Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.535
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21799, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846815

RESUMO

Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses are hepatotropic and lymphotropic viruses that can proliferate either in lymphocytes and monocytes or hepatocytes.The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients with plasma cell disorders. We also aimed to compare patients with plasma cell disorders and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in terms of HBV, HCV, and HIV seropositivity.This is a retrospective study. The patients who had patient file in the Multiple Myeloma Outpatient Unit of our hospital and were followed in our outpatient unit between January 1, 2012 and September 15, 2019, with diagnoses of either of the plasma cell disorders were included in the study. In addition, 272 CLL patients who were admitted to the Leukemia Outpatient Unit of our hospital were also enrolled in the study. The 2 disease groups were compared in terms of HBV, HCV, and HIV seropositivity.A statistically significant relationship was found between disease groups according to hepatitis B surface antigen (P < .05). Hepatitis B positivity were found to be more common in CLL patients. There was also a statistically significant relationship between the disease groups in terms of hepatitis B e antigen positivity (P = .001).We found that hepatitis B surface antigen positivity rate in CLL patients was higher than in patients with plasma cell disorders. Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV was found to be very low in patients with plasma cell disorders.


Assuntos
Soroprevalência de HIV , Antígenos da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Paraproteinemias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Plasmócitos/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Botswana introduced the HBV vaccine at birth for all newborns in 2000. To the best of our knowledge, since the introduction of HBV vaccination, there have been limited data for vaccine response to HBV and its impact on early childhood HBV infections among children HIV exposed but uninfected in Botswana. AIMS: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV vaccine response in 18 months old children HIV exposed but uninfected in Botswana. METHODS: Stored plasma samples from 304 children at 18 months of age and 287 mothers from delivery were tested for HBsAg. Mothers with positive HBsAg had HBV DNA level tested, and their HBV genotypes were determined by amplifying a 415-base pair (bp) region of the surface gene. Plasma samples from children exposed to HIV were tested for hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) titers. RESULTS: No children (0 of 304) were positive for HBsAg at 18 months while 5 (1.74%) of 287 HIV-positive mothers were HBsAg positive. Four of the HBsAg positive mothers were infected with genotype A1, while 1 was infected with genotype E. The median anti-HBs titer in children was 174 mIU/mL [QR: 70, 457]. Three (1.1%) of 269 children had an inadequate vaccine response (<10 mIU/mL), while 266 (98.9%) of 269 had protective immunity. However, when using the ≥100mIU/mL threshold, only 170 (63.2%) of 269 children had complete protection. CONCLUSION: No HBsAg positivity was identified in a cohort of children HIV exposed but uninfected. The absence of HBsAg positives was associated with good HBV vaccine responses and low maternal HBsAg prevalence in Botswana.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236704, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790777

RESUMO

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope is composed of a lipid bilayer and three glycoproteins, referred to as the large (L), middle (M), and small (S) hepatitis B virus surface antigens (HBsAg). S protein constitutes the major portion of the viral envelope and an even greater proportion of subviral particles (SVP) that circulate in the blood. Recombinant S proteins are currently used as a preventive vaccine, while plasma fractions isolated from vaccinated people, referred to as hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG), are used for short-term prophylaxis. Here, we characterized a recombinant human IgG1 type anti-S antibody named Lenvervimab regarding its binding property to a variety of cloned S antigens. Immunochemical data showed an overall consistent avidity of the antibody to S antigens of most viral genotypes distributed worldwide. Further, antibody binding was not affected by the mutations in the antigenic 'a' determinant found in many clinical variants, including the immune escape mutant G145R. In addition, mutations in the S gene sequence that confer drug resistance to the viral polymerase did not interfere with the antibody binding. These results support for a preventive use of the antibody against HBV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Linhagem Celular , Farmacorresistência Viral , Genótipo , Células Hep G2 , Hepatite B/patologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/metabolismo , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/química , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234740, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Turkey is an intermediate hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemic country. However, prevalence among Turkish migrants in Belgium is unknown, especially in those born in Belgium with a foreign-born parent, i.e. second-generation migrants (SGM). AIMS: To evaluate the prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors in Turkish first-generation migrants (FGM), i.e. foreign-born, and SGM. METHODS: Between September 2017 and May 2019, free outreach testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc), and antibodies against HBsAg was offered to Turkish migrants in Middle-Limburg, Belgium. Face-to-face questionnaire assessed HBV risk factors. HBsAg positive patients were referred and followed up. Turkish SGM were stratified into birth cohort born before and after 1987, since those born after 1987 should be covered by the universal infant vaccination program. RESULTS: A total of 1,081/1,113 (97.1%) Turkish did go for HBV testing. Twenty-six (2.4%) were HBsAg positive; 11/26 were unaware of their status and 10/11 were successfully referred. HBsAg prevalence was 3.0% in FGM and 1.5% in SGM, p = .070. Only one out of seven HBsAg positive SGM was born after 1987. In the multiple generalized estimating equations model, the most important risk factors for anti-HBc positivity were male gender (p = .021), older age (p < .001), FGM (p < .001), low educational level of the mother (p = .003), HBV infected mother (p = .008), HBV infected siblings (p = .002), HBV infected other family member (p = .004), gynaecological examination in Turkey or unsafe male circumcision (p = .032) and dental treatment in Turkey (p = .049). CONCLUSION: Outreach testing was well-accepted and referral to specialist care was generally successful. National HBV screening should be implemented in the Turkish FGM population and might be considered in SGM not covered by primary prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Migrantes , Turquia/epidemiologia , Vacinação
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 552, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are a severe health concern worldwide. HBV is a DNA virus with a rapid rate of mutation. Based on heterogeneity of the nucleotide sequence, the HBV strains are divided into nine genotypes, each with a characteristic geographical distribution. Identifying and tracking alterations of HBV genotypes is important in epidemiological and transmission studies, and contributes to predicting the risk for development of severe liver disease and response to antiviral treatment. The present study was undertaken to detect HBV genotypes and sub-genotypes in the general population of different states and regions in Myanmar. METHODS: In 2015, a total of 5547 adults of the general population, residing in seven states, seven regions and the Nay Pyi Taw Union Territory, were screened for Hepatitis B Surface antigen (HBsAg) by the immunochromatographic test (ICT). Of the 353 HBsAg positive samples, the HBVDNA was identified using polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeting the DNA sequences encoding the Pre-S region. A total of 153 PCR positive samples were subsequently subjected to genotyping by partial genome sequencing in both directions. The resulting sequences were then edited, aligned, and compared with reference sequences using the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) web-based genotyping tool. RESULTS: Three HBV genotypes (HBV genotype B, genotype C and genotype D) were detected in Myanmar, of which genotype HBV genotype C (66.7%) was the most prevalent, followed by HBV genotype D (32%) and HBV genotype B (1.3%). Sub-genotyping revealed a total of 7 variants within the B, C and D genotypes: 2 (B4 and B5) in HBV genotype B, 3 (C1, C5 and C7) in HBV genotype C, and 2 (D3 and D6) in HBV genotype D. CONCLUSION: HBV genotype C, sub-genotype C1 was predominantly distributed in all states and regions of Myanmar. This study is the first report on the nationwide distribution of HBV genotypes and sub-genotypes in Myanmar. We believe our findings will enable huge support for the hepatitis disease surveillance program, since HBV infection is one of the National Priority Diseases in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
6.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 57(1): 69-73, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) vaccinated for hepatitis B have a low success rate in achieving protective antibody levels. The main factors suggested for this are IBD itself and the use of immunosuppressive drugs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concentration of anti-HBs antibodies and to verify factors associated with the effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination in patients with IBD. METHODS: This is a prospective, consecutive, observational, descriptive and analytical, non-randomized, qualitative study that evaluated the levels of anti-HBs antibodies in IBD patients at the Interdisciplinary Inflammatory Bowel Disease Clinic of the Family and Community Health Unit of UNIVALI - Itajaí, Santa Catarina. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus (HBV), of which 29 were female. The average age was 46.2 years. Regarding the type of IBD, twenty-four patients had Crohn's disease and the duration of inflammatory bowel disease was 74 months. Fifteen patients were on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. The effective response rate to HBV vaccine was 72.2%, verified by anti-HBs titration ≥10 UI/L. Statistical analysis revealed a negative response to vaccination in patients with Crohn's disease and immunosuppressive drugs. CONCLUSION: The success rate of HBV immunization in IBD patients is low compared to the general population. Type of disease and use of immunosuppressive drugs appear to influence the vaccine response.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Soroconversão
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19886, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims at evaluating the benefits and harms of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine (HBVac) in preventing mother to child transmission in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive pregnant women during antenatal period. METHODS: Seven electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP), and 3 clinical trial registry platforms were searched from inception date to December 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this study. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was applied to assessing the risk of bias. The outcomes were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software. RESULTS: Sixteen RCTs involving 2440 HBsAg positive pregnant women were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with placebo group, HBIG and HBVac group had a significant decrease in the number of newborns who were HBsAg positive (relative risks [RR]: 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.18, 0.40], P < .00001) and HBV-DNA positive (RR: 0.25, 95% CI [0.09, 0.71], P = .010), and had a significant increase in the number of anti-HBs positive newborns (RR: 3.95, 95% CI [3.11, 5.00], P < .00001). After 1-year follow up, the number of HBsAg positive newborns continued to decline (RR: 0.09, 95% CI [0.04, 0.20], P < .00001) and the number of anti-HBs positive newborns continued to increase in HBIG and HBVac group (RR: 1.30, 95% CI [1.22, 1.38], P < .00001). Compared with HBIG group, HBIG and HBVac group had no significant difference in the number of HBsAg positive newborns (RR: 1.68, 95% CI [0.66, 4.30], P = .28), and had a significant decrease in the number of HBsAg positive newborns (RR: 0.31, 95% CI [0.12, 0.84], P = .02). Additionally, only 1 study reported 2 swelling cases, 4 studies were reported no adverse events, and 11 studies were not report adverse reaction. CONCLUSIONS: HBIG and HBVac could be an effective alternative for HBsAg positive pregnant women to prevent mother to child transmission. However, due to the limitations of the study, the long-term efficacy and safety of HBIG and HBVac still need long-term and high-quality research to confirm.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(14): e19647, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243396

RESUMO

Currently, the association of the initiation time of hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening and antiviral prophylaxis with adverse liver outcomes in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy remains conflicting.This retrospective study was designed to determine the association of HBV screening and antiviral prophylaxis with adverse liver outcomes, and then proposed optimal management strategies on HBV screening and antiviral prophylaxis.We analyzed the medical data of Chinese cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy between 2000 and 2015. Descriptive statistics and Chi square tests were performed to analyze the basic characteristics of patients. Time-to-event analysis was used to determine incidence, and competing risk analysis was used to determine the hazard ratios (HRs) for outcomes.A total of 12,158 patients (81.1% with solid tumors) were analyzed. Among solid tumors patients, late screening and late antiviral therapy of chronic HBV were associated with higher incidence of hepatitis flare (HR 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.26-4.79; HR 6.79, 95% CI 4.42-10.41), hepatic impairment (HR 2.96, 95% CI 2.03-4.32; HR 8.03, 95% CI 4.78-13.48), liver failure (HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.41-3.40; HR 14.81, 95% CI 6.57-33.42), and HBV-related death (HR 3.29, 95% CI 2.26-4.79; HR 8.30, 95% CI 4.95-13.91) in comparison with early screening and early therapy.Early HBV screening and antiviral therapy could reduce the risk of adverse liver outcomes among chronic HBV patients receiving chemotherapy. Hepatitis B surface antibody-positivity was associated with a decreased risk of liver failure and chronic HBV, late screening or late antiviral therapy were predictors of liver failure for patients with anti-tumor therapy. However, it should be applied cautiously into each types of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies because subgroup analysis according to type of cancer was not designed.


Assuntos
Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/virologia , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/virologia , Falência Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Falência Hepática/epidemiologia , Falência Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Ativação Viral , Adulto Jovem
9.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 2393-2403, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Hepatitis B core (HBc) antibody positivity indicates a history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and latent infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 512 and 495 head and neck cancer (HNC) and non-HNC patients treated at the Okayama University Hospital, Head and Neck Cancer Center from 2008-2017. Demographic data and risk factors that might affect HNC diagnosis were analyzed to assess their effects. RESULTS: Cancer diagnosis was found to correlate with HBc antibody positivity [odds ratio (OR)=1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09-2.08], smoking (OR=3.03, 95%CI=2.16-4.25), and a previous history of cancer (OR=4.12, 95%CI=2.79-6.09). The HBs antigen positivity rate in both groups was very close to that observed in the general Japanese population. The HBc antibody positivity rate was very high only in the HNC group. CONCLUSION: HBc antibody positivity and HNC are epidemiologically correlated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
10.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229732, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis B virus infection is a major social and economic burden in developing countries, especially in China. We aimed to evaluate the effects of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive status on the pregnancy outcomes in the Chinese population. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was performed using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Xiamen, China, from January 2011 to March 2018. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between the HBsAg status and pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: This study included 3,789 HBsAg-positive women and 29, 648 non-exposed women. The HBsAg-positive pregnant women were slightly older in age (29.3±4.3 vs. 28.9±4.4, P< 0.001). Additionally, pregnant women with a positive HBsAg status had higher odds of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.23), and cesarean delivery (aOR, 1.12; 95%CI, 1.03-1.21). The risk of infants being large or small-for-gestational age, having low-birth weight, and of macrosomia, preterm birth, and stillbirth did not differ significantly between the HBsAg-positive and-negative women. CONCLUSION: In Xiamen, China, the slightly higher risk of GDM and cesarean section in women positive for HBsAg should not be neglected. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the effects of HBsAg positivity on the pregnancy outcomes in different ethnic populations.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Virus Genes ; 56(2): 109-119, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026198

RESUMO

The nomenclature of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genes and their products has developed stepwise, occasionally in an erratic way, creating many misunderstandings, especially among those who do not know the structure of HBV and its genome in detail. One of the most frequent misunderstandings, even presented in leading journals, is the designation of HBV "e"-antigen as envelope or early antigen. Another problem area are the so-called "pre" regions in the HBV genome present upstream of both the core and the surface genes of HBV, inadvertently suggesting that they may be a part of corresponding precursor proteins. Misnomers and misclassifications are frequent in defining the subgenotypes and serological subtypes of HBV. Even the well-established terminology for HBV surface (HBs) or HBV core (HBc) antigen deviates from the conventional virological nomenclature for viral envelopes or capsid proteins/antigens, respectively. Another matter of undesirable variability between publications is the numbering of the nucleotides and the graphical representation of genomic maps. This editorial briefly explains how the nomenclature evolved, what it really means, and suggests how it could be adapted to today's knowledge.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Variação Genética/genética , Variação Genética/imunologia , Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/classificação , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/classificação , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/classificação , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Terminologia como Assunto
13.
Transfusion ; 60(2): 334-342, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese blood donors with unconfirmed serological and/or molecular screening results are deferred permanently. This study investigated the implementation and performance of a follow-up program aiming to improve the notification and management of deferred donors in Dalian, China. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: From January 2013 to February 2018, 411,216 donations were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV/HIV antigen, and antibodies to Treponema pallidum. HBV, HCV, and HIV nucleic acid testing (NAT) was performed in mini-pools of six or in individual donations (IDs). Reactive donations were evaluated further with alternative serological assays and ID-NAT re-testing. A follow-up procedure was developed to evaluate a subset of deferred donors that were either potential NAT yield cases, serology non-reactive and NAT non-repeated reactive (NRR), or serology NRR irrespective of NAT result. RESULTS: Serological and molecular routine, plus supplemental testing, identified HBV, HCV, HIV, and TP in 503 (0.12%), 392 (0.09%), 156 (0.04%), and 2041 (0.49%) donations, respectively. Overall, 683 of 4156 (16.4%) eligible donors and 205 donors deferred prior 2013 participated in the program. They included 664 serology NRR and 224 NAT yield cases, and 58.8% repeat donors. All markers combined, follow-up documented false reactivity, primary acute infections, and OBI in 61.9% (550/888), 3.3% (29/888), and 12.8% (114/888) of these donors, respectively. Isolated anti-HBc or anti-HBs reactivity was observed in 22% of cases. CONCLUSION: Follow-up testing refined infection status in 78.0% (693/888) of deferred donors with unconfirmed screening results. This high false-positive rate encouraged to reevaluate the current screening strategies and to consider donor reentry.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , HIV/imunologia , HIV/patogenicidade , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , RNA Viral/genética , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Treponema pallidum/patogenicidade
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952213

RESUMO

Mutations in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome can potentially lead to vaccination failure, diagnostic escape, and disease progression. However, there are no reports on viral gene expression and large hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) antigenicity alterations due to mutations in HBV isolated from a Bangladeshi population. Here, we sequenced the full genome of the HBV isolated from a clinically infected patient in Bangladesh. The open reading frames (ORFs) (P, S, C, and X) of the isolated HBV strain were successfully amplified and cloned into a mammalian expression vector. The HBV isolate was identified as genotype C (sub-genotype C2), serotype adr, and evolutionarily related to strains isolated in Indonesia, Malaysia, and China. Clinically significant mutations, such as preS1 C2964A, reverse transcriptase domain I91L, and small HBsAg N3S, were identified. The viral P, S, C, and X genes were expressed in HEK-293T and HepG2 cells by transient transfection with a native subcellular distribution pattern analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. Western blotting of large HBsAg using preS1 antibody showed no staining, and preS1 ELISA showed a significant reduction in reactivity due to amino acid mutations. This mutated preS1 sequence has been identified in several Asian countries. To our knowledge, this is the first report investigating changes in large HBsAg antigenicity due to preS1 mutations.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Mutação , Precursores de Proteínas/imunologia , Bangladesh , Sequência de Bases , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Células HEK293 , Células Hep G2 , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Vírus da Hepatite B/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 90: 46-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiological and molecular features of HBV infection among recyclable waste collectors. METHODS: The participants were recruited from the dumping ground and recycling cooperatives in Campo Grande, Brazil, and were screened for hepatitis B and C, and HIV serological markers by ELISA, confirmed by PCR. RESULTS: Among 278 participants, 63.7% (95% CI: 58.0-69.3) were considered susceptible to HBV infection. The prevalence rate of HBV exposure was 10.1% (95% CI: 6.5-13.6) and 0.4% (95% CI: 0.1-0.6) were chronic carriers. Age ≥45 years (AOR=7.15), history of homosexual contact (AOR=5.29), tattoo (AOR=4.92) and history of surgery (AOR=2.89) were factors associated with ever infection. Age 18-25 years (AOR=4.63), educational level ≥9 years (AOR=1.98) and knowledge about HBV transmission (AOR=3.08) were associated with serological HBV vaccination like profile (26.2%; 95% CI: 21.1-31.4). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability and efficacy of HBV vaccine, this study found high HBV exposure and proportion of susceptible adults in a low endemic area. Vaccination and screening campaigns using accessible language to the economically disadvantaged populations can reduce the number of people susceptible to HBV infection.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1095: 162-171, 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864618

RESUMO

This research proposes two methods for hepatitis B diagnosis including rapid testing and electrochemical assay. For the first method, a multiplex hepatitis B test strip was fabricated to serve as a rapid test for hepatitis B screening. It was developed to simultaneously test three essential serological markers of hepatitis B virus infection including hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (Anti-HBs) and hepatitis B core antibody (Anti-HBc). Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were used as the signal generator on the test strip. Furthermore, a part of a paper network was incorporated on the strip for the gold-silver enhancement process. This paper network helped in decreasing the analysis time of enhancement and makes the enhancement process easier for rapid testing. The developed test strip was specific for each serological marker. The detection limits of HBsAg, Anti-HBs and Anti-HBc were obtained at 0.5, 0.3 and 0.1 µg mL-1, respectively. For the second method, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied for HBsAg detection. This method was proposed for quantitative hepatitis B detection. Anti-HBs antibodies were immobilized on a carbon screen printed electrode (SPCE) via the N-ethyl-N'-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbo-diimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS) couple reaction which reacted with the carboxyl group of the BSA cross-linked film on the electrode. The electrode modification process was characterized by EIS. A linear relationship between delta charge transfer resistance (ΔRct) and HBsAg concentration was obtained in the range of 5-3000 ng mL-1 with a detection limit of 2.1 ng mL-1. This work is appropriate for quantitative analysis because it is a simple and low-cost method to implement as the SPCE is disposable. Therefore, we hope that this research will be useful to improve hepatitis B detection in the future.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/análise , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/análise , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Imobilizados/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/imunologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Cabras , Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção , Camundongos , Coelhos
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1022, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few countries in sub-Saharan Africa know the magnitude of their HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). This was the first study in Mozambique to measure prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV, and to assess demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in this key population. METHODS: We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to conduct a cross-sectional behavioral surveillance survey of PWID in two cities of Mozambique lasting six months. Participants were persons who had ever injected drugs without a prescription. Participants completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided blood specimens for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) testing. We performed RDS-adjusted analysis in R 3.2 using RDSAT 7.1 weights. RESULTS: We enrolled 353 PWID in Maputo and 139 in Nampula/Nacala; approximately 95% of participants were men. Disease prevalence in Maputo and Nampula/Nacala, respectively, was 50.1 and 19.9% for HIV, 32.1 and 36.4% for HBsAg positivity, and 44.6 and 7.0% for anti-HCV positivity. Additionally, 8% (Maputo) and 28.6% (Nampula/Nacala) of PWID reported having a genital sore or ulcer in the 12 months preceding the survey. Among PWID who injected drugs in the last month, 50.3% (Maputo) and 49.6% (Nampula/Nacala) shared a needle at least once that month. Condomless sex in the last 12 months was reported by 52.4% of PWID in Maputo and 29.1% in Nampula/Nacala. Among PWID, 31.6% (Maputo) and 41.0% (Nampula/Nacala) had never tested for HIV. In multivariable analysis, PWID who used heroin had 4.3 (Maputo; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 18.2) and 2.3 (Nampula/Nacala; 95% CI: 1.2, 4.9) greater odds of having HIV. CONCLUSION: Unsafe sexual behaviors and injection practices are frequent among PWID in Mozambique, and likely contribute to the disproportionate burden of disease we found. Intensified efforts in prevention, care, and treatment specific for PWID have the potential to limit disease transmission.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Epidemias , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/análise , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e17936, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860948

RESUMO

Clearance of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the ultimate aim of treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Genetic, factor age, and gender were reported to be involved in the clearance of HBsAg. However, the rate of HBsAg seroclearance in CHB patients is still low globally and few of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) had been identified to associated with HBsAg seroclearance in CHB patients.Recently, 3 associated SNPs (rs7944135, rs171941, and rs6462008) were reported in the clearance of HBsAg in the Korean population. However, these SNPs have not been investigated in the CHB Taiwanese population. In present study, these 3 SNPs were genotyped in 2565 Taiwanese CHB patients including 493 CHB patients with HBsAg seroclearance and 2072 without HBsAg seroclearance.We observed that SNP rs7944135 was solely associated with HBsAg seroclearance. Subjects with the AA genotype at rs7944135 of macrophage-expressed gene 1 had a higher susceptibility to HBsAg clearance, compared to those with the AG or GG genotype under the genotypic model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.76. 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-2.72, P = .045). Furthermore, we found a 1.74-fold increased risk of acquiring HBsAg seroclearance associated with the AA genotype compared to AG + GG of rs7944135 under the recessive model (OR = 1.74. 95% CI = 1.13-2.66, P = .014). According to the cumulative fraction curve with the log-rank test revealed that patients with the AA genotype of rs7944135 showed higher susceptibility to occur HBsAg seroclearance (P = .039) and HBV DNA undetectable (P = .0074) compared to those with the AG or GG genotype.This study examined the associations of 3 SNPs (rs7944135, rs171941, and rs6462008) with HBsAg seroclearance, and we identified that rs7944135 is solely associated with HBsAg seroclearance in Taiwanese CHB patients.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , DNA Viral/análise , DNA Viral/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Taiwan
19.
EBioMedicine ; 49: 247-257, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) remains a major problem for global public health. Viral persistence and immune defects are the two major reasons for CHB, and it was hypothesized that based on a transient clearance of serum viral DNA and HBsAg "window stage", active immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) might initiate effective host immune responses versus HBV to achieve functional cure of CHB. METHODS: Two experimental mouse models that mice hydrodynamic injected HBV DNA or infected with recombinant AAV/HBV were used. The "sandwich" therapeutic effect by using a potent human anti-HBsAg neutralizing monoclonal antibody (G12) in combination with antiviral drug tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), followed by active immunization with HBsAg-HBsAb (mYIC) was evaluated. FINDINGS: A single G12 injection rapidly cleared serum HBsAg in HDI-HBV carrier mice, with a synergistic effect in decreasing viral DNA load when TDF was given orally. When both serum viral DNA and HBsAg load became low or undetectable, mYIC was administered. A more effective clearance of viral DNA and HBsAg was observed and serum HBsAb was developed only in these "sandwich"-treated mice. Efficient intrahepatic anti-HBV immune responses were also observed in these mice, including the formation of aggregates of myeloid cells with CD8+T cells and increased TNF-α, granzyme B production. INTERPRETATION: The "sandwich" combination therapy not only efficiently decreased HBsAg and HBV DNA levels but also induced effective cellular and humoral immunity, which may result in functional cure of CHB.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Imunização Passiva , Vacinação , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Injeções , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Clin Lab ; 65(10)2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since more sensitive immunoassays have been introduced, false positive Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) results are increasing. This study was carried out to propose a process to reduce the burden of the laboratory while increasing positive predictive value in HBsAg. METHODS: Samples with Elecsys HBsAg II (Roche Diagnostics, Germany) between cutoff index (COI) 0.9 and 10.0 were tested with Elecsys HBsAg Confirmatory Test (Roche Diagnostics). If the COI value after neutralization is less than or equal to 60% of the COI treated with control reagent, the sample was determined as HBsAg positive. RESULTS: A total of 133 samples were analyzed and 70.7% were confirmed positive. The highest COI of negatively confirmed sample was 5.6. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of HBsAg assay showed an area under curve of 0.761. Specificity was 100% at COI 6.0. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this finding, the authors propose that only samples with HBsAg COI less than 6.0 need confirmatory tests.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/análise , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/métodos , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio/normas , Testes de Neutralização/normas , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/normas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA