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1.
Phytomedicine ; 80: 153394, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which can be induced by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in the tumor microenvironment, is a critical immune checkpoint in cancer immunotherapy. Natural products which reduce IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 might be exert immunotherapy effect. Licochalcone A (LCA), a natural compound derived from the root of Glycyrrhiza inflata Batalin. (Fabaceae), was found to interfere IFN-γ-induced PD-L1. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to further clarify the effect and the mechanism of LCA on inhibiting IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 in lung cancer cells. METHODS: The expression levels of PD-L1 were evaluated by flow cytometry, western blot and qRT-PCR. Click-iT protein synthesis assay and luciferase assay were used to identify the effect of LCA on protein synthesis. Jurkat T cell proliferation and apoptosis in the co-culture system were detected by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry was also applied to evaluate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. RESULTS: LCA downregulated IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 protein expression and membrane localization in human lung cancer cells, regardless of inhibiting PD-L1 mRNA level or promoting its protein degradation. LCA decreased apoptosis and proliferative inhibition of Jurkat T cells caused by IFN-γ-induced PD-L1-expressing in A549 cells in the co-culture system. Strikingly, LCA was verified as a protein synthesis inhibitor, which reduced both cap-dependent and -independent translation. LCA inhibited PD-L1 translation, likely due to inhibition of 4EBP1 phosphorylation (Ser 65) and activation of PERK-eIF2α pathway. Furthermore, LCA induced ROS generation in a time-dependent manner in lung cancer cells. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) not only revered ROS generation triggered by LCA but also restored IFN-γ-induced expression of PD-L1. Both the inhibition of 4EBP1 phosphorylation (Ser 65) and activation of PERK-eIF2α axis triggered by LCA was restored by co-treatment with NAC. CONCLUSION: LCA abrogated IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression via ROS generation to abolish the protein translation, indicating that LCA has the potential to be applied in cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Chalconas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Células Jurkat , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Gene ; 764: 145105, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882333

