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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375379

RESUMO

Histidine-rich proteins 2 and 3 gene (pfhrp2 and pfhrp3) deletions affect the efficacy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), compromising the correct identification of the Plasmodium falciparum species. Therefore, molecular surveillance is necessary for the investigation of the actual prevalence of this phenomenon and the extent of the disappearance of these genes in these areas and other South American countries, thus guiding national malaria control programs on the appropriate use of RDTs. This study aimed to evaluate the pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion in P. falciparum in endemic areas of the Brazilian Amazon. Aliquots of DNA from the biorepository of the Laboratory of Basic Research in Malaria, Evandro Chagas Institute, with a positive diagnosis for P. falciparum infection as determined by microscopy and molecular assays, were included. Monoinfection was confirmed by nested-polymerase chain reaction assay, and DNA quality was assessed by amplification of the merozoite surface protein-2 gene (msp2). The pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were amplified using primers for the region between exons 1 and 2 and for all extension of exon 2. Aliquots of DNA from 192 P. falciparum isolates were included in the study, with 68.7% (132/192) from the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre) and 31.3% (60/192) from Manaus (Amazonas). Of this total, 82.8% (159/192) of the samples were considered of good quality. In the state of Acre, 71.7% (71/99) showed pfhrp2 gene deletion and 94.9% (94/99) showed pfhrp3 gene deletion, while in the state of Amazonas, 100.0% (60/60) of the samples showed pfhrp2 gene deletion and 98.3% (59/60) showed pfhrp3 gene deletion. Moreover, 79.8% (127/159) of isolates displayed gene deletion. Our findings confirm the presence of a parasite population with high frequencies of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in the Brazilian Amazon region. This suggests reconsidering the use of HRP2-based RDTs in the Acre and Amazonas states and calls attention to the importance of molecular surveillance and mapping of pfhrp2/pfhrp3 deletions in this area and in other locations in the Amazon region to guarantee appropriate patient care, control and ultimately contribute to achieving P. falciparum malaria elimination.


Assuntos
Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Malária Falciparum , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008772, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866214

RESUMO

The tick-borne apicomplexan parasite, Babesia bovis, a highly persistent bovine pathogen, expresses VESA1 proteins on the infected erythrocyte surface to mediate cytoadhesion. The cytoadhesion ligand, VESA1, which protects the parasite from splenic passage, is itself protected from a host immune response by rapid antigenic variation. B. bovis relies upon segmental gene conversion (SGC) as a major mechanism to vary VESA1 structure. Gene conversion has been considered a form of homologous recombination (HR), a process for which Rad51 proteins are considered pivotal components. This could make BbRad51 a choice target for development of inhibitors that both interfere with parasite genome integrity and disrupt HR-dependent antigenic variation. Previously, we knocked out the Bbrad51 gene from the B. bovis haploid genome, resulting in a phenotype of sensitivity to methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and apparent loss of HR-dependent integration of exogenous DNA. In a further characterization of BbRad51, we demonstrate here that ΔBbrad51 parasites are not more sensitive than wild-type to DNA damage induced by γ-irradiation, and repair their genome with similar kinetics. To assess the need for BbRad51 in SGC, RT-PCR was used to observe alterations to a highly variant region of ves1α transcripts over time. Mapping of these amplicons to the genome revealed a significant reduction of in situ transcriptional switching (isTS) among ves loci, but not cessation. By combining existing pipelines for analysis of the amplicons, we demonstrate that SGC continues unabated in ΔBbrad51 parasites, albeit at an overall reduced rate, and a reduction in SGC tract lengths was observed. By contrast, no differences were observed in the lengths of homologous sequences at which recombination occurred. These results indicate that, whereas BbRad51 is not essential to babesial antigenic variation, it influences epigenetic control of ves loci, and its absence significantly reduces successful variation. These results necessitate a reconsideration of the likely enzymatic mechanism(s) underlying SGC and suggest the existence of additional targets for development of small molecule inhibitors.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários , Babesia bovis , Conversão Gênica/imunologia , Genoma de Protozoário/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários , Rad51 Recombinase , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Babesia bovis/genética , Babesia bovis/imunologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/imunologia , Haploidia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/imunologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238749, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886699

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: False-negative malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results amongst symptomatic malaria patients are detrimental as they could lead to ineffective malaria case management. This study determined the nationwide contribution of parasites with Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp 3 gene deletions to false negative malaria RDT results in Ghana. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study where whole blood (~2 ml) was collected from patients presenting with malaria symptoms at 100 health facilities in all the regions in Ghana from May to August 2018. An aliquot of the blood was used to prepare thin and thick blood smears, filter paper blood spots (DBS) and spot a PfHRP 2 RDT kit. The remaining blood was separated into plasma and blood cells and stored at -20°C. Plasmodium parasite density and species identity was estimated from the blood smears. Plasmodium falciparum specific 18S rRNA PCR, merozoite surface protein (msp 1) and glutamate rich protein (glurp) gene PCR were used to identify P. falciparum positive samples, which were subjected to Pfhrp 2/3 exon1-2 and exon2 genotyping. RESULTS: Of the 2,860 microscopically P. falciparum positive patients analyzed, 134 (4.69%) had false negative P. falciparum specific RDT results. Samples for PCR analysis was available for 127 of the false negative patients, and the analysis identified 116 (91.3%) as positive for P. falciparum. Only 58.1% (79/116) of the false negative RDT samples tested positive by msp 1 and glurp PCR. Genotyping of exon 1-2 and exon 2 of the Pfhrp 2 gene identified 12.9% (10/79) and 39.5% (31/79) of samples respectively to have deletions. Genotyping exon 1-2 and exon 2 of the Pfhrp 3 gene identified 15.2% (12/79) and 40.5% (32/79) of samples respectively to have deletions. Only 5% (4/79) of the false negative samples had deletions in both exon 1-2 and exon 2 of the Pfhrp 2 gene. Out of the 49 samples that tested positive for aldolase by luminex, 32.6% (16/49) and) had deletions in Pfhrp 2 exon 2 and 2% (1/49) had deletions in both exon 2 and exon 1-2 of the Pfhrp 2 gene. CONCLUSIONS: The low prevalence of false negative RDT test results provides assurance that PfHRP 2 based malaria RDT kits remain effective in diagnosing symptomatic malaria patients across all the Regions of Ghana. Although there was a low prevalence of parasites with deletions in exon 2 and exon 1-2 of the Pfhrp 2 gene the prevalence of parasites with deletions in Pfhrp 2 exon 2 was about a third of the false negative RDT results. The need to ensure rapid, accurate and reliable malaria diagnosis requires continuous surveillance of parasites with Pfhrp 2 gene deletions.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Adulto , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3639-3648, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930858

RESUMO

Due to its wide presence in apicomplexan parasites as well as high polymorphism and antigenic diversity, the variable merozoite surface antigen (VMSA) family in Babesia sp. has attracted increasing attention of researchers. Here, all the reported VMSA genes of Babesia spp. were obtained from GenBank, and multiple alignments were performed by using conserved regions to blast the Babesia orientalis genome database (unpublished data). Five MSA genes (named MSA-2a1, MSA-2a2, MSA-2c1, MSA-1, and MSA-2c2, respectively) were identified, sequenced, and cloned from B. orientalis, which were shown to encode proteins with open reading frames ranging in size from 266 (MSA-2c1) to 317 (MSA-1) amino acids. All the five proteins contain an MSA-2c superfamily conserved domain, with an identical signal peptide and glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchor for each of them. The five proteins were also predicted to contain B cell epitopes, with only three for BoMSA-2c1, the smallest protein in the BoVMSA family, while at least six for each of the others. Notably, BoMSA-2a1 has 2 identical copies, a specific phenomenon only present in B. orientalis. This research has determined the MSA genes of B. orientalis and provides a genetic basis for further research of functional genes in B. orientalis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Babesia/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície/genética , Babesia/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/análise , Proteína 1 de Superfície de Merozoito/genética , Merozoítos/química , Merozoítos/imunologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1902-1909, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840197

RESUMO

In malaria-endemic countries, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) targeting Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) and lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) have been widely used. However, little is known regarding the diagnostic performances of these RDTs in the Assosa zone of northwest Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic performances of PfHRP2 and PfLDH RDTs using microscopy and quantitative PCR (qPCR) as a reference test. A health facility-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from malaria-suspected study participants at selected health centers from November to December 2018. Finger-prick blood samples were collected for microscopy, RDTs, and qPCR method. The prevalence of P. falciparum was 26.4%, 30.3%, and 24.1% as determined by microscopy, PfHRP2 RDT, and PfLDH RDT, respectively. Compared with microscopy, the sensitivity and specificity of the PfHRP2 RDT were 96% and 93%, respectively, and those of the PfLDH RDT were 89% and 99%, respectively. Compared with qPCR, the specificity of the PfHRP2 RDT (93%) and PfLDH RDT (98%) was high, but the sensitivity of the PfHRP2 RDT (77%) and PfLDH RDT (70%) was relatively low. These malaria RDTs and reference microscopy methods showed reasonable agreement with a kappa value above 0.85 and provided accurate diagnosis of P. falciparum malaria. Thus, the current malaria RDT in the Ministry of Health program can be used in the Assosa zone of Ethiopia. However, continuous monitoring of the performance of PfHRP2 RDT is important to support control and elimination of malaria in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Etiópia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Microscopia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107941, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622940

RESUMO

Distinct antigens have been evaluated with diagnostic purpose for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and variable sensitivity and specificity values have been obtained in the assays. In the present study, a Leishmania infantum hypothetical protein called LiHyG, which was identified in an immunoproteomics study in Leishmania infantum amastigote extracts by antibodies in VL dogs sera; was cloned, expressed, purified and evaluated as a recombinant protein (rLiHyG) for the diagnosis of canine and human disease. The recombinant amastigote-specific A2 protein (rA2) and a soluble L. infantum protein extract (SLA) were used as controls. For canine VL, the sensitivity values were of 100%, 57.29% and 48.57%, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while the specificity values were of 100%, 81.43% and 88.57%, respectively. In addition, AUC values were of 1.00, 0.72 and 0.65, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while accuracy was of 100%, 72.38% and 75.24%, respectively. For human VL, the sensitivity values were of 100%, 84.00% and 88.00%, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while the specificity values were of 100%, 58.75% and 73.75%, respectively. In addition, AUC values were of 1.00, 0.76 and 0.83, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while accuracy was of 100%, 64.8% and 66.6%, respectively. The prognostic role of rLiHyG in the human VL was also evaluated, by means of post-therapeutic serological follow-up with sera samples collected before and six months after treatment. Results showed that treated patients presented significant reductions in the anti-rLiHyG IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 antibody levels, with results being similar to those found in healthy subjects. Testing the rA2 protein and SLA as antigens, lower IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 levels were also found, although they were higher after treatment than those obtained for rLiHyG. In conclusion, results suggested that rLiHyG could be considered for future studies as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker for canine and human VL.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Medula Óssea/parasitologia , Biologia Computacional , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Alinhamento de Sequência , Testes Sorológicos , Baço/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008471, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639964

RESUMO

In Brazil, Plasmodium vivax infection accounts for around 80% of malaria cases. This infection has a substantial impact on the productivity of the local population as the course of the disease is usually prolonged and the development of acquired immunity in endemic areas takes several years. The recent emergence of drug-resistant strains has intensified research on alternative control methods such as vaccines. There is currently no effective available vaccine against malaria; however, numerous candidates have been studied in the past several years. One of the leading candidates is apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). This protein is involved in the invasion of Apicomplexa parasites into host cells, participating in the formation of a moving junction. Understanding how the genetic diversity of an antigen influences the immune response is highly important for vaccine development. In this study, we analyzed the diversity of AMA1 from Brazilian P. vivax isolates and 19 haplotypes of P. vivax were found. Among those sequences, 33 nonsynonymous PvAMA1 amino acid sites were identified, whereas 20 of these sites were determined to be located in predicted B-cell epitopes. Nonsynonymous mutations were evaluated for their influence on the immune recognition of these antigens. Two distinct haplotypes, 5 and 16, were expressed and evaluated for reactivity in individuals from northern Brazil. Both PvAMA1 variants were reactive. Moreover, the IgG antibody response to these two PvAMA1 variants was analyzed in an exposed but noninfected population from a P. vivax endemic area. Interestingly, over 40% of this population had antibodies recognizing both variants. These results have implications for the design of a vaccine based on a polymorphic antigen.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Dicroísmo Circular , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Haplótipos , Humanos , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Mutação , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Conformação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236369, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702040

RESUMO

Histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have played an important role in enabling prompt malaria diagnosis in remote locations. However, emergence of pfhrp2 deleted parasites is threatening the efficacy of RDTs, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted surveillance of these deletions as a priority. Nested PCR is used to confirm pfhrp2 deletion but is costly and laborious. Due to spurious amplification of paralogue pfhrp3, the identity of nested exon 1 PCR product must be confirmed by sequencing. Here we describe a new one-step PCR method for detection of pfhrp2. To determine sensitivity and specificity, all PCRs were performed in triplicate. Using photo-induced electron transfer (PET) PCR detecting 18srRNA as true positive, one-step had comparable sensitivity of 95.0% (88.7-98.4%) to nested exon 1, 99.0% (94.6-99.9%) and nested exon 2, 98.0% (93.0-99.8%), and comparable specificity 93.8% (69.8-99.8%) to nested exon 1 100.0% (79.4-100.0%) and nested exon 2, 100.0% (74.4-100.0%). Sequencing revealed that one step PCR does not amplify pfhrp3. Logistic regression models applied to measure the 95% level of detection of the one-step PCR in clinical isolates provided estimates of 133p/µL (95% confidence interval (CI): 3-793p/µL) for whole blood (WB) samples and 385p/µL (95% CI: 31-2133 p/µL) for dried blood spots (DBSs). When considering protocol attributes, the one-step PCR is less expensive, faster and more suitable for high throughput. In summary, we have developed a more accurate PCR method that may be ideal for the application of the WHO protocol for investigating pfhrp2 deletions in symptomatic individuals presenting to health care facilities.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/genética , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407410

RESUMO

Only a small fraction of the antigens expressed by malaria parasites have been evaluated as vaccine candidates. A successful malaria subunit vaccine will likely require multiple antigenic targets to achieve broad protection with high protective efficacy. Here we describe protective efficacy of a novel antigen, Plasmodium yoelii (Py) E140 (PyE140), evaluated against P. yoelii challenge of mice. Vaccines targeting PyE140 reproducibly induced up to 100% sterile protection in both inbred and outbred murine challenge models. Although PyE140 immunization induced high frequency and multifunctional CD8+ T cell responses, as well as CD4+ T cell responses, protection was mediated by PyE140 antibodies acting against blood stage parasites. Protection in mice was long-lasting with up to 100% sterile protection at twelve weeks post-immunization and durable high titer anti-PyE140 antibodies. The E140 antigen is expressed in all Plasmodium species, is highly conserved in both P. falciparum lab-adapted strains and endemic circulating parasites, and is thus a promising lead vaccine candidate for future evaluation against human malaria parasite species.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Imunização , Malária/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium yoelii/fisiologia , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Reações Cruzadas , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Plasmodium yoelii/genética , Plasmodium yoelii/imunologia
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 13056-13065, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439708

RESUMO

Plasmodium vivax, the most widely distributed human malaria parasite, causes severe clinical syndromes despite low peripheral blood parasitemia. This conundrum is further complicated as cytoadherence in the microvasculature is still a matter of investigations. Previous reports in Plasmodium knowlesi, another parasite species shown to infect humans, demonstrated that variant genes involved in cytoadherence were dependent on the spleen for their expression. Hence, using a global transcriptional analysis of parasites obtained from spleen-intact and splenectomized monkeys, we identified 67 P. vivax genes whose expression was spleen dependent. To determine their role in cytoadherence, two Plasmodium falciparum transgenic lines expressing two variant proteins pertaining to VIR and Pv-FAM-D multigene families were used. Cytoadherence assays demonstrated specific binding to human spleen but not lung fibroblasts of the transgenic line expressing the VIR14 protein. To gain more insights, we expressed five P. vivax spleen-dependent genes as recombinant proteins, including members of three different multigene families (VIR, Pv-FAM-A, Pv-FAM-D), one membrane transporter (SECY), and one hypothetical protein (HYP1), and determined their immunogenicity and association with clinical protection in a prospective study of 383 children in Papua New Guinea. Results demonstrated that spleen-dependent antigens are immunogenic in natural infections and that antibodies to HYP1 are associated with clinical protection. These results suggest that the spleen plays a major role in expression of parasite proteins involved in cytoadherence and can reveal antigens associated with clinical protection, thus prompting a paradigm shift in P. vivax biology toward deeper studies of the spleen during infections.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Genes de Protozoários , Malária Vivax/imunologia , Plasmodium vivax/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Aotidae , Células CHO , Adesão Celular/genética , Adesão Celular/imunologia , Criança , Cricetulus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Malária Vivax/sangue , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Família Multigênica , Papua Nova Guiné , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Baço/citologia , Baço/parasitologia , Esplenectomia , Análise Serial de Tecidos
11.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 283-290, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296849

RESUMO

The erythrocytic-stage surface protein equi merozoite antigen 1 (EMA-1) of Theileria equi is a major candidate for the development of a diagnostic antigen for equine piroplasmosis. In this study, BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant EMA-1 to prepare monoclonal antibody (mAb) against T. equi EMA-1, and 1 mAb 5H2 was obtained that showed good reaction with infected red blood cells (RBC) in the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). To develop a rapid serological detection method for T. equi infection in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, recombinant EMA-1 originating from the local T. equi strain and the mAb to EMA-1 were employed to develop an immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect antibodies to T. equi in horse sera. The ICT showed high sensitivity and specificity and no cross-reaction with Babesia caballi. Ninety-two horse serum samples collected from Ili, Xinjiang, were tested by ICT and compared with the detection results of a commercial ELISA kit. The results showed that 56 of 92 (61%) serum samples were seropositive according to the ICT assay, and 50 (54%) samples were seropositive according to the ELISA kit. The ICT had a high coincidence (91.3%) but was more sensitive than the reference ELISA kit. To confirm whether the horses were infected by T. equi, 30 blood DNA samples from 92 horses were examined by PCR. The results showed that 14 of 30 (47%) horses were confirmed to be infected with T. equi by PCR, while 16 of 30 (53%) horses were seropositive by ICT. All PCR-positive horses were ICT-positive. The findings indicate that T. equi is endemic in Ili, Xinjiang, and that the ICT is reliable as a serological diagnosis method. The ICT developed in this study could be an efficient diagnostic tool to detect T. equi infection in horses in the Xinjiang area.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Western Blotting , China , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Hibridomas/citologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , Theileria/imunologia , Theileriose/sangue , Theileriose/diagnóstico , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6573, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313230

RESUMO

Plasmodium falciparum merozoite invasion into erythrocytes is an essential step of the blood-stage cycle, survival of parasites, and malaria pathogenesis. P. falciparum merozoite Rh5 interacting protein (PfRipr) forms a complex with Rh5 and CyRPA in sequential molecular events leading to erythrocyte invasion. Recently we described PfRipr as a conserved protein that induces strain-transcending growth inhibitory antibodies in in vitro assays. However, being a large and complex protein of 1086 amino acids (aa) with 87 cysteine residues, PfRipr is difficult to express in conventional expression systems towards vaccine development. In this study we sought to identify the most potent region of PfRipr that could be developed to overcome difficulties related to protein expression, as well as to elucidate the invasion inhibitory mechanism of anti-PfRipr antibodies. Using the wheat germ cell-free system, Ecto- PfRipr and truncates of approximately 200 aa were expressed as soluble proteins. We demonstrate that antibodies against PfRipr truncate 5 (PfRipr_5: C720-D934), a region within the PfRipr C-terminal EGF-like domains, potently inhibit merozoite invasion. Furthermore, the antibodies strongly block PfRipr/Rh5 interaction, as well as that between PfRipr and its erythrocyte-surface receptor, SEMA7A. Taken together, PfRipr_5 is a potential candidate for further development as a blood-stage malaria vaccine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/farmacologia , Antígenos CD/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Semaforinas/genética , Anticorpos/genética , Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/genética , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Merozoítos/genética , Merozoítos/patogenicidade , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Ligação Proteica/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 170, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252804

RESUMO

Serine repeat antigen (SERA) is conserved among species of the genus Plasmodium. Sera genes form a multigene family and are generally tandemly clustered on a single chromosome. Although all Plasmodium species encode multiple sera genes, the number varies between species. Among species, the members share similar sequences and gene organization. SERA possess a central papain-like cysteine protease domain, however, in some members, the active site cysteine residue is substituted with a serine. Recent studies implicate this gene family in a number of aspects in parasite biology and induction of protective immune response. This review summarizes the current understanding on this important gene family in several Plasmodium species. The Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-sera family, for example, consists of nine gene members. Unlike other multigene families in Plasmodium species, Pf-sera genes do not exhibit antigenic variation. Pf-sera5 nucleotide diversity is also low. Moreover, although Pf-sera5 is highly transcribed during the blood stage of malaria infection, and a large amount is released into the host blood following schizont rupture, in malaria endemic countries the sero-positive rates for Pf-SERA5 are low, likely due to Pf-SERA5 binding of host proteins to avoid immune recognition. As an antigen, the N-terminal 47 kDa domain of Pf-SERA5 is a promising vaccine candidate currently undergoing clinical trials. Pf-SERA5 and Pf-SERA6, as well as P. berghei (Pb)-SERA3, and Pb-SERA5, have been investigated for their roles in parasite egress. Two P. yoelii SERA, which have a serine residue at the protease active center, are implicated in parasite virulence. Overall, these studies provide insight that during the evolution of the Plasmodium parasite, the sera gene family members have increased by gene duplication, and acquired various functions that enable the parasite to survive and successfully maintain infection in the host.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Família Multigênica , Plasmodium/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 175, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antigens expressed in sexual stages of the malaria parasites are targets of transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs). HAP2/GCS1, a TBV candidate, is critical for fertilization in Plasmodium. Here, the genetic diversity of PvHAP2 was studied in Plasmodium vivax parasite populations from the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). METHODS: Plasmodium vivax clinical isolates were collected in clinics from the China-Myanmar border region (135 samples), western Thailand (41 samples) and western Myanmar (51 samples). Near full-length Pvhap2 (nucleotides 13-2574) was amplified and sequenced from these isolates. Molecular evolution studies were conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity, selection and population differentiation. RESULTS: Sequencing of the pvhap2 gene for a total of 227 samples from the three P. vivax populations revealed limited genetic diversity of this gene in the GMS (π = 0.00036 ± 0.00003), with the highest π value observed in Myanmar (0.00053 ± 0.00009). Y133S was the dominant mutation in the China-Myanmar border (99.26%), Myanmar (100%) and Thailand (95.12%). Results of all neutrality tests were negative for all the three populations, suggesting the possible action of purifying selection. Codon-based tests identified specific codons which are under purifying or positive selections. Wright's fixation index showed low to moderate genetic differentiation of P. vivax populations in the GMS, with FST ranging from 0.04077 to 0.24833, whereas high levels of genetic differentiation were detected between the China-Myanmar border and Iran populations (FST = 0.60266), and between Thailand and Iran populations (FST = 0.44161). A total of 20 haplotypes were identified, with H2 being the abundant haplotype in China-Myanmar border, Myanmar and Thailand populations. Epitope mapping prediction of Pvhap2 antigen showed that high-score B-cell epitopes are located in the S307-G324, L429-P453 and V623-D637 regions. The E317K and D637N mutations located within S307-G324 and V623-D637 epitopes slightly reduced the predicted score for potential epitopes. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed a very low level of genetic diversity of pvhap2 gene among P. vivax populations in the Greater Mekong Subregion. The relative conservation of pvhap2 supports further evaluation of a Pvhap2-based TBV.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , China , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Humanos , Malária Vivax/parasitologia , Mianmar , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tailândia
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3756, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111872

RESUMO

As malaria control programmes concentrate their efforts towards malaria elimination a better understanding of malaria transmission patterns at fine spatial resolution units becomes necessary. Defining spatial units that consider transmission heterogeneity, human movement and migration will help to set up achievable malaria elimination milestones and guide the creation of efficient operational administrative control units. Using a combination of genetic and epidemiological data we defined a malaria transmission unit as the area contributing 95% of malaria cases diagnosed at the catchment facility located in the town of Guapi in the South Pacific Coast of Colombia. We provide data showing that P. falciparum malaria transmission is heterogeneous in time and space and analysed, using topological data analysis, the spatial connectivity, at the micro epidemiological level, between parasite populations circulating within the unit. To illustrate the necessity to evaluate the efficacy of malaria control measures within the transmission unit in order to increase the efficiency of the malaria control effort, we provide information on the size of the asymptomatic reservoir, the nature of parasite genotypes associated with drug resistance as well as the frequency of the Pfhrp2/3 deletion associated with false negatives when using Rapid Diagnostic Tests.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Deleção de Genes , Malária Falciparum , Plasmodium falciparum , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/genética , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67 Suppl 1: 99-107, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174038

RESUMO

Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted apicomplexan protozoan parasite that infects lymphocytes of cattle and African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), causing a frequently fatal disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. A live vaccination procedure, known as infection and treatment method (ITM), the most frequently used version of which comprises the Muguga, Serengeti-transformed and Kiambu 5 stocks of T. parva, delivered as a trivalent cocktail, is generally effective. However, it does not always induce 100% protection against heterologous parasite challenge. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of T. parva in target cattle populations is therefore important prior to extensive vaccine deployment. This study investigated the extent of genetic diversity within T. parva field isolates derived from Ankole (Bos taurus) cattle in south-western Uganda using 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) satellite loci and the sequences of two antigen-encoding genes that are targets of CD8+T-cell responses induced by ITM, designated Tp1 and Tp2. The findings revealed a T. parva prevalence of 51% confirming endemicity of the parasite in south-western Uganda. Cattle-derived T. parva VNTR genotypes revealed a high degree of polymorphism. However, all of the T. parva Tp1 and Tp2 alleles identified in this study have been reported previously, indicating that they are widespread geographically in East Africa and highly conserved.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Búfalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Repetições Minissatélites/genética , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Theileria parva/genética , Theileriose/parasitologia , Alelos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/parasitologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Theileria parva/imunologia , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Theileriose/prevenção & controle , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
17.
Malar J ; 19(1): 115, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in Cameroon. The study of the genetic diversity within parasite population is essential for understanding the mechanism underlying malaria pathology and to determine parasite clones profile in an infection, for proper malaria control strategies. The objective of this study was to perform a molecular characterization of highly polymorphic genetic markers of Plasmodium falciparum, and to determine allelic distribution with their influencing factors valuable to investigate malaria transmission dynamics in Cameroon. METHODS: A total of 350 P. falciparum clinical isolates were characterized by genotyping block 2 of msp-1, block 3 of msp-2, and region II of glurp gene using nested PCR and DNA sequencing between 2012 and 2013. RESULTS: A total of 5 different genotypes with fragment sizes ranging from 597 to 817 bp were recorded for GLURP. Overall, 16 MSP-1 genotypes, including K1, MAD20 and RO33 were identified, ranging from 153 to 335 bp. A peculiarity about this study is the RO33 monomorphic pattern revealed among the Pfmsp-1 allelic type. Again, this study identified 27 different Pfmsp-2 genotypes, ranging from 140 to 568 bp in size, including 15 belonging to the 3D7-type and 12 to the FC27 allelic families. The analysis of the MSP-1 and MSP-2 peptides indicates that the region of the alignment corresponding K1 polymorphism had the highest similarity in the MSP1and MSP2 clade followed by MAD20 with 93% to 100% homology. Therefore, population structure of P. falciparum isolates is identical to that of other areas in Africa, suggesting that vaccine developed with K1 and MAD20 of Pfmsp1 allelic variant could be protective for Africa children but these findings requires further genetic and immunological investigations. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for Pfmsp-2 loci (3.82), as compare with Pfmsp-1 (2.51) and heterozygotes ranged from 0.55 for Pfmsp-1 to 0.96 for Pfmsp-2. CONCLUSION: High genetic diversity and allelic frequencies in P. falciparum isolates indicate a persisting high level of transmission. This study advocate for an intensification of the malaria control strategies in Cameroon. Trial registration This study was approved by Cameroon National Ethics Committee. It is a randomized controlled trial retrospectively registered in NIH U.S. National Library of Medicine, ClinicalTrials.gov on the 28/11/2016 at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02974348 with the registration number NCT02974348.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Alelos , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Proteína 1 de Superfície de Merozoito/genética , Polimorfismo Genético
18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(5): 1068-1071, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189613

RESUMO

Invasion of human erythrocytes by merozoites of Plasmodium knowlesi involves interaction between the P. knowlesi Duffy binding protein alpha region II (PkDBPαII) and Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARCs) on the erythrocytes. Information is scarce on the binding level of PkDBPαII to different Duffy antigens, Fya and Fyb. This study aims to measure the binding level of two genetically distinct PkDBPαII haplotypes to Fy(a+b-) and Fy(a+b+) human erythrocytes using erythrocyte-binding assay. The binding level of PkDBPαII of Peninsular Malaysian and Malaysian Borneon haplotypes to erythrocytes was determined by counting the number of rosettes formed in the assay. Overall, the Peninsular Malaysian haplotype displayed higher binding activity than the Malaysian Borneon haplotype. Both haplotypes exhibit the same preference to Fy(a+b+) compared with Fy(a+b-), hence justifying the vital role of Fyb in the binding to PkDBPαII. Further studies are needed to investigate the P. knowlesi susceptibility on individuals with different Duffy blood groups.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Duffy , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Plasmodium knowlesi/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Bornéu , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Duffy/imunologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Malária/parasitologia , Malásia , Plasmodium knowlesi/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1366-1369, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189616

RESUMO

Malaria antigen detection through rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is widely used to diagnose malaria and estimate prevalence. To support more sensitive next-generation RDT development and screen asymptomatic malaria, we developed and evaluated the Q-Plex™ Human Malaria Array (Quansys Biosciences, Logan, UT), which quantifies the antigens commonly used in RDTs-Plasmodium falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2), P. falciparum-specific lactate dehydrogenase (Pf LDH), Plasmodium vivax -specific LDH (Pv LDH), and Pan malaria lactate dehydrogenase (Pan LDH), and human C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of severity in malaria. At threshold levels yielding 99.5% or more diagnostic specificity, diagnostic sensitivities against polymerase chain reaction-confirmed malaria for HRP2, Pf LDH, Pv LDH, and Pan LDH were 92.7%, 71.5%, 46.1%, and 83.8%, respectively. P. falciparum culture strains and samples from Peru indicated that HRP2 and Pf LDH combined improves detection of P. falciparum parasites with hrp2 and hrp3 deletions. This array can be used for antigen-based malaria screening and detecting hrp2/3 deletion mutants of P. falciparum.


Assuntos
DNA de Protozoário/genética , Malária/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Plasmodium/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008093, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176691

RESUMO

Human leishmaniasis is a public health problem worldwide for which the development of a vaccine remains a challenge. T cell-mediated immune responses are crucial for protection. Peptide vaccines based on the identification of immunodominant T cell epitopes able to induce T cell specific immune responses constitute a promising strategy. Here, we report the identification of human leukocyte antigen class-I (HLA-I) and -II (HLA-II)-restricted multi-epitope peptides from Leishmania proteins that we have previously described as vaccine candidates. Promastigote Surface Antigen (PSA), LmlRAB (L. major large RAB GTPase) and Histone (H2B) were screened, in silico, for T cell epitopes. 6 HLA-I and 5 HLA-II-restricted multi-epitope peptides, able to bind to the most frequent HLA molecules, were designed and used as pools to stimulate PBMCs from individuals with healed cutaneous leishmaniasis. IFN-γ, IL-10, TNF-α and granzyme B (GrB) production was evaluated by ELISA/CBA. The frequency of IFN-γ-producing T cells was quantified by ELISpot. T cells secreting cytokines and memory T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. 16 of 25 peptide pools containing HLA-I, HLA-II or HLA-I and -II peptides were able to induce specific and significant IFN-γ levels. No IL-10 was detected. 6 peptide pools were selected among those inducing the highest IFN-γ levels for further characterization. 3/6 pools were able to induce a significant increase of the percentages of CD4+IFN-γ+, CD8+IFN-γ+ and CD4+GrB+ T cells. The same pools also induced a significant increase of the percentages of bifunctional IFN-γ+/TNF-α+CD4+ and/or central memory T cells. We identified highly promiscuous HLA-I and -II restricted epitope combinations from H2B, PSA and LmlRAB proteins that stimulate both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in recovered individuals. These multi-epitope peptides could be used as potential components of a polytope vaccine for human leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Leishmania/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Adulto , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Granzimas/análise , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon gama/análise , Interleucina-10/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Voluntários , Adulto Jovem
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