Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.945
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18752, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914096

RESUMO

The high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) in Asia raises the question as to whether HBV infection is associated with ICAS. To answer this question, we tested the association between HBV infection and ICAS. Totally, 3072 in-hospital subjects were retrospectively enrolled. All subjects underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) and serological testing for HBV infection. Based on the results of CTA, all subjects were categorized into 4 groups including ICAS, extracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ECAS), ICAS/ECAS (both ICAS and ECAS), and normal. HBV infection was divided into 4 patterns including hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positive/hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative/HBsAg-positive, and anti-HBc-negative/HBsAg-negative. Risk factors for atherosclerosis were collected based on medical records. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between infection patterns and ICAS. We found that the anti-HBc-positive / HBsAg-negative pattern was associated with the increased risk of ICAS (OR = 1.462) and not associated with ECAS or ICAS / ECAS. The HBc-positive/HBsAg-positive pattern was not associated with ICAS, ECAS or ICAS/ECAS. In conclusions, the anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative pattern was associated with the increased risk of ICAS. Anti-HBc should be employed to investigate the association between HBV infection and cerebrovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Idoso , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , China/epidemiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Constrição Patológica , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Gut ; 69(2): 343-354, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a novel therapeutic vaccine based on a unique B cell epitope and investigate its therapeutic potential against chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in animal models. METHODS: A series of peptides and carrier proteins were evaluated in HBV-tolerant mice to obtain an optimised therapeutic molecule. The immunogenicity, therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of the candidate were investigated systematically. RESULTS: Among the HBsAg-aa119-125-containing peptides evaluated in this study, HBsAg-aa113-135 (SEQ13) exhibited the most striking therapeutic effects. A novel immunoenhanced virus-like particle carrier (CR-T3) derived from the roundleaf bat HBV core antigen (RBHBcAg) was created and used to display SEQ13, forming candidate molecule CR-T3-SEQ13. Multiple copies of SEQ13 displayed on the surface of this particulate antigen promote the induction of a potent anti-HBs antibody response in mice, rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys. Sera and purified polyclonal IgG from the immunised animals neutralised HBV infection in vitro and mediated efficient HBV/hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance in the mice. CR-T3-SEQ13-based vaccination induced long-term suppression of HBsAg and HBV DNA in HBV transgenic mice and eradicated the virus completely in hydrodynamic-based HBV carrier mice. The suppressive effects on HBsAg were strongly correlated with the anti-HBs level after vaccination, suggesting that the main mechanism of CR-T3-SEQ13 vaccination therapy was the induction of a SEQ13-specific antibody response that mediated HBV/HBsAg clearance. CONCLUSIONS: The novel particulate protein CR-T3-SEQ13 suppressed HBsAg effectively through induction of a humoural immune response in HBV-tolerant mice. This B cell epitope-based therapeutic vaccine may provide a novel immunotherapeutic agent against chronic HBV infection in humans.


Assuntos
Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , DNA Viral/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/biossíntese , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Coelhos
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1022, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few countries in sub-Saharan Africa know the magnitude of their HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). This was the first study in Mozambique to measure prevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV, and to assess demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in this key population. METHODS: We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to conduct a cross-sectional behavioral surveillance survey of PWID in two cities of Mozambique lasting six months. Participants were persons who had ever injected drugs without a prescription. Participants completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided blood specimens for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) testing. We performed RDS-adjusted analysis in R 3.2 using RDSAT 7.1 weights. RESULTS: We enrolled 353 PWID in Maputo and 139 in Nampula/Nacala; approximately 95% of participants were men. Disease prevalence in Maputo and Nampula/Nacala, respectively, was 50.1 and 19.9% for HIV, 32.1 and 36.4% for HBsAg positivity, and 44.6 and 7.0% for anti-HCV positivity. Additionally, 8% (Maputo) and 28.6% (Nampula/Nacala) of PWID reported having a genital sore or ulcer in the 12 months preceding the survey. Among PWID who injected drugs in the last month, 50.3% (Maputo) and 49.6% (Nampula/Nacala) shared a needle at least once that month. Condomless sex in the last 12 months was reported by 52.4% of PWID in Maputo and 29.1% in Nampula/Nacala. Among PWID, 31.6% (Maputo) and 41.0% (Nampula/Nacala) had never tested for HIV. In multivariable analysis, PWID who used heroin had 4.3 (Maputo; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 18.2) and 2.3 (Nampula/Nacala; 95% CI: 1.2, 4.9) greater odds of having HIV. CONCLUSION: Unsafe sexual behaviors and injection practices are frequent among PWID in Mozambique, and likely contribute to the disproportionate burden of disease we found. Intensified efforts in prevention, care, and treatment specific for PWID have the potential to limit disease transmission.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Epidemias , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/análise , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 955, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification and knowledge of settings with high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is important when aiming for elimination of HCV. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of viremic HCV infection among Swedish prisoners. Secondary aims were to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the proportion who have received hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of all incarcerated persons (n = 667) at all prisons (n = 9) in Stockholm County was conducted. All prisoners are routinely offered opt-in screening for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), HCV RNA, HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HIV Ag/Ab at prison in Sweden. Data on the results of these tests and the number of received HBV vaccine doses were collected from the prison medical records. The parameters of HCV RNA, anti-HCV, and occurrence of testing for HCV were analysed in multiple logistic regression models in relation to age, sex and prison security class. RESULTS: The median age was 35 (IQR 26-44) years, and 93.4% were men. Seventy-one percent (n = 471) had been tested for anti-HCV, 70% (n = 465) for HBsAg and 71% (n = 471) for HIV. The prevalence of anti-HCV, HCV RNA, HBsAg and HIV Ag/Ab was 17.0, 11.5, 1.9, and 0.2%, respectively among tested persons. The proportion of prisoners who had received full HBV vaccination was 40.6% (n = 271) among all study subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of viremic HCV infection among Swedish prisoners in Stockholm County was 11.5%, which is high in comparison to the general population. Therefore, when aiming for the WHO goal of HCV elimination, prisons could suit as a platform for identification and treatment of HCV infection. There is a need to increase testing for blood-borne viruses and to improve vaccination coverage against HBV in Swedish prisons.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite C/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Prisioneiros , RNA Viral/análise , Suécia/epidemiologia
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 226, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692755

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to determine the seroprevalence and the factors associated with viral hepatitis B among pregnant women at the Departmental University Hospital of Borgou (CHUD-B).We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study with prospective collection of data. It focused on pregnant women treated and/or having given birth at the CHUD-B from 1 April 2017 to 30 June 2017. The study included patients who gave their consent to participate in the study. The variables studied were the sociodemographic data of pregnant women and the result of HBsAg test. The detectionof HBsAg in blood sampling of pregnant women was performed using a biological test for rapid diagnosis. Positive results were confirmed by ELISA technique. Two hundred and fourteen (214) pregnant women were included in the study. The average age of patients was 26.73±5.68 years. The mean gestation age was 31 weeks of amenorrhea (WA) ranging from 4 WA and 42 WA. Among them, 30 women were positive for HBsAg, reflecting a prevalence of 14.02%. The factors associated with this colonization were the practice of scarification, a personal history of jaundice and family history of viral hepatitis B. The seroprevalence of viral hepatitis B among pregnant women at the CHUD-B is high. This best reflect this major public health problem due to Hepatitis B virus.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Benin/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1326, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well documented that Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the world. The recent development of highly effective direct acting antiviral drugs (DAAs), has opened the possibility of treating and curing HCV infection in the Egyptian population on a large scale. METHODS: A screening demonstration project was implemented in southern Egypt in and around the city of Luxor. Free screening and if indicated, treatment, was offered to those 16 years or older for anti-HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using third generation enzyme immunoassays (Enzygnost® Anti-HCV and HbsAg). Statistical methods included estimation of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: There was a large turnout of 67,042 persons who were screened in a 12-month period starting in June 2016. Thirty-one thousand nine hundred sixty-four males (47.7%) and 35,074 females (52.3%) were screened with a mean age of 43.6 ± 14.3 years. Nine thousand seven hundred one patients (14.5%) were positive for anti-HCV and 2950 (4.4%) for HBsAg. Prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly higher in males than females (19.67% vs.9.73% OR = 2.27; CI 2.2 to 2.4; p < 0.001) and the same for HBsAg (6.2% vs. 2.8% OR = 2.3; CI 2.2 to 2.5; p < 0.001). The prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly associated with age (p < 0.001), ranging from between 1 and 4% in individuals below the age of 40 years, then increased steadily to 42% at age 60 followed by a precipitous decline in age specific prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed unanticipated patterns in the Luxor area of anti-HCV and HBsAg by age and gender in contrast to previous reports on this unique HCV epidemic in Egypt. Moreover, the level and rate of turnout, cost, and other logistical issues, provided essential information for effective planning, design, and evaluation methods for larger national mass screening and treatment programs.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1938-1946, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656477

RESUMO

Background: Co-infection of HBV with HIV is associated with significant morbidity and mortality globally. In spite of increasing reports of HIV/HBV co-morbidities in Nigeria, little or no data exists on this subject in Anyigba. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenemia among HIV positive patients on anti-retroviral treatment programme in Anyigba, Kogi State, North-Central Nigeria. Methods: Sera samples obtained from 200 consented HIV patients were screened for HBsAg using the commercial rapid test membrane-based qualitative immunoassay. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on patients' demographic variables and probable risk factors for HBV transmission. Results: Overall, 3.5% of HIV patients were seropositive to HBsAg and the difference between seroprevalence rates and patients' age as well as gender was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There was significant difference between patients' demographic variables such as marital status (p=0.013) and educational level (p=0.004) and HBsAg seropositivity. Patients with a history of surgical applications (p=0.01) and who indulged in alcoholism (p=0.03) significantly had higher rates of concomitant HIV/HBV infection in the study area. Conclusion: Our findings underscore the importance of routine screening for HBV in the HIV infected populations especially in developing countries where the infection is endemic. We advocate for public enlightenment programmes on routes of virus acquisitions with a view to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated HIV/HBV co-infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(8): 577-581, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594074

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) has put forward the strategic goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a major public health threat by 2030, and the research and development of new treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is an important part of this. In recent years, functional or clinical cure marked by HBsAg clearance and continuous undetectable HBV DNA has gradually become an ideal treatment endpoint recommended by clinical guidelines at home and abroad. Studies have shown that CHB patients who achieved long-term viral suppression after nucleoside analogues (NAs), adding or switching to interferons may have the potential to improve the clearance rate of HBsAg. However, the HBsAg conversion rate of patients in each treatment group in these studies was still low, and a reasonable combined therapy strategy and suitable patient population need to be further explored. In addition, some new drugs are being developed in pursuit of a CHB cure, though many clinical trials of new drugs are still based from a long-term treatment of NAs. Therefore, NAs antiviral therapy remains the cornerstone at this stage for CHB.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Nucleosídeos/análogos & derivados , Nucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos
9.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(8): 594-603, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594076

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major world public health problem. Current guidelines for the prevention and treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) have suggested clinical cure (also known as functional cure) as the ideal therapeutic goal, which is associated with decreased risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical cure is defined as sustained, undetectable serum HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA with or without seroconversion to anti-HBs, but with the persistence of residual cccDNA, accompanied by resolution of liver injury after the completion of a finite course of treatment. Accumulating data from a series of randomized controlled trials as well as clinical practice have confirmed certain clinical benefit of optimal sequential/ combination strategies of direct acting antiviral drugs (DAA) [such as nucleoside analogues (NA)] or immunomodulators (such as pegylated interferon alpha (Peg-IFN)] for appropriately selected CHB patients. This consensus provides an updated and comprehensive analysis of the data supporting the use of combination therapies and summarizes the roadmap towards clinical cure of CHB to guide decision-making in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Consenso , DNA Viral/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(8): 604-609, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594077

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the curative effect of antiviral therapy and related factors influencing the curative affect in children with immune-tolerant phase chronic hepatitis B. Methods: From May 2014 to April 2015, 46 children with chronic hepatitis B, aged 1 to 16 years with immune-tolerant phase were enrolled as the treatment group. All cases in the treated group either received interferon alpha (3-5 MIU/m(2), once daily) in lamivudine combination (if HBV DNA decreased < 2 log(10)) or repeatedly received interferon-alpha alone (if HBV DNA decreased >2 log(10)) for 12 weeks. Interferon was discontinued at 72 weeks and followed-up period was continued with lamivudine for 24 weeks. At the same time, data of 23 cases of untreated children with immune-tolerant phase chronic hepatitis B were collected as the control group. The treatment group and the control group were divided into two age groups: 1-7 years old and 7-15 years old. Data measurements were compared using t-test, analysis of variance and single factor analysis methods, and the count data were analyzed by χ (2) test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the effects of different factors on response. Results: (1) There were 22 cases aged 1-7 years in the treatment group (47.8%) and 12 cases aged 1-7 years in the control group (52.2%). The cases of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in treatment and control group were 34 (73.9%) and 17 (73.9%), while children with normal baseline ALT in the treatment and control group were 18 (39.1%) and 10 (43.5%). (2) At the end of follow-up, 15 cases in the treatment group (32.6%) had HBeAg serological conversion. Among them, nine (19.6%) cases had HBsAg clearance or HB-Ag seroconversion with anti-HBs, and one (2.2%) case had HBsAg clearance, but both HBeAg and anti-HBe were positive. In the control group, one case had HBV DNA lower than the lower limit of detection level, and one case had HBeAg seroconversion without HBsAg clearance. (3) At the end of follow-up, the seroconversion rates of HBeAg in patients aged 1 to 7 years and patients aged 7 to 15 years were 45.5% and 20.8%, respectively (P = 0.078) and the clearance rates of HBsAg were 36.4% and 8.3% (P = 0.023). The serum conversion rates of normal and abnormal baseline alanine aminotransferase levels were 5.6% and 50.0% (P = 0.005), and the clearance rates of HBsAg were 5.6% and 32.1% (P = 0.077), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in gender, mother-to-child transmission, HBV DNA genotyping and baseline HBsAg level in antiviral efficacy among children (P > 0.05). (4) HBsAg and HBeAg clearance occurred in 100% of patients at the end of follow-up who had HBsAg < 3 000 IU/ml at 24 weeks of treatment. (5) Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum HBeAg conversion rate had relation with non-MTCT transmission and abnormal baseline alanine aminotransferase. Furthermore, HBsAg clearance rate was associated with the age of children. Conclusion: Sequential combination of interferon and lamivudine with a prolonged course can improve the HBV DNA negative conversion rate, HBeAg seroconversion rate, HBsAg loss rate and mild ALT abnormalities at baseline in children under the age of 7 years with immune-tolerant phase chronic hepatitis B.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Viral/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(9): 668-672, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594089

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze serum HBV-RNA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B whose serum HBV-DNA has dropped to undetected levels after treatment with entecavir, and to explore the correlation between HBV-RNA level and liver biochemical parameters, which lay the research foundation for the clinical significance of new serological marker HBV-RNA. Methods: HBeAg negatively detected 107 cases with chronic hepatitis B whose serum HBV-DNA test results were lower than detection level for six consecutive months after receiving standard nucleoside therapy for more than 12 months were included. HBV-RNA level was detected by Perkin-Elmer reagent. HBV-DNA level was detected by Roche Cobas. Hitachi automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect ALT and AST. Architect chemiluminescence analyzer was used to detect HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe and anti-HBc. RStudio software was performed to analyze the correlation between HBV-RNA level and liver biochemical parameters. Logistic regression was used to analyze the independent factors influencing HBV-RNA level. Results: The positive detection rate of serum HBV-RNA in patients with chronic hepatitis B whose serum HBV-DNA had dropped to undetected levels after ETV treatment was 22.43%. HBsAg, ALT and AST levels in HBV-RNA positive group were slightly higher than HBV-RNA negative group, while anti-HBc levels were slightly higher in HBV-RNA negative group. There was no difference in the level of anti-HBe between the HBV-RNA negative and the positive group. Logistic regression analysis showed that anti-HBc was an independent factor influencing the level of HBV-RNA detection (P = 0.021). Conclusion: HBV-RNA can be detected in some patients with chronic hepatitis B whose serum HBV-DNA level has dropped to undetected levels after ETV treatment. Serum HBV-RNA only comes from the direct transcription of cccDNA, so it is better than HBV-DNA and HBsAg to reflect cccDNA level or activity. Anti-HBc, as an independent factor influencing the level of HBV-RNA, may be used in combination as a new marker to predict the efficacy of antiviral therapy.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/sangue , DNA Viral/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Humanos
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 163, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565125

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is a serious public health problem. Its epidemiology is not precisely known in Morocco. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV in a particular population of "blood donors" at the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre in Oujda. A retrospective study was conducted from May 1, 2013 to May 31, 2015. Thirty-one thousand nine hundred and fifty-two blood donors were tested. Antigen detection was made according to ELISA technique (MonolisaTMHBs Ag ULTRA). HCV research was performed by ELISA using the kit « Monolisa HCV Ag-Ab ULTRA ¼. 177 blood donors included, they are divided into 155 male (87.6%) and 22 female (12.4%) subjects with a ratio of 7. The average age was 37.64 ± 12 years. Six cases were positive for HCV with an overall prevalence of 0.02%. The population study by sex shows a prevalence of 0.004% for 23177 male sera and 0.057% for 8775 female sera. Six donors were HCV positive, of which 05 were female (83.33%) and one was male (16.66%). The average age was 43 ± 14 years. Co-infection with HCV HBV-HCV and HCV-Syphilis and HCV-HIV are absent. Co-infection with HBV and HIV was found in one case. HBV-syphilis co-infection was found in 04 cases. Chronic viral hepatitis is a real global health problem. Its prevalence is currently estimated at 0.55% for HBV and 0.02% for HCV, reclassifying Morocco as a low endemic area. The prevention remains the most effective method to successfully control HBV and HCV infection.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Coinfecção , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 23(5): 343-351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The clinical significance of coexistence of HBsAg/anti-HBs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients remains controversial. This study was aimed to assess the association of this serological pattern with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with CHB. METHODS: In this cross-section study, 206 CHB patients with coexistence of HBsAg/anti-HBs and 206 CHB patients with HBsAg alone were included to evaluate the risk of HCC development by logistic regression analysis. In addition, a retrospective cohort of 260 patients with CHB was recruited to estimate the cumulative incidence of HCC by Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: The serological pattern of coexistence of HBsAg/anti-HBs, with high levels of ("High") HBsAg/low levels of ("Low") anti-HBs, were considered as independent risk factors for HCC. In particular, patients with "High" HBsAg/"High" anti-HBs [odds ratio (OR), 4.295; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.104-16.699; p = 0.035] and "Low" HBsAg/ "High" anti-HBs (OR, 3.207; 95%CI, 1.299-7.919; p = 0.012) exhibited significantly higher risk for HCC development. However, only "Low" HBsAg /"High" anti-HBs might increase risk of HCC in CHB patients with high HBV load (logrank p < 0.001) in our cohort study. CONCLUSION: The coexistence of "Low" HBsAg /"High" anti-HBs might increase the risk of HCC development in CHB patients with high HBV load, which reflected that the long-term interaction between immune response and virus might lead to the development of HCC. The identification of the patients with poor prognosis will help clinicians to refine the therapeutic decisions and individualize follow-up strategies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 811, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem in China. Over a decade has passed since the last National Hepatitis Seroepidemiological Survey was conducted in 2006. The lack of updated data on hepatitis B in China makes assessing the current prevalence and burden of the disease inadequate. In response to the above situation, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to provide a better understanding of hepatitis B epidemiology in the general population of China. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in international databases (Medline through PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science) and national databases (CBM, CNKI, WanFang Data) to retrieve primary studies published between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2017. The pooled prevalence of HBV infection and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Quality assessment, heterogeneity testing and publication bias assessment were also performed. RESULTS: Of the 27 studies included in the meta-analysis, the pooled estimated prevalence of HBV infection in the general population of China from 2013 to 2017 was 6.89% (95% CI:5.84-7.95%), which could be extrapolated to an estimated population of 84 million living with HBsAg in 2018. The prevalence of HBV infection in males was higher than that in females (5.88% vs 5.05%), and rural areas had a higher prevalence than urban areas (5.86% vs 3.29%). The highest prevalence of HBV infection was reported in Western provinces (8.92, 95% CI: 7.19-10.64%). In adults older than 20 years, the prevalence of HBV infection was approximately 7%, which was higher than that in children. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HBV infection in the general population of China was classified as higher intermediate prevalence (5-7.99%), of which more than 90% of the HBV infection population included adults older than 20 years. The blocking of mother-to-infant hepatitis B transmission and plans involving timely birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 24 h should be implemented. Additionally, improving the quality of life and survival rate of the infected population through antiviral therapy and high-risk adult vaccination will be the priority of our future work. Moreover, various control measures should be implemented in different provinces across China.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , China/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Prevalência , População Urbana
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1101, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviors reflect the degree of exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), especially in people in sexually active stages, such as youths. Hill tribe people have their own cultures, beliefs and lifestyles related to their behaviors, including sexual behaviors, which may lead to HIV, HBV, and HCV infections, especially among youths. The study aimed to examine sexual behaviors and assess the seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV among hill tribe youths. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The participants were recruited from 60 randomly selected hill tribe villages in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. A validated questionnaire and 5 mL blood specimens were used to collect data. Data were collected by a self-reporting method. Rapid immunochromatographic tests were used to detect hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus antibody-I and- II (anti-HIV-1 and -2). Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to detect the associations between variables. RESULTS: A total of 1325 participants were recruited for the analysis. The majority were females (60.5%) and aged 15-17 years (58.9%). A total of 14.5% smoked, 22.4% drank alcohol, 14.2% were tattooed, and 61.4% had their ears pierced. Among the 30.3% who had sexual experience, 42.0% experienced one-night stands, 26.9% had sexual contact with a prostitute within 1 year prior to the study, 18.9% used alcohol prior to having sexual intercourse, and 15.7% had been tested for HIV/AIDS previously. Among males, 11.5% were males who had sex with males (MSM), and 4.6% were bisexual. Among females, 83.0% were females who had sex with males, and 5.0% were females who had sex with females. Different sexes and tribes were found to have significantly different risk behaviors and sexual behaviors, such as overall males having a greater proportion of sexual experience than females, and Lahu, Akha and Hmong had a higher proportion of sexual experience, having sexual experience with one-night stands, and having sexual experience with a prostitute 1 year prior to the study than others. Among the 836 obtained blood samples, none were positive for anti-HIV-I and -II, 6.4% were positive for anti-HBs, 1.9% were positive for HBsAg, and 0.2% were positive for anti-HCV. CONCLUSION: Hill tribe youths in Thailand are at risk of STIs such as HBV and HCV infections according to their risk behaviors and sexual behaviors, which differ between sexes and tribes. Effective behavioral interventions should be promoted among hill tribe youths to minimize the risk for these diseases in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais/psicologia , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-2/imunologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 509, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the magnitude of serum HBsAg and the risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar. An institution based cross sectional study was implemented from February 1 to May 1, 2018 among 338 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic at Felegehiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, 2018. Systematic random sampling technique was implemented. Blood sample was taken from 338 study participants and serum was tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women were 16 (4.7%) (95% CI 2.7, 7.7). Having a history of blood transfusion (AOR = 5.2; 95% CI 1.2-22.3), having a history of multiple sexual partners (AOR = 4.6; 95% CI 1.1-19.6) and having a history tonsillectomy (traditional surgical procedure) (AOR = 3.4; 95% CI 1.1-10.1) were the significant risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/virologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(8): 2239-2246, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450890