RESUMO

Sarcoma (SARC) represents a group of highly histological and molecular heterogeneous rare malignant tumors with poor prognosis. There are few proposed classifiers for predicting patient's outcome. The Cancer Proteome Atlas (TPCA) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases provide multi-omics datasets that enable a comprehensive investigation for this disease. The proteomic expression profile of SARC patients along with the clinical information was downloaded. 55 proteins were found to be associated with overall survival (OS) of patients using univariate Cox regression analysis. We developed a prognostic risk signature that comprises seven proteins (AMPKALPHA, CHK1, S6, ARID1A, RBM15, ACETYLATUBULINLYS40, and MSH6) with robust predictive performance using multivariate Cox stepwise regression analysis. Additionally, the signature could be an independent prognostic predictor after adjusting for clinicopathological parameters. Patients in high-risk group also have worse progression free intervals (PFI) than that of patients in low-risk group, but not for disease free intervals (DFI). The signature was validated using transcriptomic profile of SARC patients from TCGA. Potential mechanisms between high- and low-risk groups were identified using differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis. These DEGs were primarily enriched in RAS and MPAK signaling pathways. The signature protein molecules are candidate biomarkers for SARC, and the analysis of computational biology in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and immune checkpoint molecules revealed distinctly immune landscapes of high- and low-risk patients. Together, we constructed a prognostic signature for predicting outcomes for SARC integrating proteomic and transcriptomic profiles, this might have value in guiding clinical practice.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteômica , Curva ROC , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma/genética , Sarcoma/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013257, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis have changed the first-line treatment of people with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Single-agent pembrolizumab (a PD-1 inhibitor) is currently the standard of care as monotherapy in patients with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50%, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy when PD-L1 expression is less than 50%. Atezolizumab (PD-L1 inhibitor) has also been approved in combination with chemotherapy and bevacizumab (an anti-angiogenic antibody) in first-line NSCLC regardless of PD-L1 expression. The combination of first-line PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors with anti-CTLA-4 antibodies has also been shown to improve survival compared to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC, particularly in people with high tumour mutational burden (TMB). The association of ipilimumab (an anti CTLA4) and nivolumab (PD-1 inhibitor) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in all patients with PD-L1 expression ≥1%. Although these antibodies are currently used in clinical practice, some questions remain unanswered, such as the best-treatment strategy, the role of different biomarkers for treatment selection and the effectiveness of immunotherapy according to specific clinical characteristics. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective: to determine the effectiveness and safety of first-line immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), as monotherapy or in combination, compared to platinum-based chemotherapy, with or without bevacizumab for people with advanced NSCLC, according to the level of PD-L1 expression. SECONDARY OBJECTIVE: to maintain the currency of evidence using a living systematic review approach. SEARCH METHODS: We performed an electronic search of the main databases (Cochrane Lung Cancer Group Trial Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase) from inception until 21 October 2020 and conferences meetings from 2015 onwards. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the efficacy or safety of first-line ICI treatment for adults with advanced NSCLC who had not previously received any anticancer treatment. We included trials comparing single- or double-ICI treatment to standard first-line therapy (platinum-based chemotherapy +/- bevacizumab). All data come from 'international multicentre studies involving adults, age 18 or over, with histologically-confirmed stage IV NSCLC who had not received any previous systemic anti-cancer treatment for advanced disease. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors independently assessed the search results and a fourth review author resolved any disagreements. Primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS); secondary outcomes were overall objective response rate (ORR) by RECIST v 1.1, grade 3 to 5 treatment-related adverse events (AEs) (CTCAE v 5.0) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We performed meta-analyses where appropriate using the random-effects model for hazard ratios (HRs) or risk ratios (RRs), with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), and used the I² statistic to investigate heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: Main results We identified 15 trials for inclusion, seven completed and eight ongoing trials. We obtained data for 5893 participants from seven trials comparing first-line single- (six trials) or double- (two trials) agent ICI with platinum-based chemotherapy, one trial comparing both first-line single- and double-agent ICsI with platinum-based chemotherapy. All trials were at low risk of selection and detection bias, some were classified at high risk of performance, attrition or other source of bias. The overall certainty of evidence according to GRADE ranged from moderate-to-low because of risk of bias, inconsistency, or imprecision. The majority of the included trials reported their outcomes by PD-L1 expressions, with PD-L1 ≥ 50 being considered the most clinically useful cut-off level for decision makers. Also, iIn order to avoid overlaps between various PDL-1 expressions we prioritised the review outcomes according to PD-L1 ≥ 50. Single-agent ICI In the PD-L1 expression ≥ 50% group single-agent ICI probably improved OS compared to platinum-based chemotherapy (hazard ratio (HR) 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 0.76, 6 RCTs, 2111 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). In this group, single-agent ICI also may improve PFS (HR: 0.68, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.88, 5 RCTs, 1886 participants, low-certainty evidence) and ORR (risk ratio (RR):1.40, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.75, 4 RCTs, 1672 participants, low-certainty evidence). HRQoL data were available for only one study including only people with PD-L1 expression ≥ 50%, which suggested that single-agent ICI may improve HRQoL at 15 weeks compared to platinum-based chemotherapy (RR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.10, 1 RCT, 297 participants, low-certainty evidence). In the included studies, treatment-related AEs were not reported according to PD-L1 expression levels. Grade 3-4 AEs may be less frequent with single-agent ICI compared to platinum-based chemotherapy (RR: 0.41, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.50, I² = 62%, 5 RCTs, 3346 participants, low-certainty evidence). More information about efficacy of single-agent ICI compared to platinum-based chemotherapy according to the level of PD-L1 expression and to TMB status or specific clinical characteristics is available in the full text. Double-agent ICI Double-ICI treatment probably prolonged OS compared to platinum-based chemotherapy in people with PD-L1 expression ≥50% (HR: 0.72, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.89 2 RCTs, 612 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). Trials did not report data on HRQoL, PFS and ORR according to PD-L1 groups. Treatment related AEs were not reported according to PD-L1 expression levels. The frequency of grade 3-4 AEs may not differ between double-ICI treatment and platinum-based chemotherapy (RR: 0.78, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.09, I² = 81%, 2 RCTs, 1869 participants, low-certainty evidence). More information about efficacy of double-agent ICI according to the level of PD-L1 expression and to TMB status is available in the full text. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Authors' conclusions The evidence in this review suggests that single-agent ICI in people with NSCLC and PD-L1 ≥50% probably leads to a higher overall survival rate and may lead to a higher progression-free survival and overall response rate when compared to platinum-based chemotherapy and may also lead to a lower rate of adverse events and higher HRQoL. Combined ICI in people with NSCLC and PD-L1 ≥50% also probably leads to a higher overall survival rate when compared to platinum-based chemotherapy, but its effect on progression-free survival, overall response rate and HRQoL is unknown due to a lack of data. The rate of adverse events may not differ between groups.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Viés , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Platina/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Platina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 17): 557, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immune checkpoint receptor programmed cell death protein I (PD-1) has been identified as a key target in immunotherapy. PD-1 reduces the risk of autoimmunity by inducing apoptosis in antigen-specific T cells upon interaction with programmed cell death protein ligand I (PD-L1). Various cancer types overexpress PD-L1 to evade the immune system by inducing apoptosis in tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. The clinically used blocking antibody nivolumab binds to PD-1 and inhibits the immunosuppressive interaction with PD-L1. Even though PD-1 is already used as a drug target, the exact mechanism of the receptor is still a matter of debate. For instance, it is hypothesized that the signal transduction is based on an active conformation of PD-1. RESULTS: Here we present the results of the first molecular dynamics simulations of PD-1 with a complete extracellular domain with a focus on the role of the BC-loop of PD-1 upon binding PD-L1 or nivolumab. We could demonstrate that the BC-loop can form three conformations. Nivolumab binds to the BC-loop according to the conformational selection model whereas PD-L1 induces allosterically a conformational change of the BC-loop. CONCLUSION: Due to the structural differences of the BC-loop, a signal transduction based on active conformation cannot be ruled out. These findings will have an impact on drug design and will help to refine immunotherapy blocking antibodies.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nivolumabe/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e22323, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181636

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Patients reporting high PD-L1 expression have shown to respond well to immunotherapy; however, some patients develop hyperprogressive disease upon initiation of immune checkpoint inhibitors. We report a patient with lung cancer and 100% PD-L1 expression who developed hyperprogressive disease while treated with pembrolizumab and responded well to salvage chemotherapy with carboplatin and pemetrexed. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 66-year-old African American female with 25-pack year smoking history, diabetes mellitus type 2, essential thrombocytosis, and a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma developed relapsed lung adenocarcinoma after 13 months of no evidence of disease. DIAGNOSIS: Surveillance imagine showed subcarinal and hilar lymphadenopathy, which was confirmed as recurrent lung adenocarcinoma via bronchoscopy. In addition, a brain scan showed a 5 mm enhancing left insular lesion. PD-L1 was reported as 100% expression. Staging was reported as stage IVB TxN3M1c lung adenocarcinoma. INTERVENTIONS: One fraction of radiation with a total dose of 20 Gray was delivered to the left insular lesion. The patient initiated pembrolizumab (200 mg) every 3 weeks. She was then treated with salvage chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin (AUC 5) and pemetrexed (500 mg/m) every 3 weeks for 3 cycles. OUTCOMES: The brain lesion resolved after the radiation therapy. The patient developed hyperprogression with a large pericardial effusion and right pleural effusion after 2 treatments of pembrolizumab. Her PD-L1 expression decreased from 100% to 0% over a 10-week period. Salvage chemotherapy with carboplatin and pemetrexed resulted with 20 months of ongoing to evidence of disease. LESSONS: Immune checkpoint inhibitor-related hyperprogressive disease may respond to second-line salvage chemotherapy. Complete PD-L1 expression loss was observed after the patient's treatment and could be a marker of hyperprogressive disease or tumor immunoevasion.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/análise , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Tratamento Farmacológico/normas , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
6.
Mol Cell ; 80(4): 555-557, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217313

RESUMO

In this issue of Molecular Cell, Byun et al. (2020) find that the dual targeting of glutamine metabolism and the PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor augments anti-tumor immunity. Mechanistically, decreased glutamine availability attenuated S-glutathionylation of SERCA, resulting in an increase in cytosolic calcium, enhanced NF-κB activity, and upregulation of programmed death-ligand 1.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Glutamina , Humanos , NF-kappa B/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética
7.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(11): 701-711, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132244

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the role of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and T lymphocytes in the proliferation, apoptosis and secretion of cells from patients and mice with Graves' disease (GD). The levels of serum hormones, related antibodies and inflammatory cytokines in GD patients were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and ELISA. The percentages of CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes and PD-1 expression were examined by flow cytometry. A GD mouse model, a thyroid follicular epithelial cell, and a CD4+PD-1+, CD4+PD-1- and CD8+PD-1+, CD8+PD-1- T lymphocyte co-culture system were constructed. The viability, apoptosis-related markers, serum hormones, related antibodies and inflammatory cytokines in thyroid follicular epithelial cells were determined by CCK-8, Western blot, qTR-PCR, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and ELISA. Elevated free thyroid hormones (FT3, FT4), thyroid hormone antibodies (TRAb, TPOAb and TGAb), inflammatory cytokines, and inhibited TSH were observed in GD patients. The percentage of CD4+ T cells was increased, while that of CD8+ T cells was reduced in GD patients. PD-1 expression level was lifted in both CD4+ and CD8+ cells from GD patients. In mouse thyroid follicular epithelial cells co-cultured with CD4+PD-1+ and CD8+PD-1+ T lymphocytes, the cell viability, TH and TRAb levels and inflammatory cytokines level were the highest, while the TSH level and apoptosis were the lowest. PD-1 positive T lymphocytes were able to promote viability and inhibit apoptosis of thyroid follicular epithelial cells, which further caused a more accelerated development of GD.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Doença de Graves/genética , Doença de Graves/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Linfócitos/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/fisiologia , Glândula Tireoide/citologia , Adulto , Animais , Apoptose , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Doença de Graves/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 49(11): 1108-1113, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152813

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the optimal experimental conditions (including antigen retrieval time, antibody titers and antibody incubation time) for reliable detection of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression using PD-L1 (22C3) antibody concentrate, and to establish a laboratory developed test for PD-L1 detection. Methods: Using Dako PD-L1 IHC 22C3 pharmDX staining procedure and scoring guidelines as the standard reference (group A), the PD-L1 expression in 25 tissue specimens (including 15 lung cancer tissues, 5 tonsil tissues and 5 placenta tissues) was detected with Flex+/HRP detection kit (EnVision) under 8 different experimental conditions (groups B1 to B8). The staining results were then compared to those in group A. Results: In group B1, 3 tissue samples showed the percentages of PD-L1 positive tumor cells were similar to those in group A, while the percentages of PD-L1 positive tumor cells were lower than those in group A in the other samples. In group B7, two case showed a positive rate higher than that in group A that was also above the positive cut-off value, and the rest of the samples had a percentage of PD-L1 positive tumor cells slightly higher than that in group A, but still below the positive cut-off value. The staining results of group B8 were the closest to those of group A compared with the other groups. Although the percentages of PD-L1 positive tumor cells in the B2 to B6 groups were decreased in various degrees as compared with group A, they were still concordant with group A's classification (positive vs. negative) and would not change the choice of clinical treatments. Conclusions: The experimental conditions are associated with detection rate of PD-L1 expression using 22C3 antibody. In the present study, the most-suitable alterative conditions in the PD-L1 detection using 22C3 antibody concentrate are those applied in the group B8 (including antigen retrieval in Dako PT Link tank at 97 ℃, pH 6.0 for 40 min and incubation with 22C3 antibodies (1∶100 dilution) at room temperature for 60 min, incubation with EnVision Flex+Linker at room temperature for 30 min, incubation with EnVision/HRP at room temperature for 30 min and DAB staining for 5 min), which could provide reliable results at minimum costs.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Coloração e Rotulagem
10.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 49(11): 1114-1119, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152814

RESUMO

Objective: To study the clinicopathological features and PD-L1 expression of microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) gastric cancer. Methods: The clinicopathological data of the 2 472 patients who had undergone radical surgical resection and been performed immunohistochemical staining of four major mismatch repair (MMR) proteins (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6) from March 2014 to December 2018 at Peking University Cancer Hospital were collected. One hundred and seventy-one patients showed mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR), and microsatellite instability of these patients were detected with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then, taken PCR results as the standard, PD-L1 was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the MSI-H gastric cancers. Results: MSI-H (vs. MSI-L) in gastric cancers was associated with female gender, advanced age, gastric-antrum location, intestinal type, lesion diameter exceeding 5 cm, absence of lymph node metastasis and positive PD-L1 expression (P<0.05, respectively). Combined positive score (CPS) was an independent risk factor (P=0.026, HR=8.385, 95%CI=1.293-54.367). Although no relationship between PD-L1 expression pattern and prognosis was observed,"diffuse-pattern" of the PD-L1 expression was related to lymphatic-vascular invasion (P=0.007) and infiltration depth (P=0.04). Among the patients with MSI-H and PD-L1 positive gastric cancer, the patients who experienced recurrence or died all had the pattern of "diffuse" PD-L1 expression. Also, regarding the expression level and staining pattern of PD-L1, the metastasis lesion of lymph node had a high coincidence with primary site (P=0.45). Conclusions: MSI-H gastric cancer shows distinctive clinicopathological characteristics. The CPS can be used as a prognostic indicator in MSI-H gastric cancers, while the "diffuse-pattern" of PD-L1 expression could possibly be used as a prognostic indicator. The patients with advanced gastric cancer could obtain the expression level and staining pattern of PD-L1 using the biopsy material of metastatic lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e23172, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158004

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of PD-L1 in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).In this retrospective study, 97 patients with NSCLC were consecutively recruited. The expression profiling of PD-1, PD-L1, p53 and Ki-67 was detected by immunohistochemistry. Median survival time was estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival curve with log-rank test. Risk factors were evaluated by Cox Proportional Hazards regression models.The median tumor size was larger (3.5 cm) among patients with positive PD-L1 expression, compared to those with negative expression (2.0 cm; P < .01). Compared to those with negative PD-L1 expression, patients with positive PD-L1 expression had significantly higher rates of nerve invasion (26.3% vs 5.0%; P < .01), blood vessel invasion (47.4% vs 20.0%; P < .01) and lymph node metastasis (64.9% vs 27.5%; P < .01), more advanced tumor stage (P < .01) and Ki-67 index (P < .01). PD-L1 expression status was not significantly associated with disease-free (DFS) or overall survival (OS). However, for patients with advanced disease, PD-L1 positive expression was related to worse outcome (HR: 4.13; 95% CI: 1.06-16.12).Positive PD-L1 expression is associated with more aggressive pathological features and poorer prognosis in advanced stage NSCLC.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/química , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
HNO ; 68(12): 916-921, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD8+ cells are key players in the identification and elimination of cancer cells. Cancers can escape an effective T cell response by inducing an exhausted cell state, which limits the cytotoxic capacity of the effector cells. Among other mechanisms, new checkpoint inhibitors reactivate exhausted, dysfunctional T cells. CD8+ T cells can eliminate tumor cells after presentation of tumor-specific antigens via antigen-presenting cells (APCs). APC-mediated tumor recognition is mainly stimulated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effect of TLR agonists on APCs as well as stimulatory and inhibitory signaling pathways of the T cell-APC interaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gene expression of interleukin (IL)12 and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after 0, 8, 24, and 48 h of CD14+ cell stimulation with CpG. Protein expression of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (IκBα) after CpG stimulation was investigated by western blot. CD8+ T cells were stimulated for 72 h with or without programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) checkpoint blockade and analyzed for expression of PD­1, Tim­3, CTLA4, and Lag3 by flow cytometry. RESULTS: TLR stimulation (by unmethylated CpG DNA) of APCs upregulates immunostimulatory signals such as IL12 expression but also activates immunoinhibitory signaling pathways such as PD-L1 expression. This signaling is NF-κB dependent. After blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway, overexpression of other immune checkpoint inhibitory receptors was observed-a potential explanation for lacking therapeutic responses after TLR stimulation with PD­1 checkpoint blockade. CONCLUSION: TLR stimulation causes APCs in the tumor microenvironment to upregulate PD-L1 in an NF-κB-mediated fashion, thereby contributing to CD8+ T cell exhaustion. The effect of PD­1 blockade after TLR stimulation might be impaired due to upregulation of other checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Toll-Like , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/fisiologia , Receptores Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 5951-5968, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A systematic review to evaluate the association between Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in DLBCL biopsy was conducted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Only studies comparing EBV+ and EBV- groups were eligible following database search. Prevalence ratios were calculated for results comparison. The EBV impact on PD-L1 positivity in tumour cells and its microenvironment was analysed. RESULTS: With 270 records screened, eleven cross-sectional studies were identified for final review. Eight studies investigated PD-L1 expression in tumour cells and found an EBV trend unlikely, while four studies found an increase in its expression in the tumour microenvironment. Nine studies showed that EBV+ cases were more commonly of non-germinal centre B-cell origin. Four studies examined genetic aberrations, but no definite consensus was reached. CONCLUSION: A non-EBV related mechanism is likely related to increased PD-L1 expression, with relevance to the cell of origin.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 4/fisiologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/virologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Viés de Publicação , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Cells ; 9(10)2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003471

RESUMO

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, emerged as a pandemic disease posing a severe threat to global health. To date, sporadic studies have demonstrated that innate immune mechanisms, specifically neutrophilia, NETosis, and neutrophil-associated cytokine responses, are involved in COVID-19 pathogenesis; however, our understanding of the exact nature of this aspect of host-pathogen interaction is limited. Here, we present a detailed dissection of the features and functional profiles of neutrophils, dendritic cells, and monocytes in COVID-19. We portray the crucial role of neutrophils as drivers of hyperinflammation associated with COVID-19 disease via the shift towards their immature forms, enhanced degranulation, cytokine production, and augmented interferon responses. We demonstrate the impaired functionality of COVID-19 dendritic cells and monocytes, particularly their low expression of maturation markers, increased PD-L1 levels, and their inability to upregulate phenotype upon stimulation. In summary, our work highlights important data that prompt further research, as therapeutic targeting of neutrophils and their associated products may hold the potential to reduce the severity of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5067, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082341

RESUMO

Although acne is the most common human inflammatory skin disease, its pathogenic mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we show that GATA6, which is expressed in the upper pilosebaceous unit of normal human skin, is down-regulated in acne. GATA6 controls keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation to prevent hyperkeratinisation of the infundibulum, which is the primary pathological event in acne. When overexpressed in immortalised human sebocytes, GATA6 triggers a junctional zone and sebaceous differentiation program whilst limiting lipid production and cell proliferation. It modulates the immunological repertoire of sebocytes, notably by upregulating PD-L1 and IL10. GATA6 expression contributes to the therapeutic effect of retinoic acid, the main treatment for acne. In a human sebaceous organoid model GATA6-mediated down-regulation of the infundibular differentiation program is mediated by induction of TGFß signalling. We conclude that GATA6 is involved in regulation of the upper pilosebaceous unit and may be an actionable target in the treatment of acne.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição GATA6/metabolismo , Glândulas Sebáceas/metabolismo , Acne Vulgar/genética , Acne Vulgar/patologia , Acne Vulgar/fisiopatologia , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Fator de Transcrição GATA6/genética , Homeostase , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , Glândulas Sebáceas/citologia , Glândulas Sebáceas/patologia , Pele/citologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22555, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080690

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence risk of programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitor-related alopecia for cancer patients, the meta-analysis was put into practice. METHOD: The meta-analysis was designed and put into practice according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. RESULTS: After rigorous screening and verification, 22 clinical trials involving PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors were collected for the final comprehensive analysis. The incidence risk of alopecia for all-grade in the PD-1/PD-L1 group was significantly lower than that in the control chemotherapy group (odds ratio [OR] = 0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.01, 0.04], I = 86%, Z = 8.73 [P < .00001]). Similar to the above, the incidence risk of alopecia for grade 3-5 related to PD-1/PD-L1 was obvious lower than the control group (OR = 0.17, 95% CI:[0.05, 0.55], I = 0%, Z = 2.97 [P = .003]). When 7 clinical trials (PD-1/PD-L1 + Chemotherapy vs Chemotherapy) were taken to evaluate the risk of alopecia for all-grade and grade 3-5, no statistically significant results were found. CONCLUSION: The incidence risk of alopecia caused by PD-1/PD-L1 is significantly lower than chemotherapy, and there is no statistical significant evidence that PD-1/PD-L1 combined with chemotherapy would increase the incidence risk of alopecia.


Assuntos
Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Alopecia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência
19.
Bull Cancer ; 107(11): 1098-1107, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPis) re-challenge could be an attractive therapeutic option considering its good safety profile. However, little data is available regarding anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 retreatment. We conducted a meta-analysis focusing on outcomes of solid cancer patients performing this strategy. METHODS: Fourteen full papers involving 74 patients were included. Individual data about best response or progression-free survival (PFS) upon the first and second course of anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 were collected. RESULTS: Non-small-cell lung cancer (53%) and melanoma (34%) were the most represented cancers. Higher objective response (46% versus 24%, P=4.10-4) and disease control rates (73% versus 52%, P=7.10-3) were obtained upon the first ICPi course compared to re-challenge. No association between responses obtained with the two ICPis courses was found (P=3.10-1). The PFS upon the first ICPi (PFS1) was longer than after re-challenge (PFSR) (6.6 versus 2.8 months, hazard ratio (HR) 0.57, P=2.10-3). A longer PFSR was obtained in patients with a longer PFS1 (P=6.10-3), in those who discontinued the first ICPi due to toxicity or per protocol (8.8 versus 2.1 months if disease progression occurs, P=2.10-3), and in those not receiving intercalated treatment between the two ICPis (6.6 versus 2.1 months for the treated ones, P=1.10-3). DISCUSSION: Anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 re-challenge showed interesting clinical activity in selected patients, mainly in those achieving a long-term response upon the first ICPi course, that do not discontinue therapy because of disease progression, or that are able to keep a treatment-free period.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Retratamento/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5415, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110069

RESUMO

The ability of cancer cells to ensure T-cell exclusion from the tumor microenvironment is a significant mechanism of resistance to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. Evidence indicates crucial roles of Batf3-dependent conventional type-1 dendritic cells (cDC1s) for inducing antitumor T-cell immunity; however, strategies to maximize cDC1 engagement remain elusive. Here, using multiple orthotopic tumor mouse models resistant to anti-PD-L1-therapy, we are testing the hypothesis that in situ induction and activation of tumor-residing cDC1s overcomes poor T-cell infiltration. In situ immunomodulation with Flt3L, radiotherapy, and TLR3/CD40 stimulation induces an influx of stem-like Tcf1+ Slamf6+ CD8+ T cells, triggers regression not only of primary, but also untreated distant tumors, and renders tumors responsive to anti-PD-L1 therapy. Furthermore, serial in situ immunomodulation (ISIM) reshapes repertoires of intratumoral T cells, overcomes acquired resistance to anti-PD-L1 therapy, and establishes tumor-specific immunological memory. These findings provide new insights into cDC1 biology as a critical determinant to overcome mechanisms of intratumoral T-cell exclusion.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/administração & dosagem , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral
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