Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 166
Filtrar
1.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(6): 380-386, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322453

RESUMO

Objective: In the present study, we compared social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients with (n = 31) and without childhood and adulthood separation anxiety disorder (SeAD) (n = 50) with respect to suicidal behavior, avoidant personality disorder (AvPD), other anxiety disorders (ADs), and major depression as well as some sociodemographic variables. Methods: In assessment of patients, we used Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms, childhood and adulthood Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventories, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, The SCID-II Avoidant Personality Disorder Module, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation. Results: SAD patients with SeAD had higher comorbidity rates of AvPD, other lifetime ADs and panic disorder, and current major depression than those without SeAD. The current scores of SAD, depression, and suicide ideation and the mean number of AvPD symptoms were significantly higher in comorbid group compared to pure SAD subjects. The SAD and SeAD scores had significant associations with current depression, suicide ideations, and AvPD. The mean number of AvPD criteria and the current severity of depression were significantly associated with the comorbidity between SAD and SeAD. Conclusion: Our findings might indicate that the comorbidity of SeAD with SAD may increase the risk of the severity of AvPD and current depression.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Fobia Social/complicações , Fobia Social/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade de Separação/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Fobia Social/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Ideação Suicida
2.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 20(10): 83, 2018 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155649

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In light of the apparent symptomatic resemblance of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms on the one hand and abandonment fears, anxiousness, and separation insecurity central to borderline personality disorder (BPD) on the other hand, a comprehensive overview of separation anxiety and related traits in BPD is provided. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological, environmental, psychological, and neurobiological data connecting BPD to separation events, feelings of loneliness, insecure attachment styles, dimensional separation anxiety as well as SAD per se suggest a partly shared etiological pathway model underlying BPD and SAD. Differential diagnostic aspects and implications for treatment are discussed, highlighting separation anxiety as a promising transdiagnostic target for specific psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment approaches in BPD. This innovative angle on cross-disorder symptomatology might carry potential for novel preventive and therapeutic avenues in clinical practice by guiding the development of interventions specifically targeting separation anxiety and attachment-related issues in BPD.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Ansiedade/complicações , Humanos , Fenótipo
3.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 315(5): F1320-F1328, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089034

RESUMO

Lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) is a common problem in children and constitutes up to 40% of pediatric urology clinic visits. Improved diagnosis and interventions have been leading to better outcomes in many patients, whereas some children are left untreated or do not respond to the treatment successfully. In addition, many of these patients are lost by the pediatric urologists during their teenage years, and the outcome in later life largely remains unidentified. Studies suggest childhood LUTD is associated with subsequent adult urinary tract symptoms. However, whether and how early life LUTD attributes to urinary symptoms in those patients later in life remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the effects of early life voiding perturbation on bladder function using a neonatal maternal separation (NMS) protocol in mice. The NMS group displayed a delayed development of voluntary voiding behavior, a significant reduction of functional bladder capacity, and bladder overactivity compared with control mice later in life. In vitro evaluation of detrusor smooth muscle and molecular study showed a decrease in muscarinic contribution alongside an increase in purinergic contribution in detrusor contractility in NMS mice compared with control group. These results suggest that early life bladder dysfunction interfered with the normal maturation of the voluntary micturition control and facilitated LUTD in a later stage, which is at least partly attributed to an alteration of muscarinic and purinergic signaling in the urinary bladder.


Assuntos
Fibras Colinérgicas/metabolismo , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/metabolismo , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X1/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária/inervação , Micção , Urodinâmica , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/fisiopatologia , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/psicologia , Masculino , Privação Materna , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reflexo , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/psicologia
4.
J Affect Disord ; 232: 349-357, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Saffron has antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in adults with mild-to-moderate depression. However, this is the first study examining its mood-related effects in teenagers. METHODS: In this 8-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, youth aged 12-16 years, with mild-to-moderate anxiety or depressive symptoms were given tablets containing placebo or a saffron extract (affron®, 14 mg b.i.d). The youth and parent versions of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) were used as outcome measures. RESULTS: 80 participants were enrolled and 68 completed the study. Based on youth self-reports, affron® was associated with greater improvements in overall internalising symptoms (p = 0.049), separation anxiety (p = 0.003), social phobia (p = 0.023), and depression (p = 0.016). Total internalising scores decreased by an average of 33% compared to 17% in the placebo group (p = 0.029). However, parental reports of improvements were inconsistent as mean improvements in RCADS scores were greater in the saffron group (40% vs 26%) (p = 0.026), although no other significant differences were identified. affron® was well-tolerated and there was a trend of reduced headaches in participants on the active treatment. LIMITATIONS: The use of a self-report instrument, limited study duration, single treatment dose, and non-clinical sample used in this study limit the generalisability of study findings. CONCLUSION: The administration of a standardised saffron extract (affron®) for 8 weeks improved anxiety and depressive symptoms in youth with mild-to-moderate symptoms, at least from the perspective of the adolescent. However, these beneficial effects were inconsistently corroborated by parents.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Crocus , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Depressão/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Fobia Social/complicações , Fobia Social/tratamento farmacológico , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Gastroenterology ; 153(6): 1594-1606.e2, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Separation of newborn rats from their mothers induces visceral hypersensitivity and impaired epithelial secretory cell lineages when they are adults. Little is known about the mechanisms by which maternal separation causes visceral hypersensitivity or its relationship with defects in epithelial secretory cell lineages. METHODS: We performed studies with C3H/HeN mice separated from their mothers as newborns and mice genetically engineered (Sox9flox/flox-vil-cre on C57BL/6 background) to have deficiencies in Paneth cells. Paneth cell deficiency was assessed by lysozyme staining of ileum tissues and lysozyme activity in fecal samples. When mice were 50 days old, their abdominal response to colorectal distension was assessed by electromyography. Fecal samples were collected and microbiota were analyzed using Gut Low-Density Array quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Mice with maternal separation developed visceral hypersensitivity and defects in Paneth cells, as reported from rats, compared with mice without maternal separation. Sox9flox/flox-vil-Cre mice also had increased visceral hypersensitivity compared with control littermate Sox9flox/flox mice. Fecal samples from mice with maternal separation and from Sox9flox/flox-vil-cre mice had evidence for intestinal dysbiosis of the microbiota, characterized by expansion of Escherichia coli. Daily gavage of conventional C3H/HeN adult mice with 109 commensal E coli induced visceral hypersensitivity. Conversely, daily oral administration of lysozyme prevented expansion of E coli during maternal separation and visceral hypersensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Mice with defects in Paneth cells (induced by maternal separation or genetically engineered) have intestinal expansion of E coli leading to visceral hypersensitivity. These findings provide evidence that Paneth cell function and intestinal dysbiosis are involved in visceral sensitivity.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Celulas de Paneth/microbiologia , Dor Visceral/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade de Separação/metabolismo , Ansiedade de Separação/microbiologia , Ansiedade de Separação/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/microbiologia , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Muramidase/administração & dosagem , Muramidase/metabolismo , Celulas de Paneth/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/metabolismo , Dor Visceral/metabolismo , Dor Visceral/microbiologia , Dor Visceral/fisiopatologia
6.
Arch Sex Behav ; 46(5): 1383-1392, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26919841

RESUMO

The current study evaluated the possibility that greater negative mental health outcomes reported among gay, lesbian, and gender-atypical individuals, compared to gender-typical individuals, are present in childhood and persist into adulthood. Sex and sexual orientation differences in self-reported adulthood and recalled childhood indicators of depression and anxiety and their association with current and retrospectively reported gender (a)typicality were examined in a non-clinically recruited community sample of Canadian heterosexual men (n = 98), heterosexual women (n = 142), gay men (n = 289), and lesbian women (n = 69). Indicators of depression and anxiety were constructed based on diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and specific phobias. Factor reduction analyses yielded three factors: (1) indicators of childhood separation anxiety, (2) indicators of childhood depression and anxiety, and (3) indicators of adulthood depression and anxiety. Lesbian women scored higher on childhood separation anxiety than all other groups. Heterosexual men scored lower on indicators of childhood separation anxiety than gay men and lower on indicators of childhood and adulthood depression and anxiety than all other groups. No other significant group differences were observed. Correlational analysis suggested that for men, but not for women, gender-atypical behavior was associated with negative mental health. The current study indicated that childhood should be considered a critical time period during which the noted sexual orientation-related mental health discrepancies manifest and that childhood gender atypicality is a key factor for understanding the emergence of such discrepancies.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Identidade de Gênero , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Canadá , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Fóbicos/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
7.
J Transcult Nurs ; 28(3): 243-250, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27093905

RESUMO

Immigration often results in the separation of families, and in particular transnational parenting, which is the separation of mothers from children. Transnational mothers may have greater risks for poor mental health and behavioral conditions such as substance abuse, violence, sexual risk, and depression. This study was a secondary analysis of self-reported data from 425 Hispanic mothers (328 with no separations, 60 separated from an adult child, and 37 separated from a minor child) enrolled in a randomized trial of a sexual health group intervention in South Florida (USA). Separations were related to mother's age, years in the United States, family income, number of people living on income, acculturation to the United States, occupational/economic stress, immigration stress, and lifetime exposure to abuse. A follow-up analysis described the types of childhood or adulthood abuse experienced by mothers with separations. These findings provide new information for nurses about the experience of immigrant mothers.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/etnologia , Mães/psicologia , Aculturação , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Florida/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Abuso Físico/etnologia , Abuso Físico/psicologia , Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 161(6): 770-774, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27783302

RESUMO

The peculiarities in expression of transport proteins and the proteins implicated in the control of glycolysis by the cellular components of neurovascular units were examined in animals of different age under normal conditions and after modeled perinatal stress or hypoxic brain injury. In both cases, the specialties in expression of transport proteins in ontogenesis were revealed. The perinatal hypoxic brain injury resulted in up-regulation of MCT1, MCT4, and GLUT4 expression in endotheliocytes of hippocampal microvessels accompanied by transient elevation of HIF-1α and GSK3 expression.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/metabolismo , Ansiedade de Separação/patologia , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Hipocampo/irrigação sanguínea , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/patologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Masculino , Microvasos/metabolismo , Microvasos/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Acoplamento Neurovascular , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/patologia
9.
Acta pediatr. esp ; 74(2): 45-49, feb. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-150592

RESUMO

Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio es analizar a los pacientes remitidos a cirugía para practicar una frenotomía en el periodo neonatal y revisar su correcta indicación, ya que en la actualidad no existe consenso en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la anquiloglosia. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 136 pacientes con anquiloglosia derivados a la consulta de cirugía plástica pediátrica. Se recogieron datos sobre la remisión a la consulta, problemas de lactancia y experiencia anterior y posterior a la intervención. Resultados: Los principales motivos de consulta se relacionaron con problemas en la técnica de lactancia materna (69 pacientes [65,7%]). El dolor durante la toma era el síntoma más habitual, aunque 33 pacientes (31,4%) no presentaban síntomas. En la mayoría de los casos, la remisión a cirugía la realizó el pediatra de zona (85 pacientes [80%]). El tipo más frecuente de anquiloglosia en la muestra fue el tipo II. Sólo se detectó 1 caso de recidiva. La ansiedad debida a la separación durante la frenotomía fue la experiencia negativa más frecuente entre las madres. Discusión: La falta de indicaciones establecidas para la frenotomía, así como la relativa facilidad de la aplicación de la técnica en la edad neonatal y el auge de las campañas de lactancia materna, está derivando en un exceso de indicación quirúrgica como tratamiento de la anquiloglosia. Debe promoverse la creación de guías que definan unos criterios adecuados de tratamiento, así como favorecer la remisión a la consulta de lactancia como un paso previo a la cirugía (AU)


Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyze patients referred to frenotomy surgery during neonatal period and to review their correct indication, as nowadays there is no consensus on the diagnosis and treatment of ankyloglossia. Material and methods: A retrospective study of 136 patients with ankyloglossia referred to pediatric plastic surgery. Data collection was based on the consultation, breastfeeding problems and experiences before and after intervention. Results: The main reasons to attend consultation were related to breastfeeding technique (69 patients [65.7%]), and pain in between takes the more frequent symptom, nevertheless 33 patients (31.4%) had no symptoms. In most cases, referral to surgery was done by the pediatrician (85 patients [80%]). The most common type of ankyloglossia in the sample was type II. Only one case of recurrence was detected. Separation anxiety during frenotomy was the most frequent negative experience among mothers. Discussion: The lack of guidelines established for frenotomy and the relative ease of application of the technique in the neonatal age and the rise of breastfeeding campaigns, is leading to an excess of surgical indication as treatment of ankyloglossia. To create guidelines defining an appropriate criteria of treatment should be promoted, and to facilitate referrals to lactation consultation as a step prior to surgery (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Freio Lingual/patologia , Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Freio Lingual/cirurgia , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Freio Lingual/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos da Lactação/cirurgia , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos
10.
Res Nurs Health ; 39(1): 42-56, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26595761

RESUMO

US military deployments have become more frequent and lengthier in duration since 2003. Over half of US military members are married, and many also have children. The authors sought to understand the process of deployment from the perspective of the military family. After a thorough search of the literature, 21 primary research reports of 19 studies with an aggregate sample of 874 were analyzed using qualitative metasynthesis. The deployment process was experienced in four temporal domains. The military family as a whole shared the pre-deployment transition: all family members felt uncertain about the future, needed to complete tasks to "get ready" for deployment, and experienced a sense of distancing in preparation for the upcoming separation. The AD member went through the deployment transition independently, needing to "stay engaged" with the military mission, building a surrogate family and simultaneously trying to maintain connection with the family at home. In parallel, the home front family was going through a transposement transition, moving forward as an altered family unit, taking on new roles and responsibilities, and trying to simultaneously connect with the deployed member and find support from other military families. In post-deployment, the family went through the "reintegration" transition together, managing expectations, and readjusting family roles, all needing understanding and appreciation for their sacrifices during the recent separation. Effective family communication was important for military family well-being after deployment but unexpectedly challenging for many. Clinical, research, and policy recommendations are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/terapia , Transtornos Reativos da Criança/etiologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Família Militar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Res Dev Disabil ; 47: 1-13, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26321690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Separation anxiety among intellectually disabled (ID) persons with comorbid visual impairment could be rooted in a weak sense of person permanence. Technology-assisted Therapy for Separation Anxiety (TTSA) was used to address this problem. AIMS: The primary aim was to determine whether technology alone or including caregivers was the best option, and whether TTSA decreased separation anxiety and challenging behaviour. Also, how the caregivers and the client experienced TTSA. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A pre-experimental, quantitative approach (AB1C1B2C2D) was used for this single-subject study. The frequency of the client's text messages was recorded daily. The variables were monitored with standardised instruments and caregivers rated the intensity and frequency of the client's anxious and challenging behaviour. The social validity was evaluated by means of questionnaires. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the anxious and angry messages sent, and in anxious and challenging behaviour, in the phase in which the caregivers were included, compared with the phase in which technology alone was used. The client and the caregivers were positive about TTSA. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATION: Technology and the caregivers reactions reduces the anxiety and challenging behaviour. It might also aid the acquisition of the concept of person permanence.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/terapia , Cuidadores , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Smartphone , Mensagem de Texto , Transtornos da Visão/complicações , Adulto , Ira , Ansiedade , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Felicidade , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Masculino , Limitação da Mobilidade , Apego ao Objeto , Comportamento Problema , Instituições Residenciais , Transtornos da Visão/psicologia , Cadeiras de Rodas
12.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 79(7): 1030-3, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25933698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In children, the most common reason of upper airway obstruction (UAO) is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. In literature, the adverse effects of UAO and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on behavior and attention in children have been reported in several articles. However, the methods used for the evaluation of behavioral disorders have not been standardized in those studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioral and attention characteristics of children before and after adenoidectomy/adenotonsillectomy using an internationally valid method. METHODS: A total of 41 patients, between 6 and 11 years of age and having a medical history of UAO for at least one year for which adenotonsillectomy procedure was indicated, were enrolled in the study. The patients were evaluated for signs of attention/behavioral disorders by a child-adolescent psychiatrist and Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children: Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and The Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), before and at the 6th month following the operation. RESULTS: In the preoperative period, a psychiatric disorder was identified by K-SADS-PL in 41.4% (n =1 7) of patients. Of these, 11 patients had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 6 had enuresis nocturna, and 2 had separation anxiety disorder. Pre- and postoperative mean scores in T-DSM-IV-S parent scale were 31.3 ± 8.5 and 20.2 ± 10.3, respectively, and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The relationship of UAO and attention/behavioral disorders should be taken into consideration by child-adolescent psychiatrists together with ENT specialists and a multidisciplinary approach is important for the treatment team.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Comportamento Problema , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/psicologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Adenoidectomia , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Atenção , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Enurese Noturna/complicações , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Tonsilectomia
13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 21(10): 2912-7, 2015 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25780288

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the pharmacological effect of TongXie-YaoFang (TXYF) formula and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: A neonatal maternal separation plus restraint stress (NMS + RS) model of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome was developed by subjecting male Sprague-Dawley rats to daily maternal separation from postnatal days 2 to 21 plus restraint stress from days 50 to 59. Rats were randomly divided into two groups (NMS + RS and TXYF formula), and rats with no handling or separation were used as normal controls. Starting from postnatal day 60, rats were administered TXYF formula (9.84 g/100 g body weight) orally twice daily for 14 consecutive days, while the normal and NMS + RS groups were given distilled water. The distinctions of movement index (MI, area under the curve of contraction intensity/min, mg/min) and contraction frequency (CF, number of contractions/min, times/min) of isolated colonic longitudinal smooth muscle strips (CLSMs) in the three groups before and after treatment were observed with a Power Lab system. Different inhibitors were applied, and then 10(-4) mol/L acetylcholine chloride (Ach) was added to CLSMs to induce muscle contraction. RESULTS: Before treatment, the MI of CLSMs in the NMS + RS and TXYF formula groups was similar and both higher than that in the normal group (545.49 ± 73.66 mg/min vs 245.76 ± 34.44 mg/min and 551.09 ± 54.29 mg/min vs 245.76 ± 34.44 mg/min, P < 0.01, respectively). After treatment, the MI in the TXYF formula group was lower than that in the NMS + RS group (261.39 ± 38.59 mg/min vs 533.9 ± 61.63 mg/min, P < 0.01). In the same way, the CF of CLSMs in the NMS + RS and TXYF formula groups was similar and both higher than that in the normal group (3.42 ± 0.25 times/min and 3.31 ± 0.21 vs 1.1 ± 0.17 times/min, P < 0.01) before treatment. After treatment, the CF in the TXYF formula group was lower than that in the NMS + RS group (1.42 ± 0.87 times/min vs 3.11 ± 0.82 times/min, P < 0.01) and similar to that in the normal group (1.42 ± 0.87 times/min vs 1.09 ± 0.13 times/min). When 8-(N,N-diethylamino)octyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride and 4-aminopyridine were added to the bath and equilibrated for 30 min, respectively, and 10(-4) mol/L Ach was added to CLSMs to induce muscle contraction, MI of the CLSMs in the TXYF formula group was lower than that in the normal group (666 ± 36.32 mg/min vs 747.77 ± 49.47 mg/min, and 686.53 ± 39.17 mg/min vs 750.45 ± 29.39 mg/min; P < 0.01, respectively). The MI of CLSMs in the TXYF formula group was lower than that in the normal group after treatment with nifedipine (689.48 ± 30.84 mg/min vs 741.65 ± 32.41 mg/min; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: TXYF formula inhibits colon contraction in rats. This may be related to activation of specific potassium channels and inhibition of extracellular calcium internal flow.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Canais de Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/metabolismo , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imobilização , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/metabolismo , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia , Masculino , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Músculo Liso/fisiopatologia , Canais de Potássio/agonistas , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 308(7): R659-67, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25652536

RESUMO

Human and animal studies on sleep-disordered breathing and respiratory regulation show that the effects of sex hormones are heterogeneous. Because neonatal stress results in sex-specific disruption of the respiratory control in adult rats, we postulate that it might affect respiratory control modulation induced by ovarian steroids in female rats. The hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) of adult female rats exposed to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) is ∼30% smaller than controls (24), but consequences of NMS on respiratory control in aging female rats are unknown. To address this issue, whole body plethysmography was used to evaluate the impact of NMS on the HVR (12% O2, 20 min) of middle-aged (MA; ∼57 wk old) female rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator 3 h/day for 10 consecutive days (P3 to P12). Controls were undisturbed. To determine whether the effects were related to sexual hormone decline or aging per se, experiments were repeated on bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) young (∼12 wk old) adult female rats. OVX and MA both reduced the HVR significantly in control rats but had little effect on the HVR of NMS females. OVX (but not aging) reduced the anapyrexic response in both control and NMS animals. These results show that hormonal decline decreases the HVR of control animals, while leaving that of NMS female animals unaffected. This suggests that neonatal stress alters the interaction between sex hormone regulation and the development of body temperature, hormonal, and ventilatory responses to hypoxia.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Sistema Endócrino/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/complicações , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Ventilação Pulmonar , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade de Separação/sangue , Ansiedade de Separação/fisiopatologia , Peso Corporal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Ovariectomia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Pletismografia Total , Progesterona/sangue , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Taxa Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/sangue , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/etiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
15.
Compr Psychiatry ; 58: 45-9, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25595519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing literature has been focused on complicated grief (CG) and its distinctiveness from other potentially loss related mental disorders such as major depression (MD). In this regard, symptoms of separation distress seem to play a key role. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of CG to those of MD and of CG+MD, with particular attention to separation anxiety. METHODS: Fifty patients with CG (26 with and 24 without MD) and 40 with MD were consecutively recruited. Assessments included: SCID-I/P, Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), Adult Separation Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (ASA-27), Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR)-lifetime version. RESULTS: Patients with MD reported significantly higher ASA-27 scores than patients with CG either alone or with MD. In all groups, ASA-27 total scores were significantly correlated with the MOODS-SR total scores and with those of its depressive component and rhythmicity domain. No significant differences were reported in the WSAS scores. LIMITATIONS: Major limitations are the small sample size and the use of lifetime instruments. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a correlation between adult separation anxiety symptoms and lifetime mood spectrum symptoms both in patients with CG and MD. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of adult separation anxiety in the development of these disorders and for their nosographic autonomy as well.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Pesar , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Avaliação de Sintomas/psicologia
16.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e103775, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25090643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder, with non-negligible rates of mortality and morbidity. Some of the related alterations could participate in a vicious cycle limiting the recovery. Animal models mimicking various physiological alterations related to anorexia nervosa are necessary to provide better strategies of treatment. AIM: To explore physiological alterations and recovery in a long-term mouse model mimicking numerous consequences of severe anorexia nervosa. METHODS: C57Bl/6 female mice were submitted to a separation-based anorexia protocol combining separation and time-restricted feeding for 10 weeks. Thereafter, mice were housed in standard conditions for 10 weeks. Body weight, food intake, body composition, plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, IGF-1, blood levels of GH, reproductive function and glucose tolerance were followed. Gene expression of several markers of lipid and energy metabolism was assayed in adipose tissues. RESULTS: Mimicking what is observed in anorexia nervosa patients, and despite a food intake close to that of control mice, separation-based anorexia mice displayed marked alterations in body weight, fat mass, lean mass, bone mass acquisition, reproductive function, GH/IGF-1 axis, and leptinemia. mRNA levels of markers of lipogenesis, lipolysis, and the brown-like adipocyte lineage in subcutaneous adipose tissue were also changed. All these alterations were corrected during the recovery phase, except for the hypoleptinemia that persisted despite the full recovery of fat mass. CONCLUSION: This study strongly supports the separation-based anorexia protocol as a valuable model of long-term negative energy balance state that closely mimics various symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa, including metabolic adaptations. Interestingly, during a recovery phase, mice showed a high capacity to normalize these parameters with the exception of plasma leptin levels. It will be interesting therefore to explore further the central and peripheral effects of the uncorrected hypoleptinemia during recovery from separation-based anorexia.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade de Separação/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Adipócitos Marrons/patologia , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Ansiedade de Separação/sangue , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Composição Corporal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ciclo Estral , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxirredução , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Fatores de Tempo , Perda de Peso
17.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 26(1): 27-32, ene.-abr. 2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-118603

RESUMO

Background: The aim was to study the comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and anxiety disorders (AD) among preschool children of the general population, and to assess the contribution of comorbidity to the child’s functional impairment. Method: 622 children were assessed at the ages of 3 and 5, through a diagnostic interview. They were clustered into three diagnostic groups: only ODD, only AD and comorbid ODD+AD. Results: At age 3, ODD was associated with specific phobia, OR = 4.7, 95% CI [1.4, 14.1], and at age 5, with any anxiety disorder, OR=3.9; 95% CI [1.8, 8.4]. ODD at age 3 was predictive of separation anxiety at age 5, OR=4.1; 95% CI [1.2, 14.3]. Comorbid ODD+AD cases showed a higher risk of functional impairment at school and in behavior toward others. Sex and socioeconomic status were not related to the diagnostic group. Conclusions: ODD+AD comorbidity can be identified in preschool children. Early identification of this association is needed to adequately treat the affected children (AU)


Antecedentes: se analiza la comorbilidad entre el trastorno negativista desafiante (TND) y los trastornos de ansiedad (TA) en preescolares de población general, y el deterioro funcional con que se asocian. Método: 622 niños fueron evaluados a los 3 y los 5 años con una entrevista diagnóstica. Se compararon 3 grupos diagnósticos: únicamente TND, únicamente TA y comorbilidad TND+TA. Resultados: a los 3 años se halló asociación entre TND y fobia específica (OR = 4.7, IC95%: 1.4÷14.1) y a los 5 años entre TND y TA, OR= 3.9; 95% IC [1.8, 8.4]. La presencia de TND a los 3 años fue predictiva de ansiedad de separación a los 5 años (OR = 4.1; IC95%: 1.2÷14.3). La comorbilidad se asoció con mayor deterioro funcional en la escuela y en el comportamiento hacia los demás. Sexo y nivel socioeconómico no se asociaron al grupo diagnóstico. Conclusiones: la comorbilidad TND+TA se puede identificar en edad preescolar. Es necesaria la detección temprana de estos trastornos para el adecuado tratamiento de los niños afectados (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Comorbidade , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/diagnóstico , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Passivo-Agressiva/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Passivo-Agressiva/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Passivo-Agressiva/psicologia
18.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e90726, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24594924

RESUMO

Plenty of evidence suggests that childhood separation anxiety (CSA) predisposes the subject to adult-onset panic disorder (PD). As well, panic is frequently comorbid with both anxiety and depression. The brain mechanisms whereby CSA predisposes to PD are but completely unknown in spite of the increasing evidence that panic attacks are mediated at midbrain's dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG). Accordingly, here we examined whether the neonatal social isolation (NSI), a model of CSA, facilitates panic-like behaviors produced by electrical stimulations of DPAG of rats as adults. Eventual changes in anxiety and depression were also assessed in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced-swimming test (FST) respectively. Male pups were subjected to 3-h daily isolations from post-natal day 2 (PN2) until weaning (PN21) allotting half of litters in individual boxes inside a sound-attenuated chamber (NSI, n = 26) whilst siblings (sham-isolated rats, SHAM, n = 27) and dam were moved to another box in a separate room. Non-handled controls (CTRL, n = 18) remained undisturbed with dams until weaning. As adults, rats were implanted with electrodes into the DPAG (PN60) and subjected to sessions of intracranial stimulation (PN65), EPM (PN66) and FST (PN67-PN68). Groups were compared by Fisher's exact test (stimulation sites), likelihood ratio chi-square tests (stimulus-response threshold curves) and Bonferroni's post hoc t-tests (EPM and FST), for P<0.05. Notably, DPAG-evoked panic-like responses of immobility, exophthalmus, trotting, galloping and jumping were markedly facilitated in NSI rats relative to both SHAM and CTRL groups. Conversely, anxiety and depression scores either did not change or were even reduced in neonatally-handled groups relative to CTRL, respectively. Data are the first behavioral evidence in animals that early-life separation stress produces the selective facilitation of panic-like behaviors in adulthood. Most importantly, results implicate the DPAG not only in panic attacks but also in separation-anxious children's predispositions to the late development of PD.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Transtorno de Pânico/etiologia , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/fisiopatologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Animais , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Ratos
19.
Chronobiol Int ; 31(2): 252-64, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24156523

RESUMO

The circadian system develops and changes in a gradual and programmed process over the lifespan. Early in life, maternal care represents an important zeitgeber and thus contributes to the development of circadian rhythmicity. Exposure to early life stress may affect circadian processes and induce a latent circadian disturbance evident after exposure to later life stress. Disturbance of the normal regulation of circadian rhythmicity is surmised to be an etiological factor in depression. We used postnatal maternal separation in rats to investigate how the early life environment might modify the circadian response to later life unpredictable and chronic stress. During postnatal days 2-14, male Wistar rats (n = 8 per group) were daily separated from their mothers for a period of either 180 min (long maternal separation; LMS) or 10 min (brief maternal separation; BMS). In adulthood, rats were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) for 4 weeks. Body temperature, locomotor activity and heart rate were measured and compared before and after CMS exposure. LMS offspring showed a delayed body temperature acrophase compared to BMS offspring. Otherwise, adult LMS and BMS offspring demonstrated similar diurnal rhythms of body temperature, locomotor activity and heart rate. Exposure to CMS provoked a stronger and longer lasting hypothermia in LMS rats than in BMS rats. The thermoregulatory response appears to be moderated by maternal care following reunion, an observation made in the LMS group only. The results show that early life stress (LMS) in an early developmental stage induced a thermoregulatory disturbance evident upon exposure to unpredictable adult life stressors.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Ritmo Circadiano , Hipotermia/etiologia , Privação Materna , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade de Separação/sangue , Ansiedade de Separação/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Comportamento Animal , Biomarcadores/sangue , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Doença Crônica , Corticosterona/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipotermia/sangue , Hipotermia/fisiopatologia , Hipotermia/psicologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Am J Psychiatry ; 170(7): 768-81, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23680783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that childhood separation anxiety disorder may be associated with a heightened risk for the development of other disorders in adulthood. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to examine the relationship between childhood separation anxiety disorder and future psychopathology. METHOD: PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase were searched for studies published through December 2011. Case-control, prospective, and retrospective cohort studies comparing children with and without separation anxiety disorder with regard to future panic disorder, major depressive disorder, any anxiety disorder, and substance use disorders were included in the analysis. Effects were summarized as pooled odds ratios in a random-effects model. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies met all inclusion criteria (14,855 participants). A meta-analysis of 20 studies indicated that children with separation anxiety disorder were more likely to develop panic disorder later on (odds ratio=3.45; 95% CI=2.37-5.03). Five studies suggested that a childhood diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder increases the risk of future anxiety (odds ratio=2.19; 95% CI=1.40-3.42). After adjusting for publication bias, the results of 14 studies indicated that childhood separation anxiety disorder does not increase the risk of future depression (odds ratio=1.06; 95% CI=0.78-1.45). Five studies indicated that childhood separation anxiety disorder does not increase the risk of substance use disorders (odds ratio=1.27; 95% CI=0.80-2.03). Of the subgroup analyses performed, differences in comparison groups and sample type significantly affected odds ratio sizes. CONCLUSIONS: A childhood diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder significantly increases the risk of panic disorder and any anxiety disorder. These results support a developmental psychopathology conceptualization of anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Modelos Psicológicos , Transtorno de Pânico/etiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA