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1.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(12): 2029-2039, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709456

RESUMO

Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a 15 kDa protein induced by type I interferons (IFN-α and IFN-ß) and is a member of the ubiquitin-like superfamily of proteins. The ISG15 pathway is highly expressed in various malignancies, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), suggesting a potential role of the ISG15 pathway (free ISG15 and ISG15 conjugates) in pancreatic carcinogenesis. However, very little is known about how the ISG15 pathway may contribute to pancreatic tumorigenesis. In the current study, we demonstrate that ISG15 pathway knockdown reverses the KRAS-associated phenotypes of PDAC cells such as increased proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated ISG15 knockdown decreased tumor programmed death ligand-1 (PDL-1) expression leading to increased number of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and decreased pancreatic tumor growth. In addition, the syngeneic subcutaneous mouse model revealed that knocking down the ISG15 pathway significantly decreased the rate of tumor incidence and increased the survival rate. Interestingly, the ISG15 knockdown-mediated PDL-1 downregulation in pancreatic tumors increased the efficacy of anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) treatment. ISG15 knockdown in combination with anti-PD-1 treatment synergistically increased the number of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Additionally, ISG15 knockdown alone significantly decreased the number of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Tregs) compared to wild type tumors treated with anti-PD-1 antibody. Overall, these findings suggest that strategies to target the ISG15 pathway by itself or in combination with immunotherapy may lead to improved survival for patients diagnosed with PDAC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Citocinas/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neoplasias Experimentais , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitinas/genética , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5789-5795, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma (PPC) is rare, and few studies have reported its features. We assessed the clinicopathological features, surgical outcomes, oncogenic status and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of PPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from 22 consecutive patients who underwent resection of PPC between 2007 and 2017. RESULTS: The predominant tissue type of the epithelial component was adenocarcinoma in 15 patients (68%) and the others in 7 patients (32%), and the 3-year disease-free survival rate tended to be better in patients with an adenocarcinoma component compared to patients with another component (40.0% vs. 17.1%, p=0.059). PD-L1 expression was observed in all eight tumors whose PD-L1 status could be examined and high PD-L1 expression (≥50%) was frequent (5/8, 63%). CONCLUSION: A predominant adenocarcinoma epithelial component in PPC might be associated with better survival outcomes and high PD-L1 expression might be frequent in PPC.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Oncogenes/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(10): 1021-1031, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486857

RESUMO

In pathological diagnostics, monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are mainly used for immunhistochemical analysis. After an initial histological evaluation, a precise panel of antibodies is selected in order to stain the slides by using an indirect immune method. The most frequent issues include localisation of the primary tumor in cases of metastases, determination of undifferentiated tumors, subtyping of lympho-proliferative diseases and soft tissue tumors, as well as the assessment of proliferation via Ki-67. Increasing importance in mAb-based diagnostics is attributed to the analysis of predictive biomarkers such as hormone receptors, mismatch repair proteins (MMR) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Their evaluation is performed by using different scores, which the clinical physician needs to be aware of due to their direct therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Neoplasias/patologia , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo
4.
Cancer Sci ; 110(11): 3415-3423, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513320

RESUMO

Anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy, which is one of the most promising cancer therapies, is licensed for treating various tumors. Programmed death-ligand 1, which is expressed on the surface of cancer cells, leads to the inhibition of T lymphocyte activation and immune evasion if it binds to the receptor PD-1 on CTLs. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Abs inhibit interactions between PD-1 and PD-L1 to restore antitumor immunity. Although certain patients achieve effective responses to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, the efficacy of treatment is highly variable. Clinical trials of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy combined with radiotherapy/chemotherapy are underway with suggestive evidence of favorable outcome; however, the molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Among several molecular targets that can influence the efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, PD-L1 expression in tumors is considered to be a critical biomarker because there is a positive correlation between the efficacy of combined treatment protocols and PD-L1 expression levels. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the regulation of PD-L1 expression in cancer cells, particularly the mechanism of PD-L1 expression following DNA damage, is important. In this review, we consider recent findings on the regulation of PD-L1 expression in response to DNA damage signaling in cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Medicina de Precisão , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Comunicação Celular , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Dano ao DNA , Fragmentação do DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Neoplasias/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral , Regulação para Cima
5.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(11): 2663-2674, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is known that there are insufficient prognostic factors for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It was reported that PD-L1 was a prognostic factor for NSCLC,and c-Myc regulated the expression of PD-L1. Herein, we investigated c-Myc and PD-L1 expression and their association with overall survival (OS) in NSCLC. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens were obtained from 128 patients with surgically resected primary NSCLC. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of PD-L1 and c-Myc in this study. Pearson's Chi squared test or Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the correlation of the expression of PD-L1 and c-Myc with clinicopathologic features. The relationship between OS and the expression of PD-L1 and c-Myc was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model, respectively. RESULTS: Positive expression of PD-L1 was detected in 59 patients (46.1%). Patients with negative expression of PD-L1 had remarkably longer OS than those with positive expression of PD-L1. The positive expression rate of c-Myc in NSCLC accounted for 58.6% (75/128) and its expression was significantly more frequent in males (p = 0.002) and patients with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.029). PD-L1 expression was positively correlated with c-Myc expression (r = 0.459, p < 0.001). The PD-L1 and c-Myc double-positive group had a worse prognosis than other subgroups (p < 0.05), and the PD-L1 and c-Myc double-negative group had a better OS than other subgroups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Conjoint analysis of the expression of PD-L1 and c-Myc was a better prognostic approach for NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4737-4742, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: There are several unresolved issues regarding the combined treatment with an immune checkpoint inhibitor and anti-angiogenic agent for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. The purpose of this study was to address the inhibitory effects of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on growth and sensitivity to sunitinib in the mouse RCC RenCa model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established RenCa/sh-PD-L1 by transfecting RenCa cells with a plasmid carrying a short hairpin RNA targeted against PD-L1. The growth pattern of RenCa/sh-PD-L1 with or without sunitinib was compared to that of RenCa cells transfected with control plasmid alone (RenCa/Co). RESULTS: No significant difference in growth or sensitivity to sinitinib was noted between RenCa/sh-PD-L1 and RenCa/Co cells in vitro. The tumor volume in mice subcutaneously injected with RenCa/sh-PD-L1 was significantly smaller than that with RenCa/Co. Treatment of mice bearing each tumor with sunitinib resulted in a significant reduction of the RenCa/sh-PD-L1 tumor compared to the RenCa/Co tumor. Moreover, infiltration by CD8+ T cells of RenCa/sh-PD-L1 tumors was significantly higher than that of RenCa/Co tumors, irrespective of treatment with sunitinib. CONCLUSION: Suppressed expression of PD-L1 could increase tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells and result in growth inhibition as well as enhanced sensitivity to sunitinib in the RenCa model.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(9): 1537-1545, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482306

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical-pathological and prognostic significance of the circulating PD-L1 level in patients with surgically treated NSCLC, by combining data for PD-L1 expression with other immune-related markers and tumor metabolism. METHODS: Overall, 40 patients with resected NSCLC (stage Ia-IIIa) who had preoperative blood storage and underwent staging PET/CT were enrolled for the study. In all cases, we determined plasma levels of PD-L1 (pg/ml), immune-reactive areas (IRA %) covered by CD3, CD68, CD20, CD8, PD-1, and PD-L1 in the tumor specimen, and metabolic parameters on PET, i.e., SUVmax, SUVpeak, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). Variables were statistically analyzed to establish their association with disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: The circulating levels of PD-L1 in the bloodstream could be determined in 38/40 (95%) samples. The mean and median expression levels were 34.86 pg/ml and 24.83 pg/ml, respectively. We did not find any statistically significant correlation between circulating PD-L1 and tissue expression of PD-L1/PD-1. Some mild degree of positive correlation was determined between tissue PD-L1 and SUVmax (ρ = 0.390; p = 0.0148). Hierarchical clustering combining circulating, tissue, and metabolic parameters identified clusters with high metabolic tumor burden or high expression of plasma PD-L1 levels (Z score ≥ 2) as having a poor DFS (p = 0.033). The multivariate analysis detected stage and metabolism (i.e., SUVmax and SUVpeak) as independent prognostic factors for DFS. CONCLUSION: Plasma levels of PD-L1 are independent of the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 in NSCLC tumor tissue and, when combined with other clinical-pathological parameters, allow for the identification of clusters with different outcomes.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
8.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4539-4548, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate PD-L1 expression and its association with prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin, NAC-FP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using a database of 69 ESCC patients, we analyzed PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TCs) and immune cells (ICs), as well as the density of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in pretreatment biopsy specimens-versus-surgical specimens after resection. We determined the prognostic significance of these factors. RESULTS: The fraction of ESCC containing ICs expressing PD-L1 and having a high CD8+ TIL density was significantly increased after neoadjuvant treatment. However, PD-L1 expression on TCs or ICs, and CD8+ TIL density, was not significantly associated with patient survival in ESCC patients. CONCLUSION: NAC-FP induced PD-L1 expression on ICs and CD8+ TILs in ESCC patients. This finding suggests that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade could be combined with NAC-FP to treat ESCC patients.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/sangue , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/sangue , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(4): 375-382, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408531

RESUMO

In large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL), MYC translocation and MYC/BCL2 or MYC/BCL6 double hit (DH) are associated with poor prognosis, and there is an unmet need for novel treatment targets in this patient group. Treatments targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway are still poorly elucidated in LBCL. PD-L1 expression might predict response to treatment targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway. We therefore investigated the relationship between PD-L1 protein and mRNA expression levels and MYC and DH translocation in LBCL. We detected MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 translocation by fluorescent in situ hybridization in tissue samples from 130 patients randomly selected from two cohorts of patients with LBCL: 49 patients with MYC translocation of whom 36 had DH and 81 without MYC translocation. PD-L1 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue samples from 77 patients and PD-L1 mRNA expression by next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) in another 77 patients. Twenty-four patients overlapped, ie, were analysed with both IHC and NGS. Nonparametric tests were performed to evaluate intergroup differences. PD-L1 protein expression level was significantly lower in patients with MYC (n = 42, median = 3.3%, interquartile range [IQR] 0.0-10.8) or DH translocations (n = 31, median = 3.3%, IQR 0.0-10.0) compared with patients with no MYC (n = 35, median = 16.7%, IQR 3.3-30.0) or no DH translocations (n = 46, 13.3%, IQR 2.5-30.0), P = .004 and P ≤ .001, respectively. PD-L1 mRNA expression was also significantly lower in patients with MYC or DH translocations, P = .001 and P = .006, respectively. Higher PD-L1 protein and mRNA expression levels were associated with non-germinal centre (GC) type compared with germinal centre B-cell (GCB)-type diffuse LBCL (DLBCL), P = .004 and P = .002, respectively. In conclusion, we report an association between low PD-L1 expression and MYC and DH translocation in patients with LBCL. Our findings may indicate that patients with MYC or DH translocation may benefit less from treatment with PD-L1/PD-1-inhibitors compared with patients without these translocations. This should be evaluated in larger, prospective, consecutive trials.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes myc , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , Translocação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/patologia , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes bcl-2 , Centro Germinativo/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16773, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415379

RESUMO

Conventional therapy modalities for advanced breast cancer are problematic, whereas checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has been considered as a promising approach. This study aims to determine programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and methylation status of PD-L1 promoter in primary tumor tissue and metastatic foci of patients with stage IV breast cancer.Clinicopathological data and survival rates of 57 breast cancer patients, who were initially staged IV, and operated for intact tumors, were retrospectively analyzed. Immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 using 57 primary tumors, 33 paired metastatic lymph nodes, and 14 paired distant metastases was performed. Additionally, the methylation rate of the PD-L1 gene promoter region was determined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in 38 samples.Overall PD-L1 expression in primary tumors was 23.1% (12/52). PD-L1 positivity was reduced in lymph nodes by 15.2% (5/33) and in distant metastases by 21.4% (3/14). PD-L1 expression diverged between primary and metastatic foci in a subset of cases (18.2% for lymph node and 33.3% for distant metastasis). In general, the PD-L1 promoter was not methylated, and mean methylation rates were low (min. 0%-max. 21%). We observed no correlation between PD-L1 expression, promoter methylation, and survival.Neither the expression nor the methylation status of PD-L1 in patients, who were presented with stage IV breast cancer and operated for an intact primary tumor, had a statistically significant relation with survival. Discordance in PD-L1 expression between primary tumor and metastasis should be considered during pathological and clinical management of patients who would undergo checkpoint blockade therapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia
11.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3068-3078, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432577

RESUMO

The programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 pathway was successfully targeted in cancer immunotherapy. Elevated interleukin-17 (IL-17), which is known in autoimmune diseases, has recently been recognized in cancer patients. We investigated the role of IL-17 in the regulation of expression of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 in ovarian cancer by evaluating changes in the number of IL-17-producing cluster of differentiation 4 helper T cells (Th17) and γδT cells (γδT17) in PBMC of 52 gynecological cancer patients (including 30 ovarian cancer patients) and 18 healthy controls. The occupancy ratio of Th17 and γδT17 was higher in ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer patients than in controls, determined by multi-color flow cytometry (Th17: P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively; γδT17: P = 0.0020 and P = 0.0084, respectively). IL-17 mRNA level was elevated in PBMC of ovarian cancer patients (P = 0.0029), as measured by RT-PCR. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, which is a prognostic biomarker of ovarian cancer, correlated with Th17 occupancy ratio in patients (P = 0.0068). We found that programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 expression and its associated factors (IL-6 and phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) were induced by IL-17 in an ovarian cancer cell line. These results suggest that increased Th17 counts and IL-17 level, which correlated with high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 expression, are potential biomarkers for poor prognosis in ovarian cancer and likely indications for application of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 pathway inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Interleucina-16/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Endométrio/imunologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Fosforilação , Prognóstico , Células Th17/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
12.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(9): 1443-1454, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444607

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is effective in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but only a minority of patients responds to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). To contribute to a better understanding of the underlying immune biology, we combined histomorphological evaluation and molecular analysis of the HNSCC immune microenvironment in the TCGA cohort. Analyzing digital HE-stained slides, a method for classification of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the intra-epithelial compartment (ieTILs, present vs. absent) and the stromal compartment (strTILs, high vs. low) was established. We also analyzed the abundance of eight immune cell populations (estimated from RNAseq data) and PD-L1 mRNA expression. Status of ieTILs and status of strTILs were concordant for 61%, but discordant for 39% of tumors. In univariate survival analysis, ieTILs were a positive prognostic marker for DFS in the study cohort (HR = 0.66, p = 0.015) and in the HPV- subcohort (HR = 0.68, p = 0.04), but not in the HPV + subcohort. T cells were a positive prognostic marker for DFS in the study cohort (HR = 0.80, p = 0.03) and in the HPV + subcohort (HR = 0.20, p = 0.001), but not in the HPV- subcohort. In univariate survival analysis, PD-L1 mRNA expression was neither associated with DFS nor with OS. However, in bivariate and multivariate analyses including both PD-L1 mRNA levels and T cells, PD-L1 was a negative prognostic marker of DFS and OS, while T cells remained a positive prognostic marker. In conclusion, ieTILs and strTILs were non-redundant biomarkers in HNSCC and should be evaluated separately. The identified prognostic markers should be evaluated for predictivity in ICB-treated patients.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Células Estromais/patologia , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
Oncol Rep ; 42(4): 1459-1466, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322270

RESUMO

The expression of CDR1­AS, a representative circular RNA, is closely linked with poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancers, such as colon, liver, and pancreatic cancers. Although it is well known that CDR1­AS antagonizes microRNA­7 function through its sequence similarities in the brain, its biological function and link with the malignant potential of cancer cells remain unclear, partly due to the difficulties of ectopic expression of circular RNAs. In the present study, SW620, a colon cancer cell line that stably expresses CDR1­AS RNA circularized, was established using the laccase 2 gene cassette, and its biological function associated with malignant behavior was determined. In contrast to previous studies, cell growth or invasion ability was not altered by CDR1­AS expression. However, the expression levels of CMTM4 and CMTM6, which were recently recognized as critical regulators of PD­L1 protein expression at the cell surface, were significantly increased. Accordingly, the cell surface PD­L1 protein levels were increased in CDR1­AS­expressing cells. Notably, the effects were not canceled out by overexpressing microRNA­7, indicating that the increase in cell surface PD­L1 in CDR1­AS­expressing cells was not dependent on microRNA­7 function. These results indicated that expression of this circular RNA in cancer cells may lead to poor prognosis by increasing cell surface PD­L1 levels through microRNA­7­independent mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/biossíntese , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Células CACO-2 , Processos de Crescimento Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Proteínas com Domínio MARVEL/biossíntese , Proteínas com Domínio MARVEL/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/biossíntese , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
14.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(8): 1289-1305, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285612

RESUMO

The effects of autonomic innervation of tumors on tumor growth remain unclear. Here we developed a series of genetic techniques to manipulate autonomic innervation in a tumor- and fiber-type-specific manner in mice with human breast cancer xenografts and in rats with chemically induced breast tumors. Breast cancer growth and progression were accelerated following stimulation of sympathetic nerves in tumors, but were reduced following stimulation of parasympathetic nerves. Tumor-specific sympathetic denervation suppressed tumor growth and downregulated the expression of immune checkpoint molecules (programed death-1 (PD-1), programed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), and FOXP3) to a greater extent than with pharmacological α- or ß-adrenergic receptor blockers. Genetically induced simulation of parasympathetic innervation of tumors decreased PD-1 and PD-L1 expression. In humans, a retrospective analysis of breast cancer specimens from 29 patients revealed that increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nerve density in tumors were associated with poor clinical outcomes and correlated with higher expression of immune checkpoint molecules. These findings suggest that autonomic innervation of tumors regulates breast cancer progression.


Assuntos
Fibras Autônomas Pré-Ganglionares/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Denervação , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Transplante de Neoplasias , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Ratos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/patologia
15.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2348-2356, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222843

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has achieved remarkable clinical benefit in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but our understanding of biomarkers that predict the response to ICB remain obscure. Here we integrated somatic mutational profile and clinicopathologic information from 113 NSCLC patients treated by ICB (CTLA-4/PD-1). High tumor mutation burden (TMB) and neoantigen burden were identified significantly associated with improved efficacy in NSCLC immunotherapy. Furthermore, we identified apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) mutational signature was markedly associated with responding of ICB therapy (log-rank test, P = .001; odds ratio (OR), 0.18 [95% CI, 0.06-0.50], P < .001). The association with progression-free survival remained statistically significant after controlling for age, sex, histological type, smoking, PD-L1 expression, hypermutation, smoking signature and mismatch repair (MMR) (HR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.12-0.75], P = .010). Combined high TMB with APOBEC signature preferably predict immunotherapy responders in NSCLC cohort. The CIBERSORT algorithm revealed that high APOBEC mutational activity samples were associated with increased infiltration of CD4 memory activated T cells, CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, but reduced infiltration of regulatory T cells. Besides, individual genes mutation of IFNGR1 or VTCN1 were only found in responders; however, the PTEN mutation was only found in non-responders (Fisher's exact test, all P < .05). These findings may be applicable for guiding immunotherapy for patients with NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Imunidade/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Carga Tumoral/genética , Carga Tumoral/imunologia
16.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 546, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody has proven to be effective in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients positive for programmed cell death-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1). However, there are currently no prospective studies evaluating PD-L1 expression for small biopsy samples. METHODS: To prospectively investigate the reliability of small samples for NSCLC, we included patients who underwent diagnostic biopsy by flexible bronchoscopy, computed tomography (CT) and ultra-sonography (US) guided core-needle to determine the PD-L1 expression status. In pathologically confirmed NSCLC, PD-L1 expression was evaluated using companion diagnostic PD-L1 immunohistochemistry. We evaluated: 1) tumor cell count and sample size, 2) tumor proportion score (TPS): <1, 1-49%, 50%≦, and 3) the concordance rate of TPS by biopsy and surgical samples. RESULTS: Of the 153 cases of PD-L1 expression, 110 were assessed using endobronchial ultrasonography guided transbronchial biopsy (EBUS-TBB) (thin bronchoscopy 84 cases; normal bronchoscopy 26 cases), 23 were endobronchial ultrasonography guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), and 20 cases of CT or US-guided core-needle biopsy. Tumor cell count and sample size were significantly larger for normal bronchoscopy than thin bronchoscopy or EBUS-TBNA samples. Moreover, tumor cell counts for each subsequent biopsy decreased. In all cases, TPS distribution (undiagnosed, <1%, 1-49, 50%≦) was 2.6, 34.6, 31.4, 31.4%, respectively. TPS positive cases using thin bronchoscope was 55.9%, normal bronchoscope was 73.1% and EBUS-TBNA was 78.3%. In early stage adenocarcinoma, TPS was lower compared with advanced stages. Conversely, in squamous cell carcinoma, the rates of TPS were similar regardless of stage. The concordance rate of TPS by biopsy and surgical materials was 86.7%. CONCLUSION: Utilizing smaller samples for evaluation, the frequency of TPS was comparable to past clinical trials using larger samples. The differences in TPS were influenced by diagnostic tools, cancer histologic types and staging. The concordance of TPS between EBUS-TBB samples and surgical materials was high. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was performed at the Department of Respiratory Medicine at St. Marianna University School of Medicine Hospital, with ethics approval (#3590) and registered as a clinical trial ( UMIN000027030 ).


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Broncoscopia/métodos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185600

RESUMO

Compared to solid tumors, the role of PD-L1 in hematological malignancies is less explored, and the knowledge in this area is mostly limited to lymphomas. However, several studies indicated that PD-L1 is also overexpressed in myeloid malignancies. Successful treatment of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is likely associated with elimination of the residual disease by the immune system, and possible involvement of PD-L1 in this process remains to be elucidated. We analyzed PD-L1 expression on AML primary cells by flow cytometry and, in parallel, transcript levels were determined for the transcription variants v1 and v2. The ratio of v1/v2 cDNA correlated with the surface protein amount, and high v1/v2 levels were associated with worse overall survival (p = 0.0045). The prognostic impact of PD-L1 was limited to AML with mutated nucleophosmin and concomitant internal tandem duplications in the FLT3 gene (p less than 0.0001 for this particular AML subgroup).


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/sangue , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
18.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 22(6): 369-379, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196371

RESUMO

In recent years, research on immunotherapy has made great progress. Currently, immunotherapy has made significant breakthrough, especially programmed death 1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors (e.g, Nivolumab, Pembrolizumab, Atezolizumab, Durvalumab and Avelumab, etc.) have brought clinical benefits to patients with various pathological types of lung cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer. In this paper, the application value and current status of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in lung cancer were comprehensively analyzed by reviewing and interpreting representative clinical studies. Based on the results of various large-scale clinical trials results, the indications of immunotherapy in lung cancer have been continuously broadened, and the details of immunotherapy have also been constantly optimized. However, immunotherapy still faces many challenges, such as the selection of immune combination strategies, the exploration of biomarkers, the management of adverse events, the feasibility of application of driver gene mutation population and so on. In this article, we made a systematic review about the latest progress of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in lung cancer, in order to provide cutting-edge reference for the clinical workers.
.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo
19.
J Biosci ; 44(2)2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180054

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine whether exposure to particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) affects the immune tolerance of neonatal mice via the regulation of PD-L1 expression. One-week-old BALB/c mice were exposed to PM2.5 for 8 days. From day 8 to day 18, the mice were treated with 5 µg house dust mite (HDM) (i. n.) every two days. Adenovirus-carried PD-L1 overexpression vectors were infected into mice via nasal inhalation 6 days after exposure to PM2.5. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was examined in mice 19 days after exposure to PM2.5, and the related parameters of airway inflammation were studied on day 22. Co-exposure to PM2.5 and HDM reduced PD-L1 expression but greatly increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, which was reversed by PD-L1 overexpression. Co-exposure to PM2.5 and HDM also elevated serum IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 levels and reduced TGF-ß level. Exposure to PM2.5 alone slightly increased the numbers of dendritic cells (DCs) but reduced the numbers of antigen-presenting cells expressing PD-L1 and Treg cells. Therefore, early exposure to PM2.5 reduced PD-L1 expression in the lungs of neonatal mice, which interfered with immune tolerance establishment and subsequently resulted in allergic airway inflammation.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/administração & dosagem , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/imunologia , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/imunologia , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/imunologia , Interleucina-13/genética , Interleucina-13/imunologia , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Interleucina-5/genética , Interleucina-5/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pyroglyphidae/química , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/genética , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/imunologia
20.
Anticancer Res ; 39(5): 2561-2567, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) may be associated with tissue formalin fixation time in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples. We investigated the association between the PD-L1 expression and formalin fixation time, and clarified the optimal duration of fixation for accurate PD-L1 evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected 55 tumor specimens from resected NSCLC patients. The samples were halved and immediately fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 12-24 h (normal fixation), or 96-120 h (prolonged fixation). Each specimen was stained using two assay systems (22C3 and SP263) for PD-L1. RESULTS: The mean PD-L1 tumor proportion score was not significantly different between normal and prolonged fixation groups for either 22C3 or SP263 (normal fixation: 18.8%; prolonged fixation: 16.3%, p=0.277; normal fixation: 16.2%; prolonged fixation: 17.6%, p=0.560, respectively). CONCLUSION: Formalin fixation duration for up to 120 h does not affect PD-L1 IHC expression. PD-L1 tumor proportion score of tumor specimens can be evaluated by IHC even if these have been fixed in formalin outside the recommended duration in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Formaldeído/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fixação de Tecidos
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