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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18286, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521958

RESUMO

Health professionals may be a vulnerable group to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To investigate how health professionals who experienced a traumatic event are expressing PTSS and factors related to risk for higher PTSS symptomatology can inform how health professionals are facing their role in this crisis. This was an Internet cross-sectional survey. Participants were 49,767 Brazilian health professionals who have ever faced a traumatic event, which was about 25.9% of an initial sample of health professionals. PTSS symptoms were assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and latent profile analysis (LPA) explored subpopulations within participants based on their scores. Distinct profiles were compared for psychological distress (e.g., depression and anxiety) and quality of life. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between IES-R profiles and COVID-19 related experiences, thoughts, and perceptions. A two-profile model was the most appropriate for the IES-R data pointing out a group with a high level of PTSS (named high-PTSS; n = 10,401, 20.9%) and another expressing a low level of symptoms (named low-PTSS; n = 39,366, 79.1%). The high-PTSS profile demonstrated worse psychological scores (global psychological distress, somatization, depression, and anxiety) and worse quality of life (physical, psychological, social, and environmental) with moderate magnitudes. Small but significant predictors of the high-PTSS profile included sociodemographic characteristics and COVID-19 related experiences, thoughts, and perceptions. Most individuals who experienced a traumatic event were not in the high-PTSS profile. For those who were, however, psychological and quality of life measures were much worse. During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, several characteristics emerged as risks to report trauma.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/patologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/patologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
2.
Life Sci ; 284: 119904, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453945

RESUMO

AIM: Alcohol abuse is a significant causative factor of death worldwide. The Notch1 signaling pathway is involved in alcohol tolerance, withdrawal and dependence. Agomelatine is a known antidepressant acting as a melatonin receptor (MT1/2) agonist and a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor-2C antagonist. However, its effects on alcohol cravings and alcohol withdrawal symptoms have not been investigated. In this study, we assessed the possibility of using agomelatine for the treatment of these symptoms in a rat model of alcoholism and the possible role of Notch1 signaling. MAIN METHODS: We induced alcoholism in rats using a free-choice drinking model for 60 days. From day 61, free-choice was continued until day 82 for the craving model, whereas only water was offered in the withdrawal model. Meanwhile, the treated groups for both models received agomelatine (50 mg/kg/day) orally from day 61 to 82, followed by behavioral, histopathological and biochemical assessment. KEY FINDINGS: Agomelatine treatment caused significant decrease in alcohol consumption with a positive effect on anxiety-like behavior in the open field, memory in the Morris water maze and immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, agomelatine induced the expression of Notch1 pathway markers, including Notch1, NICD, CREB, CCNE-2, Hes-1, both total and phosphorylated ERK1/2, MMP9, Per2and RGS-2 in the hippocampal formation. By contrast, NMDAR expression was reduced. Furthermore, agomelatine normalized the serum levels of BDNF, cortisol, dopamine and glutamate which were disrupted by alcohol consumption. SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these findings, agomelatine reversed alcohol cravings and withdrawal symptoms associated with alcohol dependence by modulating the Notch1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/uso terapêutico , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Fissura , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/metabolismo , Acetamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiedade/patologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Teste do Labirinto Aquático de Morris , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Neurotransmissores/sangue , Teste de Campo Aberto , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256692, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437619

RESUMO

Parent-child conversations are important for children's cognitive development, children's ability to cope with stressful events, and can shape children's beliefs about the causes of illness. In the context of a global pandemic, families have faced a multitude of challenges, including changes to their routines, that they need to convey to their children. Thus, parent-child conversations about the coronavirus pandemic might convey information about the causes of illness, but also about how and why it is necessary for children to modify their behaviors to comply with new social norms and medical guidance. The main goal of this study was to examine the questions children ask about the COVID-19 pandemic and how parents answer them. This survey included responses from a national sample of 349 predominantly white parents of children between the ages of 3 and 12 recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk in United States. Parents reported that although children asked about COVID-19 and its causes (17.3%), children asked primarily about lifestyle changes that occurred as a result of the pandemic (24.0%) and safety (18.4%). Parents reported answering these questions by emphasizing that the purpose of different preventative measures was to protect the child (11.8%) or the family (42.7%) and providing reassurance (13.3%). Many parents discussed how it was their social responsibility to slow the spread of the virus (38.4%). Parents of younger children tended to shield them from information about COVID-19 (p = .038), while parents with more knowledge were more likely to provide explanations (p < .001). Our analysis shows that families not only discuss information about the virus but also information about changes to their lifestyle, preventative measures, and social norms.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Relações Pais-Filho , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0253059, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343187

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic and the lockdown measures have taken a toll on every level of the society, worldwide. This study examines their psychological impact on university students in Asia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between April and May 2020 in Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, India and Indonesia. The Zung's self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and questions on adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies were used in this study. A total of 3,679 students from the seven countries participated in this study. Overall, 21.9% and 13.7% of the students in this study experienced mild to moderate and severe to extreme levels of anxiety. More than 20% of the students from China and Bangladesh reported severe to extreme level of anxiety compared to below 10% of the students from Indonesia, Malaysia and India. Among the female students, 15.9% experienced severe to extreme level of anxiety compared to 10.6% among the males. Females from Bangladesh, China, Malaysia, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia experienced significantly higher levels of anxiety compared to their male counterparts. Acceptance was the most used and Seeking Social Support was the least used coping strategies among the students. There were significant differences in the usage of the four strategies by countries. Stressors are predominantly financial constraints, remote online learning, and uncertainty related to their academic performance, and future career prospects.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/patologia , Bangladesh , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Indonésia , Malásia , Masculino , Paquistão , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Arábia Saudita , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361071

RESUMO

3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) and the most widespread and life-threatening synthetic cathinone of the "bath salts". Preclinical research has proven the cocaine-like psychostimulant effects of MDPV and its potential for abuse. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid that has emerged as a new potential treatment for drug addiction. Here, we tested the effects of CBD (20 mg/kg) on MDPV (2 mg/kg)-induced conditioned place preference and MDPV (0.05 and 0.075 mg/kg/infusion) self-administration paradigms. In addition, we assessed the effects of the co-administration of CBD and MDPV (3 and 4 mg/kg) on anxiety-like behaviour using the elevated plus maze (EPM). CBD mitigated the MDPV-induced conditioned place preference. On the contrary, CBD administration throughout the MDPV (0.075 mg/kg/infusion) self-administration increased drug-seeking and taking behaviours, but only in the high-responders group of mice. Furthermore, CBD exerted anxiolytic-like effects, exclusively in MDPV-treated mice. Taken together, our results indicate that CBD modulation of MDPV-induced motivational responses in mice varies depending on the requirements of the learning task, resulting in a complex response. Therefore, further research attempting to decipher the behavioural and molecular interactions between CBD and MDPV is needed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzodioxóis/toxicidade , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Comportamento de Procura de Droga/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirrolidinas/toxicidade , Inibidores da Captação Adrenérgica/toxicidade , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Ansiedade/patologia , Condicionamento Clássico/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206086

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is an important infectious disease and a public health problem. The organs most frequently affected by TB are the lungs; despite this, it has been reported that TB patients suffer from depression and anxiety, which have been attributed to social factors. In previous experimental work, we observed that the extensive pulmonary inflammation characteristic of TB with high cytokine production induces neuroinflammation, neuronal death and behavioral abnormalities in the absence of brain infection. The objective of the present work was to reduce this neuroinflammation and avoid the psycho-affective disorders showed during pulmonary TB. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the first-line treatment for neuroinflammation; however, their systemic administration generates various side effects, mostly aggravating pulmonary TB due to immunosuppression of cellular immunity. Intranasal administration is a route that allows drugs to be released directly in the brain through the olfactory nerve, reducing their doses and side effects. In the present work, dexamethasone's (DEX) intranasal administration was evaluated in TB BALB /c mice comparing three different doses (0.05, 0.25 and 2.5 mg/kg BW) on lung disease evolution, neuroinflammation and behavioral alterations. Low doses of dexamethasone significantly decreased neuroinflammation, improving behavioral status without aggravating lung disease.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/patologia
7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(11): 14729-14744, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078751

RESUMO

The potential harmful effects of polypharmacy (concurrent use of 5 or more drugs) are difficult to investigate in an experimental design in humans. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge on sex-specific differences on the outcomes of multiple-drug use. The present study aims to investigate the effects of an eight-week exposure to a regimen of five different medications (metoprolol, paracetamol, aspirin, simvastatin and citalopram) in young adult female mice. Polypharmacy-treated animals showed significant impairment in object recognition and fear associated contextual memory, together with a significant reduction of certain hippocampal proteins involved in pathways necessary for the consolidation of these types of memories, compared to animals with standard diet. The impairments in explorative behavior and spatial memory that we reported previously in young adult male mice administered the same polypharmacy regimen were not observed in females in the current study. Therefore, the same combination of medications induced different negative outcomes in young adult male and female mice, causing a significant deficit in non-spatial memory in female animals. Overall, this study strongly supports the importance of considering sex-specific differences in designing safer and targeted multiple-drug therapies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Polimedicação , Animais , Ansiedade/patologia , Comportamento Animal , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atividade Motora , Memória Espacial , Fatores de Tempo
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253903, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During infectious disease outbreaks, healthcare workers are at high risk of infection, infecting others, and psychological distress. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of stress and anxiety in physicians during the COVID-19 outbreak in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region and assess their associated factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, from March 28 to April 15, 2020. An online self-administered survey questionnaire was used to collect data from physicians working in specialized COVID-19 centers and other healthcare facilities. The level of stress was measured based on the 10-items Perceived Stress Scale. The level of anxiety was measured based on the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale. RESULTS: A total of 370 participants responded to the perceived stress component of the survey, of whom 57 (15.4%) had low perceived stress, 249 (67.3%) had moderate stress, and 64 (17.3%) had high stress. Being female was significantly associated with having moderate/high stress (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.40 (95% CI 1.31-4.39)). A total of 201 participants responded to the generalized anxiety disorder component of the survey, of whom 19 (9.5%) had no anxiety, 57 (28.4%) had mild anxiety, 79 (39.3%) had moderate anxiety, and 46 (22.9%) had severe anxiety. Working in COVID-19 centers (AOR = 2.23 (95% CI 1.02-4.86)) and being general practitioners (AOR = 4.16 (95% CI 1.14-15.14)) were significantly associated with having moderate/severe anxiety. CONCLUSION: A considerable proportion of physicians experience stress and anxiety during the COVID-19 outbreak in Iraqi Kurdistan region. Generalists and those in special COVID-19 units report the greatest anxiety. There a need to establish mechanisms to reduce the risks of stress and anxiety among physicians. Mental health coping interventions through counseling should be based on COVID-19 protocol guidelines. Interventions should also emphasize physicians' ability to work safely and efficiently in providing care to the patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Médicos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedade/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Humanos , Internet , Iraque/epidemiologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063646

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are extracted from plants and contain active components with therapeutic effects. Evidence shows that various types of EOs have a wide range of health benefits. In our previous studies, the potential of lavender EO for prevention and even treatment of depression and anxiety symptoms was demonstrated. The favourable outcomes may be due to multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of monoamine level, the induction of neurotrophic factor expression, the regulation of the endocrine system and the promotion of neurogenesis. The molecules of EOs may reach the brain and exert an effect through two distinctive pathways, namely, the olfactory system and the respiratory system. After inhalation, the molecules of the EOs would either act directly on the olfactory mucosa or pass into the respiratory tract. These two delivery pathways suggest different underlying mechanisms of action. Different sets of responses would be triggered, such as increased neurogenesis, regulation of hormonal levels, activation of different brain regions, and alteration in blood biochemistry, which would ultimately affect both mood and emotion. In this review, we will discuss the clinical effects of EOs on mood regulation and emotional disturbances as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action. Emphasis will be put on the interaction between the respiratory and central nervous system and the involved potential mechanisms. Further evidence is needed to support the use of EOs in the clinical treatment of mood disturbances. Exploration of the underlying mechanisms may provide insight into the future therapeutic use of EO components treatment of psychiatric and physical symptoms.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Plantas/química , Ansiedade/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor/patologia , Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Respiratório/patologia
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 561: 45-51, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015758

RESUMO

Acute stress relates to high prevalence of anxiety, depression or even sudden death. Although dopaminergic system in amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuit is hyper-responsive to stress-induced anxiety, the mechanisms that control anxiety still remains unanswered. Here, the acute restraint stress model(ARS) was established to develop anxiety-like behavior. The D2-dopamine receptor (D2R) availability in amygdala and mPFC was assessed using [18F]-fallypride positron emission tomography(PET) and immunohistochemical assay. We revealed that ARS paradigm was successfully established, as evidenced by elevated plus-maze test(EPM) and increased corticosterone release. Moreover, PET imaging displayed elevated D2R availability in the amygdala and mPFC in ARS as compared to that in the naives. PET imaging combined with immunohistochemical assay confirmed that amygdaloid D2R was significantly implicated in stress-induced anxiety. Our findings delivered valuable insights into neuromechanism of amygdaloid D2R underlying stress-induced anxiety and might have important implications for developing therapeutics for anxiety by targeting amygdaloid D2R.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Animais , Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Ansiedade/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Neuroimagem/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Restrição Física/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico por imagem , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Regulação para Cima
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 140: 111734, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022606

RESUMO

The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing worldwide and is highly associated with the incidence of depression. Pioglitazone, a Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, is widely used for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. However, whether pioglitazone alleviates metabolic disorder-related depression and astrocytic deficits remains unclear. Here we showed that 12 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding (from 8- to 20-week-old) induced not only obesity and insulin resistance, but also depression-like behaviors in mice. Astrocytic activation, a sign closely associated with depression, was also evident in the ventral hippocampus. Four weeks of pioglitazone (10 or 20 mg/kg, daily, from 20- to 24-week-old) treatment alleviated the HFD-induced glucose-metabolic dysfunctions, upregulation of ventral hippocampal GFAP, reduction of the total process lengths and the number of branch points of the ventral hippocampal CA1 GFAP-immunoreactive astrocytes and depressive phenotypes but had no effect on anxiety-like behaviors or hippocampus-related learning and memory in mice. These findings suggest that pioglitazone could be a potential therapeutic agent for metabolic disorders and associated depression.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ansiedade/patologia , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/patologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão/patologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/patologia , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo
12.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251525, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003858

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: SARS-Cov-2 virus pandemic causes serious emotional consequences. It has occurred widespread medical courses suspension, and graduations were anticipated. Field hospitals, set up to treat patients with mild to moderate COVID-19, were the main workplaces of newly graduated doctors. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of SARS-Cov-2/COVID-19 pandemic on mental health of medical interns and newly graduated doctors. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study performed using a digital platform. Links to forms were sent in two moments: moment 1 (M1), at the beginning of the pandemic, in the first half of April/2020 and moment 2 (M2), after six months of pandemic, in the second half of September/2020. All students from the medical internship and all doctors graduated since 2018 from the three medical schools in Sergipe-NE-Brazil were invited. RESULTS: 335 forms were answered in April and 148 in September. In M1 88.9% considered themselves exposed to excess of information about COVID-19, which was associated with anxiety symptoms (p = 0.04). Long family physical distance was also associated with these symptoms, as increased appetite (p = 0.01), feeling shortness of breath (p = 0.003) and sweating (p = 0.007). Fear of acquire COVID-19 was reported as intense by almost half of participants, and of transmitting by 85.7% in M1. In M2 41.2% reported the death of friends or relatives. Psychiatric illness was described by 38.5% and psychotropic drugs use by 30.1% in M1, especially those who lived alone (p = 0.03) and the single ones (p = 0.01). Alcohol intake was reported by 54.3%, and among doctors graduated in 2020 it increased from 50% in M1 to 85% in M2 (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The pandemic had a negative impact on the mental health of medical students and newly graduated doctors. Exposure to excessive COVID-19 information and family physical distance were associated to anxiety symptoms. Among doctors graduated in 2020, alcohol intake increased during pandemic evolution.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/patologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Médicos/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Pandemias , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250459, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891645

RESUMO

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, with cortisol as its final metabolite, has been proposed as a potential underlying biological mechanism for associations between depression and stress symptoms during pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes. In this study, we explored associations between salivary cortisol as a potential biomarker for stress and depressive symptoms and several self-completed psychological measurement scales among pregnant women. In total, 652 pregnant women participating in the PRegnancy and Infant DEvelopment (PRIDE) Study completed the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS), Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-Revised (PRAQ-R), and Tilburg Pregnancy Distress Scale (TPDS) and collected a single awakening salivary cortisol sample around gestational week 17. Odds ratios, Spearman's correlation coefficients (ρs) and Cohen's Kappa coefficients (κ) were calculated to examine the associations between the EDS, PHQ-2, PRAQ-R, TPDS, and maternal cortisol levels. The overall correlation coefficient between the score on the EDS and the salivary cortisol level was 0.01 (p = 0.89) with κ = -0.01 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.08-0.06). We did not observe agreement between the PHQ-2 and cortisol levels either (κ = 0.06 (95% CI -0.02-0.14)). The results for the PRAQ-R and TPDS were similar with overall correlations with maternal cortisol levels of ρs = 0.01 (p = 0.81) and ρs = 0.06 (p = 0.35) and agreements of κ = 0.02 (95% CI -0.06-0.09) and κ = -0.02 (95% CI -0.11-0.07), respectively. Maternal awakening salivary cortisol levels and measures of maternal psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and pregnancy-related anxiety, assessed by self-completed questionnaires, did not seem to be related in mid-pregnancy.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/metabolismo , Depressão/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Adulto , Ansiedade/patologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Depressão/patologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/patologia , Lactente , Mães , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/patologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/metabolismo , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Saliva/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nomophobia, an abbreviation of "No mobile phone phobia", is characterized by the illogical fear of being detached from the mobile phone or unable to use it. Research have provided evidence of an association between increased cellular phone use and multiple health issues, such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, and others. To our knowledge, there are no Lebanese studies about nomophobia, despite the high incorporation rate of mobile phones in Lebanon and the likelihood of suffering from anxiety, depression, and other conditions due to nomophobic attitudes. The study objectives were to validate and confirm psychometric properties of the Nomophobia Questionnaire (NMP-Q) and examine the associations between particular psychological conditions (anxiety, depression, stress, insomnia and impulsivity) and nomophobia among a representative sample of Lebanese people. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out between January and July 2019. It enrolled 2260 residents of the community randomly selected from Lebanon's Mohafazat. Two villages per sub-district and households from each village were chosen using a random sampling technique. A questionnaire was distributed randomly to the households. SPSS version 25 was used to perform the statistical analysis. A multinomial regression was computed taking the nomophobia categories as the dependent variable (and taking the absence of nomophobia as the reference category) and all variables that showed a significant association in the bivariate analysis as independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 2260 (80.71%) out of 2800 questionnaires distributed was collected back. The mean age of the participants was 27.98 ± 9.66 years (58.8% females). Moreover, the mean nomophobia score was 71.56 ± 26.92 (median = 71; minimum = 14; maximum = 140). The results showed that 46 (2.0%) had no nomophobia, 769 (34.1%) mild nomophobia [95% CI 0.322-0.361], 1089 (48.3%) moderate nomophobia [95% CI 0.463-0.504] and 349 (15.5%) severe nomophobia [95% CI 0.140-0.170]. Items of the nomophobia scale converged over a solution of three factors that had an Eigenvalue over 1 (Factor 1 = emotions associated to losing connectedness, Factor 2 = not being able to communicate, Factor 3 = not being able to access information; total variance explained = 66.65%, and Cronbach's alpha = 0.948). The results of a multinomial regression, taking the nomophobia score as the dependent variable, showed that higher age was significantly associated with lower odds of having mild (aOR = 0.97), moderate (aOR = 0.93) and severe (aOR = 0.97) nomophobia respectively. Higher anxiety (aOR = 1.09) and higher insomnia (aOR = 1.04) were significantly associated with higher odds of having severe nomophobia. CONCLUSION: The results suggest a positive correlation between nomophobia and psychological conditions. There is a need for longitudinal and prospective studies that furnish information with regards of the impact of time on the variables measured, in order to better understand the nature, causes, and attributes of nomophobia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/patologia , Uso do Telefone Celular , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Transtornos Fóbicos/patologia , Psicometria , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803557

RESUMO

Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats serve as a unique model of heightened alcohol preference and anxiety disorders. Their innate enhanced stress and poor stress-coping strategies are driven by a genetic polymorphism of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) in brain areas involved in glucocorticoid signaling. The activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) regulates the stress response, making GRs a candidate target to treat stress and anxiety. Here, we examined whether mifepristone, a GR antagonist known to reduce alcohol drinking in dependent rats, decreases innate symptoms of anxiety in msPs. Male and female msPs were compared to non-selected Wistar counterparts across three separate behavioral tests. We assessed anxiety-like behavior via the novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) assay. Since sleep disturbances and hyperarousal are common features of stress-related disorders, we measured sleeping patterns using the comprehensive lab monitoring system (CLAMS) and stress sensitivity using acoustic startle measures. Rats received an acute administration of vehicle or mifepristone (60 mg/kg) 90 min prior to testing on NIH, acoustic startle response, and CLAMS. Our results revealed that both male and female msPs display greater anxiety-like behaviors as well as enhanced acoustic startle responses compared to Wistar counterparts. Male msPs also displayed reduced sleeping bout duration versus Wistars, and female msPs displayed greater acoustic startle responses versus male msPs. Importantly, the enhanced anxiety-like behavior and startle responses were not reduced by mifepristone. Together, these findings suggest that increased expression of stress-related behaviors in msPs are not solely mediated by acute activation of GRs.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/patologia , Comportamento Animal , Mifepristona/farmacologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Nível de Alerta/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia
16.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250554, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901260

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has become a clinical threat to healthy people as well as immunocompromised patients and those with pre-existing chronic diseases around the world. This study, which used a cross-sectional correlational design, aimed to assess the levels of fear and health anxiety and to investigate their predictors during the current outbreak of COVID-19 in immunocompromised and chronic disease patients in Saudi Arabia. Sociodemographic and clinical data, fear of COVID-19, and health anxiety measurements were collected by online surveys from June 15 to July 15, 2020. Univariate and multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify predictors. A total of 1,030 patients in 13 provinces in Saudi Arabia completed the questionnaire. A significant number of patients with chronic diseases experienced considerable levels of fear and anxiety during the COVID-19 outbreak. It was found that 21.44% of participants met the criteria for anxiety cases, and 19.4% were considered borderline anxiety cases. In regression analysis, significant predictors of fear and health anxiety were female gender, lower education, middle-aged, divorced or widowed, receiving immunosuppressants, type of chronic disease (Crohn's disease, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases), and media use as a source of knowledge about COVID-19. Immunocompromised and chronic disease patients are vulnerable to fear and anxiety during epidemic infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Optimizing this population's compliance with appropriate infection prevention and control strategies is crucial during the infectious outbreaks to ensure their safety, to decrease the risk of infection and serious complications, and reduce their fear and health anxiety. Effective positive psychological interventions and support strategies also need to be immediately implemented to increase psychological resilience and improve the mental health of these patients. Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, chronic disease patients in Saudi Arabia need special attention from health authorities, policymakers, and healthcare professionals to manage maladaptive forms of health anxiety and fear.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/patologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Medo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Análise de Regressão , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916049

RESUMO

Patients with cancer deal with problems related to physical, psychological, social, and emotional functions. The aim was to investigate malnutrition defined by the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria in relation to health-related quality of life, anxiety, and depression in patients with head and neck cancer. This was a prospective observational research study with 273 patients followed at the start of treatment, seven weeks, and one year. Data collection included nutritional status and support, and the questionnaires: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Head and neck cancer module (EORTC QLQ-H&N35) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Malnutrition was defined using the GLIM criteria. The study showed that patients with malnutrition had significantly greater deterioration in their health-related quality of life at seven weeks. On a group level, health-related quality of life was most severe at this time point and some scores still implied problems at one year. Significantly, more patients reported anxiety at the start of treatment whereas significantly more patients reported depression at seven weeks. Over the trajectory of care, the need for support often varies. Psychosocial support is imperative and at the end of treatment extra focus should be put on nutritional interventions and managing treatment-related symptoms to improve nutritional status and health-related quality of life. In the long-term, head and neck cancer survivors need help to find strategies to cope with the remaining sequel.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/patologia , Depressão/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Apoio Social
18.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673489

RESUMO

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/ threonine kinase, is implicated in synaptic plasticity by controlling protein synthesis. Research suggests that ethanol exposure during pregnancy alters the mTOR signaling pathway in the fetal hippocampus. Thus, we investigated the influence of pre-treatment with rapamycin, an mTORC1 inhibitor, on the development of recognition memory deficits in adult rats that were neonatally exposed to ethanol. In the study, male and female rat pups received ethanol (5 g/kg/day) by intragastric intubation at postanatal day (PND 4-9), an equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy. Rapamycin (3 and 10 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally before every ethanol administration. Short- and long-term recognition memory was assessed in the novel object recognition (NOR) task in adult (PND 59/60) rats. Locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior were also evaluated to exclude the influence of such behavior on the outcome of the memory task. Moreover, the effects of rapamycin pre-treatment during neonatal ethanol exposure on the content of amino-acids and amines essential for the proper development of cognitive function in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus was evaluated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in male adult (PND 60) rats. Our results show the deleterious effect of ethanol given to neonatal rats on long-term recognition memory in adults. The effect was more pronounced in male rather than female rats. Rapamycin reversed this ethanol-induced memory impairment and normalized the levels of amino acids and amines in the DG. This suggests the involvement of mTORC1 in the deleterious effect of ethanol on the developing brain.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Aminas/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Giro Denteado/metabolismo , Etanol/toxicidade , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade/patologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Giro Denteado/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Labirinto em Cruz Elevado , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Ratos Wistar
19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248314, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667284

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies on the association between adiponectin and leptin and anxiety and depression among postmenopausal women are limited. Therefore, the present study specifically evaluates the mutual relationships between adiponectin and leptin and anxiety and depression in postmenopausal women. PARTICIPANTS AND DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 190 women aged 40-65 years were enrolled. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and anxiety symptoms were evaluated using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). Fasting specimens were collected to measure sex hormone, glucose, insulin, and adipokine levels. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between depression and anxiety and adipocyte-derived hormones. SETTINGS: The study was performed in a hospital medical center. RESULTS: Among 190 enrolled postmenopausal women, Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between CES-D and HAM-A (r = 0.715, P < 0.0001), between CES-D and adiponectin (p = 0.009) and leptin (p = 0.015), and between HAM-A and adiponectin (p = 0.01) and leptin (p = 0.001). The subjects with CES-D ≥ 16 and with HAM-A ≥ 18 had higher adiponectin levels than those with CES-D < 16 and HAM-A < 18, respectively. After adjusting for age, body mass index, exercise, alanine amino transferase and parameters of lipid profiles, Log adiponectin levels were found to be significantly associated with both CES-D and HAM-A, and Log leptin levels were only significantly associated with HAM-A. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that adiponectin and leptin levels are significantly associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. These results suggest that higher adiponectin and lower leptin levels may serve as potential markers related to anxiety and mood in postmenopausal women. More future research that is designed to deal with the important confounders (e.g., population heterogeneity) is needed to investigate comprehensively on these associations.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/metabolismo , Depressão/metabolismo , Insulina/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos/patologia , Adipocinas/genética , Adiponectina/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/patologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Leptina/genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668516

RESUMO

While microglia have been established as critical mediators of synaptic plasticity, the molecular signals underlying this process are still being uncovered. Increasing evidence suggests that microglia utilize these signals in a temporally and regionally heterogeneous manner. Subsequently, it is necessary to understand the conditions under which different molecular signals are employed by microglia to mediate the physiological process of synaptic remodeling in development and adulthood. While the microglial purinergic receptor P2Y12 is required for ocular dominance plasticity, an adolescent form of experience-dependent plasticity, it remains unknown whether P2Y12 functions in other forms of plasticity at different developmental time points or in different brain regions. Using a combination of ex vivo characterization and behavioral testing, we examined how the loss of P2Y12 affects developmental processes and behavioral performance in adulthood in mice. We found P2Y12 was not required for an early form of plasticity in the developing visual thalamus and did not affect microglial migration into barrels in the developing somatosensory cortex. In adult mice, however, the loss of P2Y12 resulted in alterations in recognition and social memory, as well as anxiety-like behaviors, suggesting that while P2Y12 is not a universal regulator of synaptic plasticity, the loss of P2Y12 is sufficient to cause functional defects.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Plasticidade Neuronal , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y12/deficiência , Sinapses/metabolismo , Animais , Ansiedade/genética , Ansiedade/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Memória , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y12/metabolismo , Sinapses/genética , Sinapses/patologia
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