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1.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(6): 380-386, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322453

RESUMO

Objective: In the present study, we compared social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients with (n = 31) and without childhood and adulthood separation anxiety disorder (SeAD) (n = 50) with respect to suicidal behavior, avoidant personality disorder (AvPD), other anxiety disorders (ADs), and major depression as well as some sociodemographic variables. Methods: In assessment of patients, we used Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms, childhood and adulthood Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventories, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, The SCID-II Avoidant Personality Disorder Module, Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation. Results: SAD patients with SeAD had higher comorbidity rates of AvPD, other lifetime ADs and panic disorder, and current major depression than those without SeAD. The current scores of SAD, depression, and suicide ideation and the mean number of AvPD symptoms were significantly higher in comorbid group compared to pure SAD subjects. The SAD and SeAD scores had significant associations with current depression, suicide ideations, and AvPD. The mean number of AvPD criteria and the current severity of depression were significantly associated with the comorbidity between SAD and SeAD. Conclusion: Our findings might indicate that the comorbidity of SeAD with SAD may increase the risk of the severity of AvPD and current depression.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Fobia Social/complicações , Fobia Social/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade de Separação/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Fobia Social/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Ideação Suicida
2.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(3): 989-997, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038094

RESUMO

Adverse caregiving, for example, previous institutionalization (PI), is often associated with emotion dysregulation that increases anxiety risk. However, the concept of developmental multifinality predicts heterogeneity in anxiety outcomes. Despite this well-known heterogeneity, more work is needed to identify sources of this heterogeneity and how these sources interact with environmental risk to influence mental health. Here, working memory (WM) was examined during late childhood/adolescence as an intra-individual factor to mitigate the risk for separation anxiety, which is particularly susceptible to caregiving adversities. A modified "object-in-place" task was administered to 110 youths (10-17 years old), with or without a history of PI. The PI youths had elevated separation anxiety scores, which were anticorrelated with morning cortisol levels, yet there were no group differences in WM. PI youths showed significant heterogeneity in separation anxiety symptoms and morning cortisol levels, and WM moderated the link between caregiving and separation anxiety and mediated the association between separation anxiety and morning cortisol in PI youth. Findings suggest that (a) institutional care exerts divergent developmental consequences on separation anxiety versus WM, (b) WM interacts with adversity-related emotion dysregulation, and (c) WM may be a therapeutic target for separation anxiety following early caregiving adversity.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Saliva/química
3.
Psychiatriki ; 30(1): 39-48, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115353

RESUMO

Assessment of anxiety disorders in children is a difficult process and requires the use of multiple resources of information. Such resources may come from children, parents, and educators and they also require the use of multiple types of diagnostic tools, like structured and semi-structured clinical interviews, as well as self-report questionnaires. Previous research shows that anxiety symptoms ratings of different informants are to some degree correlated (low to moderate agreement) but nonetheless also often show clear discrepancies. Important variables may affect the degree of child-parent agreement. The present study focused on child's gender and age possible impact. The aim of the present study was to examine the agreement between children's and parents' reports on self-reported questionnaires for anxiety symptoms. 431 children from 4th to 6th grade of elementary school and their parents participated in the study. 190 were boys and 241 were girls. Both children and their parents responded to Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) (child's and parent's version correspondingly). Relations between children's and parents' reports concerning anxiety symptoms were examined by calculation Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results showed that there was a medium but statistically important positive correlation between children's and parents' reports on SCAS total score (r=0.50, p<0.01). Concerning SCAS subscales results supported that higher correlations were those reported for Separation Anxiety (r=0.53, p<0.01) and Fear of Physical Injury (r=0.55, p<0.01). Concerning gender differences the present study found that correlation coefficients for girls were higher than for boys in SCAS total score (r=0.57 and r=0.39 correspondingly, p<0.01). Correlations according to age showed that the highest correlation coefficients were found in comparatively older children (r=0.34, r=0.54 και r=0.63, p<0.01 for 4th, 5th and 6th Grade). The latter underlies that in the process of assessing and diagnosing anxiety disorders in children, it is both necessary and important to gather information from multiple sources, especially in cases of younger children.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia
4.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 28(12): 1629-1643, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993534

RESUMO

In clinical child and retrospective adult samples, childhood gender variance (GV; i.e., cross-gender behaviour) has been associated with separation anxiety (SA; i.e., distress related to separation from attachment figures) in males. This study examined GV and SA in a nonclinical sample of 892 boys and 933 girls aged 6-12 years via parent-reports. Parental factors (i.e., parenting style, parent-child relationship, willingness to serve as an attachment figure, attitudes towards gender stereotypes in children) were examined as potential moderators. GV predicted SA in boys, even when statistically controlling for general psychopathology and demographic variables. Authoritative parenting, closeness in the parent-child relationship, willingness to serve as an attachment figure, and liberal attitudes towards gender stereotypes in children moderated the association between GV and SA in both boys and girls. Thus, SA may be a unique internalizing problem related to GV in boys in nonclinical samples and influenced by a variety of parental factors.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Crisis ; 40(5): 333-339, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813828

RESUMO

Background: Adolescent suicidality is a growing public health concern. Although evidence supports a link between anxiety and suicidality, little is known about risk associated with specific anxiety disorders. Aims: This study examined the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a sample of adolescents with depression and suicidal ideation and the associations between specific anxiety disorders and suicide ideation severity and attempt history. Method: The sample consisted of 115 adolescents (Mage = 14.96 years; 55.8% African American) entering a clinical trial for suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms. Prior to treatment, adolescents completed self-report and interview measures. Results: In all, 48% of the sample met criteria for an anxiety disorder, 22% met criteria for social anxiety disorder (SAD), and 40% met criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). SAD was uniquely associated with more severe suicidal ideation. Limitations: Findings may not generalize to all suicidal adolescents, and non-measured variables may account for the observed relationships. Conclusion: Future research should examine whether targeting social anxiety would improve treatment response for suicidal adolescents.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Risco , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Agorafobia/epidemiologia , Agorafobia/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade de Separação/epidemiologia , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212667, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study conducted secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial to examine the transgenerational relationship between cognitive-behavioral therapy for child Separation Anxiety Disorder (SepAD) and the mental health of parents. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were compared before and after child treatment between parents of children treated for SepAD and parents of healthy children, who did not receive any treatment. METHODS: One hundred and seven children aged 4-14 years with SepAD received one of two cognitive behavioral treatment programs for SepAD (TAFF; TrennungsAngstprogramm Für Familien; English: Separation Anxiety Family Therapy or CC; Coping Cat). Their parents (N = 189; 101 mothers and 88 fathers) were assessed at baseline and post-treatment for symptoms of separation anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. A comparison group of parents (N = 74; 42 mothers and 32 fathers) of 45 children without SepAD, who did not receive any treatment, were also assessed. RESULTS: Results indicated a significant interaction effect between group and time on mothers' depression and separation anxiety, indicating that maternal symptoms of depression and separation anxiety improved in the child treatment condition in comparison to mothers of healthy children. There was no significant improvement in parental pathology levels among fathers of children treated for SepAD. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment for child SepAD may have subsequent positive effects on mothers' own levels of separation anxiety and depression, though the mechanisms are yet unknown. Future studies are needed that test the transgenerational effect of child SepAD treatment on parental mental health as the primary research question.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/terapia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/diagnóstico , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade de Separação/diagnóstico , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Depressão/psicologia , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
An. psicol ; 35(1): 156-165, ene. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181035

RESUMO

La evaluación de las capacidades parentales para el ejercicio de la guarda y custodia de los hijos incluye el ajuste psicológico y la psicopatología. En esta evaluación, además, se ha de sospechar disimulación. El instrumento psicométrico de referencia para dicha evaluación es el MMPI. Para conocer de lo informado por los progenitores en disputa por la custodia nos planteamos una revisión meta-analítica de las escalas clínica y las escalas clínicas reestructuradas. Encontramos 21 estudios primarios con progenitores (se descartaron los diseños de simulación de progenitores en disputa) de los que obtuvieron 291 tamaños del efecto para las escalas clínicas y 1 para las reestructuradas. Los resultados mostraron un tamaño del efecto promedio positivo, significativo, y generalizable en las escalas Hy, Pd y Pa; negativo, significativo y generalizable en las escalas Ma y Si y no generalizable en las escalas Pt y Sc; y un tamaño del efecto promedio insignificante en las escalas Hs y D. Se estudió el género como moderador, no hallándose diferencias entre padres y madres. Se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados para la práctica forense


Parental attribute evaluation in relation to child custody comprises psychological and psychopathology. Additionally, defensiveness must be suspected on this setting. The worldwide reference psychometric measurement instrument for this purpose is the MMPI. With the aim of knowing the responses of parents litigating by child custody, a meta-analytic review of the responses to clinical and restructured scales was performed. A total of 21 primary studies (studies with a simulation design i.e., participants were instructed to answer as parents litigating by child custody were found were disregarded) were found, obtaining 291 effect sizes for clinical scales and 1 for restructured scales. The results showed positive, significant and generalizable mean true effect size in the Hy, Pd and Pa scales; a negative, significant and generalizable in the Ma and Si scales, and non-generalizable in the Pt y Sc scales; and a trivial mean true effect size in the Hs and D scales. Parent gender was studied as a moderator having no found differences between the responses of mothers and fathers. The implications of the results for forensic evaluation practices are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Custódia da Criança/métodos , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Custódia da Criança/organização & administração , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente/normas , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia
8.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(6): 2219-2230, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29383649

RESUMO

The anxiety and autism realms are each complicated and heterogeneous, and relationships between the two areas are especially complex. Network analysis offers a promising approach to the phenotypic complexities of typical and atypical human behavior. The Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) was used to assess anxiety in 126 high-functioning 9-13 year-olds with ASDs. Network graphs of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule items and RCADS anxiety total score, social, generalized, panic and separation anxiety subscores consistently found the anxiety node (score) to be highly peripheral. Also, the networks of RCADS anxiety items themselves were similar for the ASDs group and a general population comparison group (n = 2017). The results suggest anxiety is not a central part of autism and that anxiety is dynamically similar (aspects of anxiety relate to one another in a similar manner) in high-functioning autism and the general population.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade de Separação/diagnóstico , Ansiedade de Separação/epidemiologia , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(42): e12921, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast milk is the most important nutrition for premature babies, but mothers of premature infants have difficulty in initiating and sustaining lactation. Breastfeeding infants who are separated with mothers have decreased morbidity. Nevertheless, such decrease is limited due to insufficient milk supply resulting from mother-baby separation during lac. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of intervention methods based on the health belief model on promoting the secretion of milk among mothers who were separated with their babies. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 260 separation mothers between September 26, 2016 and March 7, 2017, in a 3rd-grade women and children hospital of Chengdu. The mothers all had cesarean delivery and were randomized into 2 groups: the intervention group (educated by investigators based on the health belief) and the control group (routinely educated by obstetric nurses). Data on the onset of lactation and the milk volume during 3 days postpartum were collected. The breast swelling rate within 3 days postpartum and the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 42 days postpartum were compared. The psychologic scores of separation maternal in both groups were assessed with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at the 3rd day postpartum. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the intervention group had significantly earlier lactation time (P < .01), significantly larger milk volume (P < .01) during 24, 24 to 48, and 48 to 72 hours, and significantly lower psychologic scores (P < .01) at the 3rd-day postpartum.The onset of lactation among mothers who initiated milk expression within 1 hour after childbirth were earlier than those who initiated milk expression between 1 and 6 hours (P < .01); the milk volume within 24-hour postpartum did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (P > .05). However, the milk volume of the early-expression group (<1 hour) was significantly higher than that of the late-expression group (1-6 hours) during 24 to 48 and 48 to72 hours (P < .05).The breast swelling rate of separation mothers within 3 days postpartum in the intervention group was lower than that in the control group (P < .05). The exclusive breastfeeding rate of mothers in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group (59% vs 35%; P < .01) at 42 days postpartum. CONCLUSION: Nursing intervention based on the health belief model can stimulate milk secretion in mothers who were separated with their babies.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/fisiopatologia , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Lactação/psicologia , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
J Anxiety Disord ; 59: 53-63, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273789

RESUMO

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven long-term effects in youth with anxiety disorders. However, only a few studies have examined predictors of long-term outcomes of CBT treatment. The present study investigated possible predictors of long-term treatment outcomes in youth with mixed anxiety disorders treated in community mental health clinics. A total of 139 youth (mean age at assessment 15.5 years, range 11-21 years) with a principal diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and/or generalized anxiety disorder were evaluated a mean of 3.9 years post-treatment (range 2.2-5.9 years). Outcomes were loss of all inclusion anxiety diagnoses, loss of the principal inclusion anxiety diagnosis, and changes in youth- and parent-rated youth anxiety symptoms. Predictors encompassed youth, parent and demographic factors, and post-treatment recovery. The most consistent finding was that low family social class predicted poorer outcomes. Higher treatment motivation was associated with better outcome whereas a diagnosis of social anxiety was associated with poorer outcome. Identified predictors extend on previous findings from efficacy trials, and the results indicate a need for more specific treatment protocols.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Assistência de Longa Duração , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Ansiedade de Separação/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Fobia Social/psicologia , Fobia Social/terapia , Prognóstico , Classe Social , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 29(3): 171-179, 2018.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The attachment processes give us a theoretical frame work to understand the psychopathological development. Unsafe attachment type is often associated with the emergence of psychopathology in the later periods of life. METHOD: This study includes 65 patients from psychiatry outpatient clinic with a diagnosis of panic disorder and 65 healthy volunteers as a control group. In order to determine clinical status and disease severity of patients with panic disorder according to SCID-I (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-I) Panic-Agoraphobia Scale, Adults Separation Anxiety Scale, Relationship Scale Questionnaire were used. RESULTS: Separation anxiety levels showed statistically significant difference among panic disorder group and control group. According to means of attachment style solely obsessive sub-dimension showed statistical significance difference among the two groups. In panic disorder group separation anxiety showed significant difference according to gender and the presence of agoraphobia. When attachment styles of patients with an early parent loss or divorce of parents assessed anxious and obsessive sub-dimensions the difference were found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION: High Comorbidity of panic disorder (dominantly coexisting with agoraphobia) and adult separation anxiety was observed. This comorbidity was even higher in females. In both groups obsessive attachment style was the highest among the attachment styles. In patients with panic disorder there was no significant correlation between adult separation anxiety and/or existence of agoraphobia and attachment styles. Coexistence of adult separation anxiety and panic disorder was found to result in higher depression comorbidity rates.


Assuntos
Agorafobia/psicologia , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 27(6): e12912, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204287

RESUMO

Children with medulloblastoma (MB) are predisposed for negative cognitive sequela, which has been widely identified in this population. The purpose of the present study was to explore cognitive deficits and psychopathological symptoms and analyse their relation among MB survivors. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-KID) was administered to 34 MB survivors to measure cognitive functioning and psychopathological symptoms. The MB survivors had lower global IQ (86.41 [79.70-93.13]) compared with the control population mean. We found impaired functioning in all IQ subscales in the MB survivors group, of which processing speed (84.15 [77.71-90.58]) was the most affected. Higher radiation dose and high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue were significantly associated factors for lowered global IQ, while age at diagnosis, sex and time period from diagnosis were not significantly associated. Compulsive disorder, generalised anxiety, separation anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder were significantly more prevalent in the MB survivor group than a group of 46 control participants. No correlation was found between the cognitive deficits and the psychopathological symptoms. Our results identify that MB survivors suffer from cognitive and psychopathological impairments, and these could exist independently from each other.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias Cerebelares/terapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Irradiação Craniana , Meduloblastoma/terapia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Cerebelares/psicologia , Quimiorradioterapia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/psicologia , Doses de Radiação , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Escalas de Wechsler
14.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(9): 1218-1228, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104731

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are four times more common in males than in females, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We characterized sexually dimorphic changes in mice carrying a heterozygous mutation in Chd8 (Chd8+/N2373K) that was first identified in human CHD8 (Asn2373LysfsX2), a strong ASD-risk gene that encodes a chromatin remodeler. Notably, although male mutant mice displayed a range of abnormal behaviors during pup, juvenile, and adult stages, including enhanced mother-seeking ultrasonic vocalization, enhanced attachment to reunited mothers, and isolation-induced self-grooming, their female counterparts do not. This behavioral divergence was associated with sexually dimorphic changes in neuronal activity, synaptic transmission, and transcriptomic profiles. Specifically, female mice displayed suppressed baseline neuronal excitation, enhanced inhibitory synaptic transmission and neuronal firing, and increased expression of genes associated with extracellular vesicles and the extracellular matrix. Our results suggest that a human CHD8 mutation leads to sexually dimorphic changes ranging from transcription to behavior in mice.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Ansiedade de Separação/genética , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Apego ao Objeto , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Vocalização Animal
15.
Horm Behav ; 105: 110-114, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114429

RESUMO

Rats exposed to early-life maternal separation (MS) exhibit later alterations in fear conditioning and impairments in fear extinction. As MS creates long-lasting anxiety in the mother, the present study assessed the influence of MS on fear conditioning and extinction in mother rats. It also examined whether estrous cycle effects on extinction, which are robust in nulliparous rats, but abolished in primiparous rats, re-emerge after MS. Following parturition, pups were removed from their mothers for 3 h daily from postpartum day 2-14 (MS), or remained housed with their mothers (standard reared condition, SR). Pups were weaned at postpartum day 24, and three months later, mothers received fear conditioning, extinction training, and test for extinction recall over three days. Extinction training took place during Proestrus (high estradiol and progesterone) or Metestrus (low estradiol and progesterone). Similar to past findings in non-stressed mothers, estrous cycle was not associated with conditioned fear expression (indexed by fear responses at the start of extinction training) or extinction recall in either MS or SR mothers. However, MS mothers exhibited weaker conditioned fear expression and impaired extinction recall, relative to SR mothers. Hippocampal fibroblast growth factor-2, a neurotrophin involved in stress regulation and fear expression, was elevated in MS relative to SR mothers. These results indicate that postnatal stress has long-lasting consequences for neural and behavioral systems involved in fear learning and inhibition without altering the involvement of ovarian hormones in these processes.


Assuntos
/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica , Medo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade de Separação/metabolismo , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Extinção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Medo/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Privação Materna , Mães/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Progesterona/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
16.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 315(5): F1320-F1328, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089034

RESUMO

Lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) is a common problem in children and constitutes up to 40% of pediatric urology clinic visits. Improved diagnosis and interventions have been leading to better outcomes in many patients, whereas some children are left untreated or do not respond to the treatment successfully. In addition, many of these patients are lost by the pediatric urologists during their teenage years, and the outcome in later life largely remains unidentified. Studies suggest childhood LUTD is associated with subsequent adult urinary tract symptoms. However, whether and how early life LUTD attributes to urinary symptoms in those patients later in life remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the effects of early life voiding perturbation on bladder function using a neonatal maternal separation (NMS) protocol in mice. The NMS group displayed a delayed development of voluntary voiding behavior, a significant reduction of functional bladder capacity, and bladder overactivity compared with control mice later in life. In vitro evaluation of detrusor smooth muscle and molecular study showed a decrease in muscarinic contribution alongside an increase in purinergic contribution in detrusor contractility in NMS mice compared with control group. These results suggest that early life bladder dysfunction interfered with the normal maturation of the voluntary micturition control and facilitated LUTD in a later stage, which is at least partly attributed to an alteration of muscarinic and purinergic signaling in the urinary bladder.


Assuntos
Fibras Colinérgicas/metabolismo , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/metabolismo , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X1/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária/inervação , Micção , Urodinâmica , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade de Separação/complicações , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/fisiopatologia , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/psicologia , Masculino , Privação Materna , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reflexo , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/fisiopatologia , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/psicologia
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 268: 108-113, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015108

RESUMO

Previous research has found an association between insecure attachment and increased somatization in adults. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. In the present study, we examined whether the association between attachment insecurity and somatization in psychiatric patients diagnosed with medically unexplained somatic symptoms (MUSS) is mediated by mentalization deficits. Attachment security of 58 outpatients diagnosed with MUSS was measured with the Experiences in Social Relationships Questionnaire (ECR). Difficulty with understanding own emotions was measured with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. In addition, others' mental state comprehension was measured with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Somatic symptom severity experienced by MUSS patients was related to attachment anxiety and alexithymia. These associations remained significant after controlling for sex, age, medication use, and depressive symptoms. Moreover, alexithymia mediated the association between anxious attachment and severity of somatic symptoms. Somatic symptom severity was also related to better RMET performance, although this association was not significant after controlling for sex, age, medication use, and depressive symptoms. Our findings may indicate that individuals with an anxious attachment style have difficulties in clarifying own emotions. This may in turn result in somatic experience of emotional distress and risk for development of MUSS.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Mentalização/fisiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Ansiedade de Separação/diagnóstico , Ansiedade de Separação/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
18.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 36(2): 167-172, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29970634

RESUMO

Background: Child presents a unique challenge to accept a dental treatment, and such a challenge gets modified by the presence or the absence of a parent in the operatory. Many dentists have reportedly and controversially used parental separation anxiety as a tool to control behavior of an uncooperative child and also to deliver quality dental treatment in young children. But is the parental separation beneficial for dentist to gain child cooperation? Aims and Objectives: The objective is to evaluate the influence of parental presence or absence in the operating room on child's behavior during dental procedure on children of 4 years and above. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 30 children of 4-7 years of age group, 16 (4-6 years) preschoolers, and 14 (6-7 years) early schoolers. Two consecutive restorative procedures were carried out. On a first visit, parents were present and on a second visit, separation of parents was done. Behavior rating was done by commonly used Frankel's Behavior Rating Scale. Results: Chi-square test was performed for the statistical analysis. There was no significant difference found in the child's behavior by the presence or absence of parents in the perception of dental treatment in the dental operatory. In contrast to that there was a significant increase in cooperative behavior of some children due to other factors influencing the behavior of the child with a Chi-square value = 35.296, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Parents can be excluded from the dental operatory to eliminate many behavior-related problems during the course of treatment.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/prevenção & controle , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais/psicologia , Pais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Br J Anaesth ; 121(2): 445-452, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy of dexmedetomidine, ketamine, and midazolam for sedative premedication administered by nebuliser 30 min before general anaesthesia in preschool children undergoing bone marrow biopsy and aspiration. METHODS: Ninety children aged 3-7 yr were randomly allocated into three equal groups to be premedicated with either nebulised ketamine 2 mg kg-1 (Group K), dexmedetomidine 2 µg kg-1 (Group D), or midazolam 0.2 mg kg-1 (Group M). The primary endpoint was a five-point sedation score on arrival in the operating room 30 min after end of study drug administration. Secondary outcomes included: parental separation anxiety scale; medication and mask acceptance scales; haemodynamic variables; recovery time; postoperative face, legs, activity, cry, and consolability scale; emergence agitation scale; and adverse effects. RESULTS: The median (range) sedation score on arrival in the operating room was 3.5 (1-4), 2.0 (2-3) and 2.0 (1-3) in Groups M, D, and K, respectively (P=0.000). Subjects in Group D showed higher medication (P<0.03) and mask acceptance scores (P<0.015) and more satisfactory parental separation anxiety scale (P<0.044). The median (range) recovery time was significantly shorter in Group D [5.5 (4-8) min] compared with Group K [10.0 (5-15) min, P=0.000] and M [8.0 (6-15) min, P=0.000]. The incidence of emergence agitation was lower in Group D (P<0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Preschool children premedicated with nebulised dexmedetomidine had more satisfactory sedation, shorter recovery time, and less postoperative agitation than those who received nebulised ketamine or midazolam. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02935959.


Assuntos
Exame de Medula Óssea/métodos , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Medicação Pré-Anestésica/métodos , Administração por Inalação , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Ansiedade de Separação/epidemiologia , Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Agitação Psicomotora/epidemiologia
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 268: 34-36, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986175

RESUMO

The present study examined the interrelations among negative core beliefs, attachment anxiety and low self-directedness, to test if the central constructs of depression vulnerabilities in cognitive, attachment and psychobiological personality theories are integrated into negative self-image. The subjects were 410 healthy Japanese medical students and staff. Negative core beliefs, attachment anxiety and self-directedness were evaluated by the Brief Core Schema Scales, Experiences in Close Relationships and Temperament and Character Inventory, respectively. There were strong interrelations among the three factors. The present study suggests that the central constructs of depression vulnerabilities in the three theories are integrated into negative self-image.


Assuntos
Ansiedade de Separação/psicologia , Cognição , Cultura , Depressão/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adulto , Ansiedade de Separação/diagnóstico , Ansiedade de Separação/epidemiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade/fisiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
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