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1.
Elife ; 92020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876563

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) are two highly infectious and lethal viruses causing major economic losses to pig production. Here, we report generation of double-gene-knockout (DKO) pigs harboring edited knockout alleles for known receptor proteins CD163 and pAPN and show that DKO pigs are completely resistant to genotype 2 PRRSV and TGEV. We found no differences in meat-production or reproductive-performance traits between wild-type and DKO pigs, but detected increased iron in DKO muscle. Additional infection challenge experiments showed that DKO pigs exhibited decreased susceptibility to porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), thus offering unprecedented in vivo evidence of pAPN as one of PDCoV receptors. Beyond showing that multiple gene edits can be combined in a livestock animal to achieve simultaneous resistance to two major viruses, our study introduces a valuable model for investigating infection mechanisms of porcine pathogenic viruses that exploit pAPN or CD163 for entry.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD13/deficiência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/patogenicidade , Receptores de Superfície Celular/deficiência , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível/patogenicidade , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/imunologia , Composição Corporal , Antígenos CD13/genética , Antígenos CD13/imunologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/genética , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/imunologia , Gastroenterite Suína Transmissível/virologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Indústria de Embalagem de Carne , Fenótipo , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Sus scrofa/genética , Suínos , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível/imunologia , Ganho de Peso
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4803, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968068

RESUMO

Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumors, but the molecular drivers of meningioma tumorigenesis are poorly understood. We hypothesized that investigating intratumor heterogeneity in meningiomas would elucidate biologic drivers and reveal new targets for molecular therapy. To test this hypothesis, here we perform multiplatform molecular profiling of 86 spatially-distinct samples from 13 human meningiomas. Our data reveal that regional alterations in chromosome structure underlie clonal transcriptomic, epigenomic, and histopathologic signatures in meningioma. Stereotactic co-registration of sample coordinates to preoperative magnetic resonance images further suggest that high apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) distinguishes meningioma regions with proliferating cells enriched for developmental gene expression programs. To understand the function of these genes in meningioma, we develop a human cerebral organoid model of meningioma and validate the high ADC marker genes CDH2 and PTPRZ1 as potential targets for meningioma therapy using live imaging, single cell RNA sequencing, CRISPR interference, and pharmacology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Heterogeneidade Genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias Meníngeas/genética , Neoplasias Meníngeas/metabolismo , Idoso , Antígenos CD/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Caderinas/genética , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Epigenômica , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genômica , Humanos , Neoplasias Meníngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Meníngeas/patologia , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 5 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Transcriptoma
4.
Sci Immunol ; 5(51)2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989174

RESUMO

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by excessive inflammation of the lower airways. The balance of protective versus pathological immune responses in COVID-19 is incompletely understood. Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are antimicrobial T cells that recognize bacterial metabolites, and can also function as innate-like sensors and mediators of antiviral responses. Here, we investigated the MAIT cell compartment in COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe disease, as well as in convalescence. We show profound and preferential decline in MAIT cells in the circulation of patients with active disease paired with strong activation. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses indicated significant MAIT cell enrichment and pro-inflammatory IL-17A bias in the airways. Unsupervised analysis identified MAIT cell CD69high and CXCR3low immunotypes associated with poor clinical outcome. MAIT cell levels normalized in the convalescent phase, consistent with dynamic recruitment to the tissues and later release back into the circulation when disease is resolved. These findings indicate that MAIT cells are engaged in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and suggest their possible involvement in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1870, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983106

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which is caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus is a severe flu-like illness which is associated with hyperinflammation and immune dysfunction. The virus induces a strong T and B cell response but little is known about the immune pathology of this viral infection. Acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria also causes acute clinical illness and is characterized by hyperinflammation due to the strong production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a massive activation of T cells. In malaria, T cells express a variety of co-inhibitory receptors which might be a consequence of their activation but also might limit their overwhelming function. Thus, T cells are implicated in protection as well as in pathology. The outcome of malaria is thought to be a consequence of the balance between co-activation and co-inhibition of T cells. Following the hypothesis that T cells in COVID-19 might have a similar, dual function, we comprehensively characterized the differentiation (CCR7, CD45RO) and activation status (HLA-DR, CD38, CD69, CD226), the co-expression of co-inhibitory molecules (PD1, TIM-3, LAG-3, BTLA, TIGIT), as well as the expression pattern of the transcription factors T-bet and eomes of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells of PBMC of n = 20 SARS-CoV-2 patients compared to n = 10 P. falciparum infected patients and n = 13 healthy controls. Overall, acute COVID-19 and malaria infection resulted in a comparably elevated activation and altered differentiation status of the CD8+ and CD4+ T cell populations. T effector cells of COVID-19 and malaria patients showed higher frequencies of the inhibitory receptors T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3) and Lymphocyte-activation gene-3 (LAG-3) which was linked to increased activation levels and an upregulation of the transcription factors T-bet and eomes. COVID-19 patients with a more severe disease course showed higher levels of LAG-3 and TIM-3 than patients with a mild disease course. During recovery, a rapid normalization of these inhibitory receptors could be observed. In summary, comparing the expression of different co-inhibitory molecules in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in COVID-19 vs. malaria, there is a transient increase of the expression of certain inhibitory receptors like LAG-3 and TIM-3 in COVID-19 in the overall context of acute immune activation.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Células Cultivadas , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
J Exp Med ; 217(12)2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886755

RESUMO

COVID-19 includes lung infection ranging from mild pneumonia to life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Dysregulated host immune response in the lung is a key feature in ARDS pathophysiology. However, cellular actors involved in COVID-19-driven ARDS are poorly understood. Here, in blood and airways of severe COVID-19 patients, we serially analyzed unconventional T cells, a heterogeneous class of T lymphocytes (MAIT, γδT, and iNKT cells) with potent antimicrobial and regulatory functions. Circulating unconventional T cells of COVID-19 patients presented with a profound and persistent phenotypic alteration. In the airways, highly activated unconventional T cells were detected, suggesting a potential contribution in the regulation of local inflammation. Finally, expression of the CD69 activation marker on blood iNKT and MAIT cells of COVID-19 patients on admission was predictive of clinical course and disease severity. Thus, COVID-19 patients present with an altered unconventional T cell biology, and further investigations will be required to precisely assess their functions during SARS-CoV-2-driven ARDS.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/metabolismo , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Idoso , Antígenos CD/sangue , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/sangue , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4660, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938908

RESUMO

Intratumor spatial heterogeneity facilitates therapeutic resistance in glioblastoma (GBM). Nonetheless, understanding of GBM heterogeneity is largely limited to the surgically resectable tumor core lesion while the seeds for recurrence reside in the unresectable tumor edge. In this study, stratification of GBM to core and edge demonstrates clinically relevant surgical sequelae. We establish regionally derived models of GBM edge and core that retain their spatial identity in a cell autonomous manner. Upon xenotransplantation, edge-derived cells show a higher capacity for infiltrative growth, while core cells demonstrate core lesions with greater therapy resistance. Investigation of intercellular signaling between these two tumor populations uncovers the paracrine crosstalk from tumor core that promotes malignancy and therapy resistance of edge cells. These phenotypic alterations are initiated by HDAC1 in GBM core cells which subsequently affect edge cells by secreting the soluble form of CD109 protein. Our data reveal the role of intracellular communication between regionally different populations of GBM cells in tumor recurrence.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioblastoma/patologia , Histona Desacetilase 1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Histona Desacetilase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona Desacetilase 1/genética , Histona Desacetilase 2/genética , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos SCID , Fenilbutiratos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22173, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925786

RESUMO

Angiogenic factor with G-patch and FHA domain 1 (AGGF1) is a newly initiator of angiogenesis. Forkhead box C2 (FOXC2) that is a member of the winged spiral transcription factor family plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Epithelial-cadherin (E-cad) that is an adhesion molecule is also involved in EMT. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of AGGF1, FOXC2, and E-cad in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and their clinical significance.Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the expression of AGGF1, FOXC2, and E-cad in 170 ESCC specimens and corresponding normal esophageal mucosa tissues. Follow-up data was also collected.The positive rates of AGGF1 and FOXC2 expression were significantly higher in ESCC group when compared with the control group; the positive rate of E-cad expression was significantly lower in ESCC group when compared with the control group. Positive rates of AGGF1, FOXC2, and E-cad expression were significantly associated with grades of differentiation, tumor grades, lymph node metastasis stages, as well as tumor-node-metastasis stages. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that positive expression of AGGF1 or FOXC2 for ESCC patients had significantly unfavorably overall survival time when compared with patients with negative expression of AGGF1 or FOXC2; and positive expression of E-cad for ESCC patients had significantly longer overall survival time when compared with patients with negative expression of E-cad. Multivariate analysis indicated that AGGF1, FOXC2, and E-cad expression and tumor-node-metastasis stages were postoperative independent prognostic factors for ESCC patients.AGGF1, FOXC2, and E-cad may be considered promising biomarkers of ESCC patients' prognosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Angiogênicas/biossíntese , Antígenos CD/biossíntese , Caderinas/biossíntese , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/biossíntese , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neovascularização Patológica , Prognóstico
9.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948688

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection induces a T cell response that most likely contributes to virus control in COVID-19 patients but may also induce immunopathology. Until now, the cytotoxic T cell response has not been very well characterized in COVID-19 patients. Here, we analyzed the differentiation and cytotoxic profile of T cells in 30 cases of mild COVID-19 during acute infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection induced a cytotoxic response of CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ T cells, characterized by the simultaneous production of granzyme A and B as well as perforin within different effector CD8+ T cell subsets. PD-1-expressing CD8+ T cells also produced cytotoxic molecules during acute infection, indicating that they were not functionally exhausted. However, in COVID-19 patients over the age of 80 years, the cytotoxic T cell potential was diminished, especially in effector memory and terminally differentiated effector CD8+ cells, showing that elderly patients have impaired cellular immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Our data provide valuable information about T cell responses in COVID-19 patients that may also have important implications for vaccine development.IMPORTANCE Cytotoxic T cells are responsible for the elimination of infected cells and are key players in the control of viruses. CD8+ T cells with an effector phenotype express cytotoxic molecules and are able to perform target cell killing. COVID-19 patients with a mild disease course were analyzed for the differentiation status and cytotoxic profile of CD8+ T cells. SARS-CoV-2 infection induced a vigorous cytotoxic CD8+ T cell response. However, this cytotoxic profile of T cells was not detected in COVID-19 patients over the age of 80 years. Thus, the absence of a cytotoxic response in elderly patients might be a possible reason for the more frequent severity of COVID-19 in this age group than in younger patients.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citotoxinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia
10.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(7): 930-935, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of neutralizing CD96 on natural killer (NK) cell functions in mice with pulmonary Chlamydia muridarum infection and explore the possible mechanism. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into infection group (Cm group), anti-CD96 treatment group (anti-CD96 group) and control group (n=5). In the former two groups, C. muridarum was inoculated via intranasal administration to establish mouse models of pulmonary C. muridarum infection, and the mice in the control group received intranasal administration of the inhalation buffer. In anti-CD96 group, the mice were injected with anti-CD96 antibody intraperitoneally at the dose of 250 µg every 3 days after the infection; the mice in Cm group received intraperitoneal injections of saline. The body weight of the mice was recorded daily. The mice were sacrificed 5 days after C. muridarum infection, and CD96 expression was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. HE staining and pathological scores were used to evaluate pneumonia of the mice. The inclusion body forming units (IFUs) were detected in the lung tissue homogenates to assess lung tissue chlamydia load. Flow cytometry and ELISA were used to assess the capacity of the lung NK cells to produce interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and regulate macrophages and Th1 cells. RESULTS: C. muridarum infection inhibited CD96 expression in NK cells of the mice. Compared with those in Cm group, the mice in antiCD96 mice showed significantly milder lung inflammation (P < 0.05) and reduced chlamydia load in the lung tissue (P < 0.05). Neutralizing CD96 with anti-CD96 significantly enhanced IFN-γ secretion by the NK cells (P < 0.05) and augmented the immunoregulatory effect of the NK cells shown by enhanced responses of the lung macrophages (P < 0.05) and Th1 cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of CD96 alleviates pneumonia in C. muridarum-infected mice possibly by enhancing IFN-γ secretion by NK cells and augmenting the immunoregulatory effect of the NK cells on innate and adaptive immunity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Chlamydia muridarum , Células Matadoras Naturais , Lesão Pulmonar , Animais , Antígenos CD , Interferon gama , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
11.
Life Sci ; 259: 118389, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898522

RESUMO

AIMS: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released at a high concentration in the tumor microenvironment. The overexpression of ectonucleotidases in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), metabolizing ΑΤP to the immunosuppressive adenosine, is studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the expression of the ectonucleotidases CD73 and CD39 in NSCLC in parallel with immunological parameters and markers of hypoxia and anaerobic metabolism. In vitro experiments with A549 and H1299 lung cancer cell lines were also conducted. RESULTS: CD73 and CD39 were not expressed by normal bronchial and alveolar epithelium. In contrast, these were overexpressed by cancer cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). High CD73 cancer cell expression was directly linked with lactate dehydrogenase LDH5 and with hypoxia-inducible factor HIF1α expression by cancer cells. The expression of CD39 by CAFs was directly linked with PD-L1 expression by cancer cells. A significant abundance of FOXP3+ and PD-1+ TILs was noted in tumors with high CD73 and CD39 stroma expression. In in vitro experiments, hypoxia and acidity induced CD73 mRNA and protein levels in cancer cell lines. Exposure of cancer cell lines to adenosine induced the expression of PD-L1 and LDHA mRNA and protein levels. CONCLUSION: Ectonucleotidases are up-regulated in cancer cells, CAFs, and TILs in lung tumors. Such overexpression is linked with regulatory TIL-phenotype and PD-L1 up-regulation by cancer cells. Overexpression of LDH5 is up-regulated by adenosine, creating a vicious cycle, as the high amounts of ATP produced by LDH5-mediated anaerobic glycolysis promote the production of adenosine by a tumor microenvironment rich in ectonucleotidases.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Apirase/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Hipóxia/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Tolerância Imunológica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5557-5566, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: E- and P-cadherin (E-cadh, P-cadh) control tumor cell invasion, metastatic or stemness potential and chemotherapy resistance. The study aimed to assess E- and P-cadherin expression in breast cancer molecular subtypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for E-cadh and P-cadh was performed for 97 breast cancer cases. Membrane (M), cytoplasmic (C) or mixed (MC) patterns of E-cadh and P-cadh were considered in our evaluation. RESULTS: E-cadh and P-cadh C pattern was significantly correlated in the HER2 subtype (p=0.031). P-cadh M pattern was highly specific for the HER2 subtype (p=0.002). Only P-cadh C characterized the triple negative breast cancer subtype (p=0.015). For Luminal B/HER2 cases, P-cadh M pattern was strongly coexpressed with the E-cadh MC pattern (p=0.012). Progesterone receptor (PR) expression influenced E-cadh M pattern in the Luminal B/HER2 subtype (p=0.042). CONCLUSION: E- and P-cadherins define distinct subgroups within breast cancer molecular subtypes. Our findings support the inclusion of E- and P-cadherin into breast cancer molecular classification.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Caderinas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/classificação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3987, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778678

RESUMO

Aneuploidy, the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes, is a major cause of early pregnancy loss in humans. Yet, the developmental consequences of specific aneuploidies remain unexplored. Here, we determine the extent of post-implantation development of human embryos bearing common aneuploidies using a recently established culture platform. We show that while trisomy 15 and trisomy 21 embryos develop similarly to euploid embryos, monosomy 21 embryos exhibit high rates of developmental arrest, and trisomy 16 embryos display a hypo-proliferation of the trophoblast, the tissue that forms the placenta. Using human trophoblast stem cells, we show that this phenotype can be mechanistically ascribed to increased levels of the cell adhesion protein E-CADHERIN, which lead to premature differentiation and cell cycle arrest. We identify three cases of mosaicism in embryos diagnosed as full aneuploid by pre-implantation genetic testing. Our results present the first detailed analysis of post-implantation development of aneuploid human embryos.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Implantação do Embrião/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Antígenos CD/genética , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 21 , Feminino , Genes erbB-1/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Monossomia , Mosaicismo , Gravidez , Células-Tronco , Trissomia
15.
Nat Immunol ; 21(9): 1107-1118, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788748

RESUMO

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the relationship between disease severity and the host immune response is not fully understood. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing in peripheral blood samples of 5 healthy donors and 13 patients with COVID-19, including moderate, severe and convalescent cases. Through determining the transcriptional profiles of immune cells, coupled with assembled T cell receptor and B cell receptor sequences, we analyzed the functional properties of immune cells. Most cell types in patients with COVID-19 showed a strong interferon-α response and an overall acute inflammatory response. Moreover, intensive expansion of highly cytotoxic effector T cell subsets, such as CD4+ effector-GNLY (granulysin), CD8+ effector-GNLY and NKT CD160, was associated with convalescence in moderate patients. In severe patients, the immune landscape featured a deranged interferon response, profound immune exhaustion with skewed T cell receptor repertoire and broad T cell expansion. These findings illustrate the dynamic nature of immune responses during disease progression.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/imunologia , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA-Seq , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Célula Única
16.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2265-2277, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803313

RESUMO

ß-Thalassemia is an inherited single gene disorder related to reduced synthesis of the ß-globin chain of hemoglobin. Patients with ß-thalassemia present variable clinical severity ranging from asymptomatic trait to severe transfusion-dependent anemia and multiple organs complications. Moreover, multiple immune abnormalities are a major concern in ß-thalassemia patients. Aberrant neutrophil effector function plays a pivotal role in infection susceptibility in these patients. In severe and persistent inflammation, immature neutrophils are released from the bone marrow and are functionally different compared with mature ones. Despite some abnormalities reported for thalassemia patient's immune system, few data exist on the characterization of human neutrophils in ß-thalassemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotype and function of circulating neutrophil subsets in patients with ß-thalassemia major and with ß-thalassemia intermedia divided in transfusion-dependent and non-transfusion-dependent. By the use of immunochemical and cytofluorimetric analyses, we observed that patients' CD16+ neutrophils exhibit abnormalities in their phenotype and functions and the abnormalities vary according to the clinical form of the disease and to the neutrophil subset (CD16bright and CD16dim). Abnormalities include altered surface expression of the innate immune receptor CD45, Toll-like receptor 4, and CD32, reduced ability to produce an oxidative burst, and elevated levels of membrane lipid peroxidation, especially in patients with a more severe form of the disease. Overall, our results indicating the occurrence of an immuno-senescent phenotype on circulating neutrophils from thalassemia patients suggest the usefulness of neutrophil feature assessment as a tool for better clinical management of ß-thalassemia.


Assuntos
Neutrófilos/imunologia , Talassemia beta/sangue , Adulto , Antígenos CD/sangue , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Senescência Celular , Terapia por Quelação , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Quelantes de Ferro/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Leucócitos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ativação de Neutrófilo , Neutrófilos/química , Neutrófilos/classificação , Explosão Respiratória , Esplenectomia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Talassemia beta/imunologia , Talassemia beta/terapia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 590, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiviral therapy is recommended for patients with immune-active chronic hepatitis B (CHB) to decrease the risk of liver-related complications. However, the outcomes of the pegylated IFN-α (PEG-IFN-α) therapy vary among CHB patients. We aimed to identify factors that can influence the outcomes in CHB patients who received antiviral PEG-IFN-α monotherapy. METHODS: Thirty-two CHB patients who received PEG-IFN-α monotherapy were enrolled in this study. All of the patients underwent two liver biopsies at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of the therapy. CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD68+ mononuclear cells, and PD-1 levels in the 64 liver biopsy specimens were examined via immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The overall median frequency of CD8+ T cells in the liver tissues of 32 CHB patients significantly decreased at 6 months after the therapy initiation (p < 0.01). In the FIER (fibrosis and inflammation response with HBeAg seroconversion) group, CD8+PD-1+ T cells significantly decreased at 6 months (p < 0.05), while CD8+PD-1- T cells had no significant difference. On the contrary, in the FIENR (no fibrosis and inflammation response and HBeAg seroconversion) group, CD8+PD-1- T cells significantly decreased after 6 months of PEG-IFN-α treatment (p < 0.05), while CD8+PD-1+ T cells had no significant difference. In addition, the levels of CD68+ mononuclear cells in the FIER group showed an overall increasing trend after treatment (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The changes in the levels of CD8+PD-1+ T cells and CD68+ mononuclear cells may be related to the response to PEG-IFN-α therapy.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Fígado/patologia , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Feminino , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0225420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764749

RESUMO

The H196 residue in SIVmac239 Nef is conserved across the majority of HIV and SIV isolates, lies immediately adjacent to the AP-2 (adaptor protein 2) binding di-leucine domain (ExxxLM195), and is critical for several described AP-2 dependent Nef functions, including the downregulation of tetherin (BST-2/CD317), CD4, and others. Surprisingly, many stocks of the closely related SIVmac251 swarm virus harbor a nef allele encoding a Q196. In SIVmac239, this variant is associated with loss of multiple AP-2 dependent functions. Publicly available sequences for SIVmac251 stocks were mined for variants linked to Q196 that might compensate for functional defects associated with this residue. Variants were engineered into the SIVmac239 backbone and in Nef expression plasmids and flow cytometry was used to examine surface tetherin expression in primary CD4 T cells and surface CD4 expression in SupT1 cells engineered to express rhesus CD4. We found that SIVmac251 stocks that encode a Q196 residue in Nef uniformly also encode an upstream R191 residue. We show that R191 restores the ability of Nef to downregulate tetherin in the presence of Q196 and has a similar but less pronounced impact on CD4 expression. However, a published report showed Q196 commonly evolves to H196 in vivo, suggesting a fitness cost. R191 may represent compensatory evolution to restore the ability to downregulate tetherin lost in viruses harboring Q196.


Assuntos
Antígeno 2 do Estroma da Médula Óssea/metabolismo , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/genética , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígeno 2 do Estroma da Médula Óssea/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene nef/metabolismo , Macaca mulatta/metabolismo , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/metabolismo , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/fisiologia , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/metabolismo
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3812, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732889

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction plays a key role in diabetic complications. This study discovers significant upregulation of Quaking-7 (QKI-7) in iPS cell-derived ECs when exposed to hyperglycemia, and in human iPS-ECs from diabetic patients. QKI-7 is also highly expressed in human coronary arterial ECs from diabetic donors, and on blood vessels from diabetic critical limb ischemia patients undergoing a lower-limb amputation. QKI-7 expression is tightly controlled by RNA splicing factors CUG-BP and hnRNPM through direct binding. QKI-7 upregulation is correlated with disrupted cell barrier, compromised angiogenesis and enhanced monocyte adhesion. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) and mRNA-decay assays reveal that QKI-7 binds and promotes mRNA degradation of downstream targets CD144, Neuroligin 1 (NLGN1), and TNF-α-stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6). When hindlimb ischemia is induced in diabetic mice and QKI-7 is knocked-down in vivo in ECs, reperfusion and blood flow recovery are markedly promoted. Manipulation of QKI-7 represents a promising strategy for the treatment of diabetic vascular complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Caderinas/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Isquemia/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
20.
Science ; 369(6506): 942-949, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820120

RESUMO

Gamma delta (γδ) T cells infiltrate most human tumors, but current immunotherapies fail to exploit their in situ major histocompatibility complex-independent tumoricidal potential. Activation of γδ T cells can be elicited by butyrophilin and butyrophilin-like molecules that are structurally similar to the immunosuppressive B7 family members, yet how they regulate and coordinate αß and γδ T cell responses remains unknown. Here, we report that the butyrophilin BTN3A1 inhibits tumor-reactive αß T cell receptor activation by preventing segregation of N-glycosylated CD45 from the immune synapse. Notably, CD277-specific antibodies elicit coordinated restoration of αß T cell effector activity and BTN2A1-dependent γδ lymphocyte cytotoxicity against BTN3A1+ cancer cells, abrogating malignant progression. Targeting BTN3A1 therefore orchestrates cooperative killing of established tumors by αß and γδ T cells and may present a treatment strategy for tumors resistant to existing immunotherapies.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/imunologia , Butirofilinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Butirofilinas/imunologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD/genética , Butirofilinas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/imunologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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