RESUMO

Background: The role of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in predicting the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has remained unclear. The aim of this study was to obtain the most up-to-date estimated measure of the association between HBsAg levels and the development of HCC in patients. Methods: We performed a systematic review by searching for relevant studies on PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 2002 to November 2017. We presented the effects of HBsAg levels at each cut-off value as the odds ratios (ORs) at 95% confidence interval (CI). We also investigated HCC and its potential risk factors including HBeAg, and HBV DNA. We registered our protocol with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) with the registration number CRD42018081138. Results: We selected 10 studies representing 12 541 cases. At the 100 IU/ml cut-off, the OR for HCC at the high HBsAg level versus the low level was 4.99 (95% CI, 3.01­8.29) with high inconsistency (I2=79%). At the 1,000 IU/ml threshold, the pooled OR for HCC at the high HBsAg versus the low level was 2.46 (95% CI, 2.15­2.83) with low variance. We also found correlations between the risk of HCC and male gender (OR=2.12), hepatitis B e-antigen positivity (OR=2.99), or hepatitis B (HBV) viral load ≥ 2,000 IU/ml (OR=4.37). Conclusion: Our study revealed that HBsAg levels ≥ 100 IU/ml, and notably >1,000 IU/ ml, are associated with an increased risk of HCC development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16401, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393348

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is caused by different etiological agents with distinct epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics accounting for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. Since 1996, the Brazilian Department of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Viral Hepatitis (DIAHV) in collaboration with the Ministry of Defense has been conducting periodic serosurveys of conscripts enlisted for the Brazilian army to assess STI prevalence and obtain data on knowledge and risk factors pertaining to STIs. This article aims to present the hepatitis B (hepatitis B surface antigen - HBsAg) and C (anti-HCV) seroprevalence estimates and risk factors as per the 8th edition of the Conscript Survey performed in 2016.This cross-sectional study was conducted among conscripts across Brazil aged 17 to 22 years from August to December 2016. It included a self-reported questionnaire and blood testing for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C.In total 38,247 conscripts were enrolled; after applying exclusion criteria, 37,282 conscripts were included. The estimated HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence rates were 0.22% and 0.28%, respectively. Higher HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence rates were observed in the North Region (0.49%) and in the Central-west Region (0.65%), respectively. Regarding hepatitis B vaccination, 23.5% (n = 8412) of the individuals reported being unvaccinated and 47.4% (n = 16,970) did not know if they had been vaccinated. Among the anti-HCV positive conscripts, 53% (n = 51, 0.56%, P = .049) reported that they had never had sexual intercourse. Regarding self-reported STI status, most of the positive anti-HCV (n = 100, 0.29%, P < .01) and positive HBsAg (n = 76, 0.22%, P = .205) conscripts reported not having a STI. From those who tested positive for HBsAg, 89% (n = 42, 0.28%, P = .005) reported not making consistent use of condoms with steady partners.Our data suggest a low prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Brazilian young men, and relatively low rates of self-reported HBV immunization. History of STIs, higher number of partners, inconsistent use of condoms, and lack of awareness of routes of transmission were significantly associated with HBV and HCV infections. To achieve the World Health Organization's goal of viral hepatitis elimination, access to hepatitis information, testing, and surveillance need to be improved.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 275, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study aims to describe how obstetricians manage pregnant women infected with chronic hepatitis B in a region with a large high-risk population. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study among practicing obstetricians in Santa Clara County, California. All obstetricians practicing in Santa Clara County were invited to participate in the study. Obstetricians were recruited in person or by mail to complete a voluntary, multiple choice survey on hepatitis B (HBV). Survey questions assessed basic HBV knowledge and obstetricians' self-reported clinical practices of the management of HBV-infected pregnant women. Pooled descriptive analyses were calculated for the cohort, as well as, correlation coefficients to evaluate the association between reported clinical practices and hepatitis B knowledge. RESULTS: Among 138 obstetricians who completed the survey, 94% reported routinely testing pregnant women for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with each pregnancy. Only 60.9% routinely advised HBsAg-positive patients to seek specialist evaluation for antiviral treatment and monitoring and fewer than half (48.6%) routinely provided them with HBV information. While most respondents recognized the potential complications of chronic HBV (94.2%), only 21% were aware that chronic HBV carries a 25% risk of liver related death when left unmonitored and untreated, and only 25% were aware of the high prevalence of chronic HBV in the foreign-born Asian, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander population. Obstetricians aware of the high risk of perinatal HBV transmission were more likely to test pregnant women for HBV DNA or hepatitis B e-antigen in HBV-infected women (r = 0.18, p = 0.033). Obstetricians who demonstrated knowledge of the long-term consequences of untreated HBV infection were no more likely to refer HBV-infected women to specialists for care (r = 0.02, p = 0.831). CONCLUSION: Our study identified clear gaps in the practice patterns of obstetricians that can be readily addressed to enhance the care they provide to HBV-infected pregnant women.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Obstetrícia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral/sangue , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/etnologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/etnologia
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 142: 111556, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377574

RESUMO

Nowadays, nanomaterials with enzymatic properties have aroused wide interest because of their special advantages, such as catalytic activity, simple preparation method and high stability. We introduced new nanoenzymes to a label-free electrochemical immunosensor for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) detection. In this study, PtPd nanocubes@MoS2 nanoenzymes (PtPd NCs@MoS2) were prepared by loading PtPd nanocubes (PtPd NCs) on molybdenum disulfide nano-sheet (MoS2) through in situ redox polymerization. The prepared nanoenzymes exhibited enhanced peroxidase-like activity than separate MoS2 and PtPd NCs. The catalytic process of PtPd NCs@MoS2 is in agreement with the Michaelis-Menten kinetic equation. PtPd NCs@MoS2 were used for sensitive detection of HBs Ag, which is ascribed to their superior peroxidase activity, good conductivity and high specific surface area and synergistic amplification for current signals. Compared with the detection limit of colorimetric method (3.3 pg/mL), the electrochemical method (10.2 fg/mL) shows a lower detection limit and a wider linear range from 32 fg/mL to 100 ng/mL, so it is more suitable for quantitative analysis of Hepatitis B. In summary, the prepared immunosensor provides a better opportunity for early diagnosis of Hepatitis B and also has further applications in biosensing and medical diagnostics.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/química , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Molibdênio/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Paládio/química , Platina/química , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/análise , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA