Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.066
Filtrar
1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3439-3448, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The role of immune cells and PD-L1 in cutaneous squamous carcinogenesis is unclear. This study examines T-cell populations, Langerhans cells (LCs) and PD-L1 in invasive squamous cell carcinoma (inSCC), adjacent precursors and normal skin (NS) to investigate their participation in tumorigenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cases of cutaneous inSCC with adjacent precursors (n=125) were selected. In situ SCC (isSCC) and actinic keratosis (AK) were observed in 53 and 123 cases, respectively, whereas NS was present in 123 lesions. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD3, CD8, Foxp3, CD1a and PD-L1. RESULTS: T-cells, LCs and PD-L1 gradually increase during the evolution from AK to isSCC and inSCC, with statistical significance between all lesions, except for CD3+ and CD8+ cells between isSCC and inSCC. Epithelial PD-L1 expression correlates with tumor diameter and thickness. CONCLUSION: The progressive increase of T-cells, LCs and PD-L1 in cutaneous squamous carcinogenesis provides rationale for immunotherapy and identification of predictive biomarkers.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Células de Langerhans/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Complexo CD3/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Células de Langerhans/imunologia , Células de Langerhans/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
2.
Anticancer Res ; 41(7): 3673-3682, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230166

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to investigate useful prognostic factors of immunotherapy in patients with lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively observed 73 patients who underwent immunotherapy (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and atezolizumab) for lung cancer. The systemic inflammatory score (SIS) was calculated as the sum of the following factors scored one point each: Hemoglobin <12.5 g/dl and serum albumin <3.6 g/dl, resulting in scores of 0-2. We examined the correlation between the SIS and initial tumor response and progression-free and overall survival with other existing markers, namely tumor programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression level; neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); modified Glasgow prognostic score; and prognostic nutritional index, etc. Results: SIS ≤1 was significantly associated with better initial tumor response. In multivariate analysis, PD-L1 expression ≥50% (p=0.010), SIS ≤1 (p=0.028) and NLR <5.6 (p=0.047) were significantly associated with longer progression-free survival, and SIS ≤1 (p=0.030) and NLR <5.6 (p=0.037) were associated with longer overall survival. CONCLUSION: SIS is a useful marker of the efficacy of immunotherapy that can be obtained via routine blood tests.


Assuntos
Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199417

RESUMO

Blockade of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) interaction is currently the focus in the field of cancer immunotherapy, and so far, several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have achieved encouraging outcomes in cancer treatment. Despite this achievement, mAbs-based therapies are struggling with limitations including poor tissue and tumor penetration, long half-life time, poor oral bioavailability, and expensive production costs, which prompted a shift towards the development of the small-molecule inhibitors of PD-1/PD-L1 pathways. Even though many small-molecule inhibitors targeting PD-1/PD-L1 interaction have been reported, their development lags behind the corresponding mAb, partly due to the challenges of developing drug-like small molecules. Herein, we report the discovery of a series of novel inhibitors targeting PD-1/PD-L1 interaction via structural simplification strategy by using BMS-1058 as a starting point. Among them, compound A9 stands out as the most promising candidate with excellent PD-L1 inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.93 nM, LE = 0.43) and high binding affinity to hPD-L1 (KD = 3.64 nM, LE = 0.40). Furthermore, A9 can significantly promote the production of IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner by rescuing PD-L1 mediated T-cell inhibition in Hep3B/OS-8/hPD-L1 and CD3-positive T cells co-culture assay. Taken together, these results suggest that A9 is a promising inhibitor of PD-1/PD-L1 interaction and is worthy for further study.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Antígeno B7-H1/química , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/química , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208111

RESUMO

Anti-PD1/PD-L1 immunotherapy has emerged as a standard of care for stage III-IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) over the past decade. Patient selection is usually based on PD-L1 expression by tumor cells and/or tumor mutational burden. However, mutations in oncogenic drivers such as EGFR, ALK, BRAF, or MET modify the immune tumor microenvironment and may promote anti-PD1/PD-L1 resistance. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms associated with these mutations, which shape the immune tumor microenvironment and may impede anti-PD1/PD-L1 efficacy. We provide an overview of the current clinical data on anti-PD1/PD-L1 efficacy in NSCLC with oncogenic driver mutation.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Mutação/genética , Oncogenes/genética , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética
5.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(601)2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233950

RESUMO

Inflammation is a well-known driver of lung tumorigenesis. One strategy by which tumor cells escape tight homeostatic control is by decreasing the expression of the potent anti-inflammatory protein tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), also known as A20. We observed that tumor cell intrinsic loss of A20 markedly enhanced lung tumorigenesis and was associated with reduced CD8+ T cell-mediated immune surveillance in patients with lung cancer and in mouse models. In mice, we observed that this effect was completely dependent on increased cellular sensitivity to interferon-γ (IFN-γ) signaling by aberrant activation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and increased downstream expression and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1). Interrupting this autocrine feed forward loop by knocking out IFN-α/ß receptor completely restored infiltration of cytotoxic T cells and rescued loss of A20 depending tumorigenesis. Downstream of STAT1, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) was highly expressed in A20 knockout lung tumors. Accordingly, immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) treatment was highly efficient in mice harboring A20-deficient lung tumors. Furthermore, an A20 loss-of-function gene expression signature positively correlated with survival of melanoma patients treated with anti-programmed cell death protein 1. Together, we have identified A20 as a master immune checkpoint regulating the TBK1-STAT1-PD-L1 axis that may be exploited to improve ICB therapy in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Proteína 3 Induzida por Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 3809-3813, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) comprises a variety of pathological entities. Many RCCs are aggressive, demanding efficient targeted and immunetherapeutic strategies. Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is expressed mainly in hematopoietic cells and also in epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to correlate PD-L1 protein expression in a series of RCC tissues with their histo-pathological features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred (n=100) archival, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded RCC tissue specimens were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Conventional tumor proportion score (TPS) qualitative assay was applied for evaluating protein expression levels. RESULTS: Based on the TPS evaluation, 8 (8%) cases were characterized as positive, and the rest of them (n=92; 92%) as negative. A progressive increase in PD-L1 positivity was significantly associated with the differentiation grade of the examined malignancies (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Although PD-L1 over-expression is detected in low rates in RCCs, its correlation with differentiation grade should be considered as a factor for discriminating sub-groups of patients with specific histo-pathological features eligible for targeted anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy strategies.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Masculino
7.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 3851-3857, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is an aggressive disease with high rates of local recurrence following radical cystectomy (RC). Currently, there are no clinically validated biomarkers to predict local only recurrence (LOR) and guide adjuvant treatment decisions. This pilot study evaluated the role of Ki-67, MRE11 and PD-L1 as predictive biomarkers for recurrence patterns in patients undergoing RC for MIBC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our institutional cystectomy database containing cases from 1992-2014 was queried for patients with local only recurrence (LOR), and case-matched to patients with distant recurrence (DR) and no recurrence (NR). Clinicopathological data were collected and a tissue microarray was analyzed for presence of Ki-67, MRE11, and PD-L1 using immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Pathologic specimens from 42 patients (18 NR, 16 LOR, and 8 DR) were reviewed. Compared to normal bladder tissue, tumors had increased expression of Ki-67 (p<0.01) and PD-L1 (p<0.05). High Ki-67 was associated with recurrence pattern (local vs. distant) on univariate analysis (p<0.05). Ki-67 cell density varied by recurrence type: LOR (1354 cells/mm2), DR (557 cells/mm2) and NR (1111 cells/mm2) (p=0.034). CONCLUSION: Our selected biomarkers could distinguish MIBC from normal bladder tissue but could not classify samples by recurrence pattern.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade
8.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst ; 33(1): 16, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: P D-L1 is expressed in tumor cells and plays a crucial role in tumor immune escape. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) as CD8 T cells contribute to reduced tumor growth. Few studies investigated the prognostic effect of PD-L1 and CD8 TILs in ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). In the present study, we analyzed the expression of PD-L1 and CD8 TILs in HGSC by immunohistochemistry, and results were correlated to prognosis. It was carried on 54 cases of ovarian HGSC who attended the Oncology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt, from 2012 till 2019. RESULTS: Nearly 60% of cases showed positive PD-L1 expression in tumor cells. Regarding the clinicopathological characteristics, higher PD-L1 expression was found among patients with residual tumor (82.4%) compared to patients with no residual tumor (54.5%), with marginal statistical significance (p 0.07). PD-L1 was significantly associated with CD8 TILs expression. Higher PD-L1 expression was found among tumors with low expression of CD8 TILs with statistically significant difference (p≤0.001). Disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly lower among the group with positive expression of PD-L1 compared to the group with negative expression of PD-L1 (p 0.01), while overall survival (OS) was not associated with PD-L1 expression. On the other hand, the overall survival (OS) in patients with high CD8 expression was significantly higher than patients with low CD8 expression (p 0.043), while DFS was not significantly different among both CD8 TILS groups. CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1 and CD8 TILs may become a promising therapeutic target for patients with ovarian HGSC. More studies are needed to further validate their prognostic effect. Precise identification of patients who will benefit from PD-L1 checkpoint blockade and TILs adaptive immunotherapy is mandatory.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Adulto , Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma/mortalidade , Carcinoma/terapia , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/química , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
N Engl J Med ; 384(25): 2371-2381, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sotorasib showed anticancer activity in patients with KRAS p.G12C-mutated advanced solid tumors in a phase 1 study, and particularly promising anticancer activity was observed in a subgroup of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: In a single-group, phase 2 trial, we investigated the activity of sotorasib, administered orally at a dose of 960 mg once daily, in patients with KRAS p.G12C-mutated advanced NSCLC previously treated with standard therapies. The primary end point was objective response (complete or partial response) according to independent central review. Key secondary end points included duration of response, disease control (defined as complete response, partial response, or stable disease), progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Exploratory biomarkers were evaluated for their association with response to sotorasib therapy. RESULTS: Among the 126 enrolled patients, the majority (81.0%) had previously received both platinum-based chemotherapy and inhibitors of programmed death 1 (PD-1) or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). According to central review, 124 patients had measurable disease at baseline and were evaluated for response. An objective response was observed in 46 patients (37.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.6 to 46.2), including in 4 (3.2%) who had a complete response and in 42 (33.9%) who had a partial response. The median duration of response was 11.1 months (95% CI, 6.9 to could not be evaluated). Disease control occurred in 100 patients (80.6%; 95% CI, 72.6 to 87.2). The median progression-free survival was 6.8 months (95% CI, 5.1 to 8.2), and the median overall survival was 12.5 months (95% CI, 10.0 to could not be evaluated). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 88 of 126 patients (69.8%), including grade 3 events in 25 patients (19.8%) and a grade 4 event in 1 (0.8%). Responses were observed in subgroups defined according to PD-L1 expression, tumor mutational burden, and co-occurring mutations in STK11, KEAP1, or TP53. CONCLUSIONS: In this phase 2 trial, sotorasib therapy led to a durable clinical benefit without new safety signals in patients with previously treated KRAS p.G12C-mutated NSCLC. (Funded by Amgen and the National Institutes of Health; CodeBreaK100 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03600883.).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3500, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108491

RESUMO

WSX1, a receptor subunit for IL-27, is widely expressed in immune cells and closely involved in immune response, but its function in nonimmune cells remains unknown. Here we report that WSX1 is highly expressed in human hepatocytes but downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Using NRAS/AKT-derived spontaneous HCC mouse models, we reveal an IL-27-independent tumor-suppressive effect of WSX1 that largely relies on CD8+ T-cell immune surveillance via reducing neoplastic PD-L1 expression and the associated CD8+ T-cell exhaustion. Mechanistically, WSX1 transcriptionally downregulates an isoform of PI3K-PI3Kδ and thereby inactivates AKT, reducing AKT-induced GSK3ß inhibition. Activated GSK3ß then boosts PD-L1 degradation, resulting in PD-L1 reduction. Overall, we demonstrate that WSX1 is a tumor suppressor that reinforces hepatic immune surveillance by blocking the PI3Kδ/AKT/GSK3ß/PD-L1 pathway. Our results may yield insights into the host homeostatic control of immune response and benefit the development of cancer immunotherapies.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina/imunologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Feminino , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(10): 13626-13643, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: E2F2 is a member of the E2F transcription factor family and has important but not fully understood biological functions in cancers. The biological role of E2F2 in gastric cancer (GC) also remains unclear. METHODS: We examined the expression levels of E2F2 in GC using publicly available datasets such as TIMER, Oncomine, GEPIA, UALCAN, etc., and in our patient cohort, using quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. We further investigated the effects of E2F2 on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, autophagy, and the migration and invasion of GC cells by the wound healing assay, Transwell assay and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: E2F2 was highly expressed in both GC tissues and cells compared with normal gastric tissues/cells. High E2F2 expression was associated with poor overall survival (OS). In addition, the expression of E2F2 in GC was strongly correlated with a variety of immune markers. E2F2 overexpression promoted the migration and invasiveness of GC cells in vitro through inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated autophagy. CONCLUSION: High E2F2 expression was associated with the characteristics of invasive tumors and poor prognosis. E2F2 also had potential modulatory effects on tumor immunity. We discovered a novel function of E2F2 in the regulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated autophagy and the downstream processes of cell migration and invasion.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Fator de Transcrição E2F2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F2/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F2/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética
12.
Cancer Invest ; 39(6-7): 571-581, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148483

RESUMO

We aimed to explore whether chronic psychological stress affects the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) immunotherapy in bladder cancer. The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) process was applied during the administration of anti-PD-L1 for subcutaneous tumors in mice. Tumor regression was obviously shown in anti-PD-L1 therapy groups, while this effect was notably attenuated by CUMS. Additionally, increased infiltration of regulatory T-cells, decreased amount of CD8+ lymphocytes, and reduced levels of tumor-associated cytokines in tumor sites were observed in mice treated with anti-PD-L1 under CUMS. Therefore, chronic psychological stress could weaken the potency of anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy for bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Imunocompetência , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/psicologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3969, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172722

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis lead to durable clinical responses in subsets of cancer patients across multiple indications, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), urothelial carcinoma (UC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Herein, we complement PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tumor mutation burden (TMB) with RNA-seq in 366 patients to identify unifying and indication-specific molecular profiles that can predict response to checkpoint blockade across these tumor types. Multiple machine learning approaches failed to identify a baseline transcriptional signature highly predictive of response across these indications. Signatures described previously for immune checkpoint inhibitors also failed to validate. At the pathway level, significant heterogeneity is observed between indications, in particular within the PD-L1+ tumors. mUC and NSCLC are molecularly aligned, with cell cycle and DNA damage repair genes associated with response in PD-L1- tumors. At the gene level, the CDK4/6 inhibitor CDKN2A is identified as a significant transcriptional correlate of response, highlighting the association of non-immune pathways to the outcome of checkpoint blockade. This cross-indication analysis reveals molecular heterogeneity between mUC, NSCLC and RCC tumors, suggesting that indication-specific molecular approaches should be prioritized to formulate treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 16198-16218, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114970

RESUMO

An accumulation of studies has indicated aging to be a significant hazard factor for the development of tumors. Cellular senescence is positively associated with aging progress and aging-related genes (AGs) can regulate cellular senescence and tumor malignancy. While the association between AGs and the prognosis of patients with glioma is still unclear. In our study, we initially selected four survival-associated AGs and performed consensus clustering for these AGs based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We then explored the potential biological effects of four selected AGs. A prognostic risk model was constructed according to four selected AGs (LEP, TERT, PON1, and SSTR3) in the TCGA dataset and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database. Then we indicated the risk score was an independent prognostic index, and was also positively correlated with immune scores, estimate score, immune cell infiltration level, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, and expression of proinflammatory factors in patients with glioma. Finally, we performed the RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry assay to validate our bioinformatics results. Thus, this study indicated the risk model was concluded to possibly have potential function as an immune checkpoint inhibitor and to provide promising targets for developing individualized immunotherapies for patients with glioma.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Anticancer Res ; 41(6): 3193-3204, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We analyzed the prognostic efficacy of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During 2005-2016, 211 patients underwent neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) followed by surgical resection for LA-NSCLC at Asan Medical Center. PD-L1 expression and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) were measured pre- and post-neoadjuvant CCRT and analyzed using immuno - histochemical staining. RESULTS: In total, 39 patients were enrolled. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were significantly longer in patients with increased PD-L1 expression and increased CD8+ TIL density post-neoadjuvant CCRT. Univariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that increased levels of PD-L1 and increased CD8+ TIL density were prognostic factors for OS and DFS. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that increased levels of PD-L1 was a prognostic factor for OS and increased CD8+ TIL density for DFS. CONCLUSION: Relative changes in PD-L1 expression post-neoadjuvant CCRT can be utilized to predict the prognosis of LA-NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios
16.
N Engl J Med ; 384(22): 2102-2114, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of adjuvant treatment in high-risk muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma after radical surgery is not clear. METHODS: In a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma who had undergone radical surgery to receive, in a 1:1 ratio, either nivolumab (240 mg intravenously) or placebo every 2 weeks for up to 1 year. Neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy before trial entry was allowed. The primary end points were disease-free survival among all the patients (intention-to-treat population) and among patients with a tumor programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression level of 1% or more. Survival free from recurrence outside the urothelial tract was a secondary end point. RESULTS: A total of 353 patients were assigned to receive nivolumab and 356 to receive placebo. The median disease-free survival in the intention-to-treat population was 20.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.5 to 27.6) with nivolumab and 10.8 months (95% CI, 8.3 to 13.9) with placebo. The percentage of patients who were alive and disease-free at 6 months was 74.9% with nivolumab and 60.3% with placebo (hazard ratio for disease recurrence or death, 0.70; 98.22% CI, 0.55 to 0.90; P<0.001). Among patients with a PD-L1 expression level of 1% or more, the percentage of patients was 74.5% and 55.7%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.55; 98.72% CI, 0.35 to 0.85; P<0.001). The median survival free from recurrence outside the urothelial tract in the intention-to-treat population was 22.9 months (95% CI, 19.2 to 33.4) with nivolumab and 13.7 months (95% CI, 8.4 to 20.3) with placebo. The percentage of patients who were alive and free from recurrence outside the urothelial tract at 6 months was 77.0% with nivolumab and 62.7% with placebo (hazard ratio for recurrence outside the urothelial tract or death, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.89). Among patients with a PD-L1 expression level of 1% or more, the percentage of patients was 75.3% and 56.7%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.79). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 17.9% of the nivolumab group and 7.2% of the placebo group. Two treatment-related deaths due to pneumonitis were noted in the nivolumab group. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with high-risk muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma who had undergone radical surgery, disease-free survival was longer with adjuvant nivolumab than with placebo in the intention-to-treat population and among patients with a PD-L1 expression level of 1% or more. (Funded by Bristol Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceutical; CheckMate 274 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02632409.).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25773, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106609

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Anti-PD-1 antibody is the standard therapy for treatment-resistant gastric cancer, but only a limited number of patients respond. Additionally, cases of hyper-progressive disease (HPD) in which tumor growth accelerates after anti-PD-1 antibody administration have been reported; however, the biological mechanism has not been elucidated. PATIENT CONCERNS: In the present case, metastatic gastric cancer was treated with the anti-PD-1 antibody, nivolumab, as third-line treatment. DIAGNOSIS: After the initiation of nivolumab therapy, a rapidly enlarging para-aortic lymph nodes were observed leading to the diagnosis of HPD. INTERVENTIONS: Multiplex immunohistochemistry was used to examine immune cells infiltrating in the primary tumor and in liver metastasis which were obtained before nivolumab treatment, and in lymph node metastasis which presented with HPD after nivolumab therapy. OUTCOMES: In the primary tumor, helper T (Th) cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), regulatory T (Treg) cells, and PD-L1-negative macrophages were observed. On the other hand, in metastatic lymph nodes presenting with HPD, PD-L1-positive macrophages prominently increased, while Treg cells, CTLs, and Th cells decreased. PD-L1 expression was not observed in gastric cancer cells among the three specimens. LESSONS: The findings suggest the possibility that PD-L1-positive M2 macrophage might contribute to acceleration of tumor growth with anti-PD-1 therapy in the present case.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Progressão da Doença , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/imunologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/patologia
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 695242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163490

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has reached direct and indirect medical and social consequences with a subset of patients who rapidly worsen and die from severe-critical manifestations. As a result, there is still an urgent need to identify prognostic biomarkers and effective therapeutic approaches. Severe-critical manifestations of COVID-19 are caused by a dysregulated immune response. Immune checkpoint molecules such as Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) play an important role in regulating the host immune response and several lines of evidence underly the role of PD-1 modulation in COVID-19. Here, by analyzing blood sample collection from both hospitalized COVID-19 patients and healthy donors, as well as levels of PD-L1 RNA expression in a variety of model systems of SARS-CoV-2, including in vitro tissue cultures, ex-vivo infections of primary epithelial cells and biological samples obtained from tissue biopsies and blood sample collection of COVID-19 and healthy individuals, we demonstrate that serum levels of PD-L1 have a prognostic role in COVID-19 patients and that PD-L1 dysregulation is associated to COVID-19 pathogenesis. Specifically, PD-L1 upregulation is induced by SARS-CoV-2 in infected epithelial cells and is dysregulated in several types of immune cells of COVID-19 patients including monocytes, neutrophils, gamma delta T cells and CD4+ T cells. These results have clinical significance since highlighted the potential role of PD-1/PD-L1 axis in COVID-19, suggest a prognostic role of PD-L1 and provide a further rationale to implement novel clinical studies in COVID-19 patients with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/patologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Regulação para Cima
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 650465, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177897

RESUMO

Identification of novel immune biomarkers to gauge the underlying pathology and severity of COVID-19 has been difficult due to the lack of longitudinal studies. Here, we analyzed serum collected upon COVID-19 admission (t1), 48 hours (t2), and seven days later (t3) using Olink proteomics and correlated to clinical, demographics, and therapeutic data. Older age positively correlated with decorin, pleiotrophin, and TNFRS21 but inversely correlated with chemokine (both C-C and C-X-C type) ligands, monocyte attractant proteins (MCP) and TNFRS14. The burden of pre-existing conditions was positively correlated with MCP-4, CAIX, TWEAK, TNFRS12A, and PD-L2 levels. Individuals with COVID-19 demonstrated increased expression of several chemokines, most notably from the C-C and C-X-C family, as well as MCP-1 and MCP-3 early in the course of the disease. Similarly, deceased individuals had elevated MCP-1 and MCP-3 as well as Gal-9 serum levels. LAMP3, GZMB, and LAG3 at admission correlated with mortality. Only CX3CL13 and MCP-4 correlated positively with APACHE score and length of stay, while decorin, MUC-16 and TNFRSF21 with being admitted to the ICU. We also identified several organ-failure-specific immunological markers, including those for respiratory (IL-18, IL-15, Gal-9) or kidney failure (CD28, VEGF). Treatment with hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, convalescent plasma, and steroids had a very limited effect on the serum variation of biomarkers. Our study identified several potential targets related to COVID-19 heterogeneity (MCP-1, MCP-3, MCP-4, TNFR superfamily members, and programmed death-ligand), suggesting a potential role of these molecules in the pathology of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Quimiocinas CC/sangue , Proteínas Quimioatraentes de Monócitos/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Soros Imunes , Sistema Imunitário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067112

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous disease arising from the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Despite multimodality treatments approximately half of all patients with locally advanced disease relapse and the prognosis of patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC is dismal. The introduction of checkpoint inhibitors improved the treatment options for these patients and pembrolizumab alone or in combination with a platinum and fluorouracil is now the standard of care for first-line therapy. However, approximately only one third of unselected patients respond to this combination and the response rate to checkpoint inhibitors alone is even lower. This shows that there is an urgent need to improve prognostication and prediction of treatment benefits in patients with HNSCC. In this review, we summarize the most relevant risk factors in the field and discuss their roles and limitations. The human papilloma virus (HPV) status for patients with oropharyngeal cancer and the combined positive score are the only biomarkers consistently used in clinical routine. Other factors, such as the tumor mutational burden and the immune microenvironment have been highly studied and are promising but need validation in prospective trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Tabaco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...