condition of loss of smell, has been recognized as a key pathogenic hallmark of the current pandemic SARS-CoV-2 infection responsible for COVID-19. While the anosmia resulting from olfactory bulb (OB) pathology is the prominent clinical characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD), SARS-CoV-2 infection has been predicted as a potential risk factor for developing Parkinsonism-related symptoms in a significant portion of COVID-19 patients and survivors. SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to alter the dopamine system and induce the loss of dopaminergic neurons that have been known to be the cause of PD. However, the underlying biological basis of anosmia and the potential link between COVID-19 and PD remains obscure. Ample experimental studies in rodents suggest that the occurrence of neural stem cell (NSC) mediated neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium (OE) and OB is important for olfaction. Though the occurrence of neurogenesis in the human forebrain has been a subject of debate, considerable experimental evidence strongly supports the incidence of neurogenesis in the human OB in adulthood. To note, various viral infections and neuropathogenic conditions including PD with olfactory dysfunctions have been characterized by impaired neurogenesis in OB and OE. Therefore, this article describes and examines the recent reports on SARS-CoV-2 mediated OB dysfunctions and defects in the dopaminergic system responsible for PD. Further, the article emphasizes that COVID-19 and PD associated anosmia could result from the regenerative failure in the replenishment of the dopaminergic neurons in OB and olfactory sensory neurons in OE.


Assuntos
Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/patologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , Neurogênese , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Animais , Humanos
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e29583, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent olfactory dysfunction is a significant complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Olfactory training involving aromatic oils has been recommended to improve olfactory recovery, but quantitative data are missing. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify the benefit of olfactory training and visual stimulation assisted by a dedicated web application for patients who experienced olfactory dysfunction for ≥1 month. METHODS: We performed an observational, real-life, data-based study on a cohort of patients who experienced at least 1 month of persistent olfactory dysfunction between January 30 and March 26, 2021. An analysis was performed after a mean olfactory training time of 4 weeks, and at least 500 patients were assessable for primary outcome assessment. Participants exposed themselves twice daily to odors from 4 high-concentration oils and visual stimulation assisted by a dedicated web application. Improvement was defined as a 2-point increase on a 10-point, self-assessed olfactory visual analogue scale. RESULTS: In total, 548 patients were assessable for primary outcome assessment. The mean baseline, self-assessed olfactory score was 1.9 (SD 1.7), and this increased to 4.6 (SD 2.8) after a mean olfactory training time of 27.7 days (SD 17.2). Olfactory training was associated with at least a 2-point increase in 64.2% (352/548) of patients. The rate of patients' olfactory improvement was higher for patients who trained for more than 28 days than that rate for patients who trained for less than 28 days (73.3% vs 59%; P=.002). The time to olfactory improvement was 8 days faster for patients with hyposmia compared to the time to improvement for patients with anosmia (P<.001). This benefit was observed regardless of the duration of the olfactory dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Olfactory training and visual stimulation assisted by a dedicated web application was associated with significant improvement in olfaction, especially after 28 days of olfactory training.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/reabilitação , Anosmia/complicações , Anosmia/reabilitação , Anosmia/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Olfato/terapia , Estimulação Luminosa , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Olfato/fisiologia
18.
eNeuro ; 8(3)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952614

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) presents a variability of clinical symptoms, ranging from asymptomatic to severe respiratory and systemic conditions. In a cohort of patients, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), beyond the classical respiratory manifestations, induces anosmia. Evidence has suggested SARS-CoV-2-induced anosmia can be the result of neurodegeneration of the olfactory pathway. Neurologic symptoms associated with COVID-19 have been reported; however, the precise mechanism and possible long-lasting effects remain poorly investigated. Preclinical models are valuable tools for describing and testing new possible treatments for neurologic disorders. In this way, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) organism model represents an attractive tool in the field of neuroscience, showing economic and logistic advantages besides genetic and physiologic similarities with mammalian, including the brain structure and functions. Besides, its external embryonic development, high availability of eggs, and fast development allows easy genetic manipulation and fast replications. In the present review, we suggest that the zebrafish model can be advantageous to investigate the neurologic features of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Animais , Anosmia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010996

RESUMO

Objective: To retrospectively analysely the electrophysiological and imaging features of isolated congenital anosmia (ICA) and to assess the clinical phenotypic characteristics and classification of ICA. Methods: Clinical data of 30 ICA patients in Beijing Anzhen Hospital from 2012 to 2019 was retrospectively reviewed, including 13 males and 17 females, aged (35±19) years. The control group consisted of 30 healthy people from medical examination center, including 13 males and 17 females, aged (39±14) years. The clinical characteristics of ICA were analyzed using Sniffin' Sticks test, olfactory event-related potentials (oERPs), trigeminal event-related potentials (tERP) and olfactory pathway MRI. SPSS 17.0 software was used to compare the difference of olfactory function between the two groups. The correlation between olfactory bulb, olfactory sulcus structure and age was observed, and the clinical phenotype characteristics of ICA patients were analyzed. Results: The subjective olfactory function was completely lost in ICA patients. oERP was absent in all of the ICA patients, but showed normal N1 and P2 waves in controls. tERP could be evoked in 63.3% (19/30) of ICA patients, and signals in these patients showed higher amplitude in the N1 ((-10.33±6.93) µV vs (-5.11±2.71) µV, t=-10.113, P<0.01) and P2 ((+17.25±8.51) µV vs (+7.31±3.46) µV, t=5.443, P<0.01) waves than that of the controls. Olfactory bulbs were aplastic in 80.0% (24/30) of patients and hypoplastic in 20.0% (6/30) of patients. Fifty-six point seven percent (17/30) of patients had bilateral olfactory sulcus deletion while 43.3% (13/30) had dysplasia, and all of the patients exhibited a depth of olfactory sulcus less than 8 mm. Both the structure of olfactory bulbs and olfactory sulcus were not associated with age for ICA patients (r value was -0.174 and 0.325, respectively, all P>0.05). Conclusions: ICA patients show neurophysiologic deficits and some anatomic differences compared with healthy controls. The absence of oERP combining with a depth of olfactory sulcus less than 8 mm is the important indicator for clinical diagnosis of ICA. The structure of olfactory bulb may be a critical factor for clinical classification of ICA.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Olfato , Adolescente , Adulto , Anosmia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Bulbo Olfatório/diagnóstico por imagem , Condutos Olfatórios , Estudos Retrospectivos , Olfato , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...