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1.
Parasitology ; 147(2): 213-224, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566155

RESUMO

Tick-borne diseases caused by Theileria are of economic importance in domestic and wildlife ruminants. The majority of Theileria infects a limited number of host species, supporting the concept of host specificity. However, some Theileria seem to be generalists challenging the host specificity paradigm, such as Theileria sp. (sable) reported from various vertebrate hosts, including African buffalo, cattle, dogs and different antelope species. We tested the hypothesis that T. sp. (sable) uses Bovidae as hosts in general using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay specific for T. sp. (sable) and a closely related genotype: T. sp. (sable-like). Various antelope species from the Tragelaphini (black wildebeest, blesbuck, blue wildebeest, gemsbuck, sable and waterbuck) tested positive for either T. sp. (sable) or T. sp. (sable-like). However, no African buffalo (n = 238) or cattle (n = 428) sampled in the current study tested positive, suggesting that these latter species are not carrier hosts. The results were confirmed using next-generation sequencing which also indicated at least 13 new genotypes or species found in various antelope and giraffes. Genotypes were found in single host species or in evolutionarily related hosts, suggesting that host specificity in Theileria may be a lineage specific phenomenon likely associated with tick-host-parasite co-evolution.


Assuntos
Ruminantes/parasitologia , Theileria/genética , Theileriose/diagnóstico , Theileriose/parasitologia , Animais , Antílopes/parasitologia , Girafas/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 342-349, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260199

RESUMO

Mountain bongo (Tragelaphus euryceros isaaci) from Kenya were exported to zoological institutions in North America and Europe in the 1970s and 1980s. In the following 20-30 years bongo numbers declined in Kenya and the Mountain Bongo Repatriation Project was launched. This resulted in 18 adult bongo, descendants of the original translocated bongo, being repatriated from the United States to Kenya in 2004. These newly arrived bongo were inadvertently exposed to heavy tick infestation on release in a conservancy on the slopes of Mount Kenya. Mortality and morbidity occurred during the third week after arrival. Theileria sp. infection was apparent from the history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings, and Theileria-like parasites were detected microscopically in samples from sick and dead animals. Four bongo died before the outbreak was controlled. In order to identify the Theileria parasite conclusively, molecular amplification techniques were used. A combination of reverse line blotting, with small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and nucleotide sequencing, identified the protozoan parasite Theileria taurotragi, suggesting this as the most probable cause of mortality and morbidity in the repatriated bongo.


Assuntos
Antílopes/parasitologia , Naftoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/parasitologia , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Oxitetraciclina , Theileriose/tratamento farmacológico , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Theileriose/mortalidade
3.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217929, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal parasites are neglected infections, yet they cause significant burden to animal and human health globally. To date, most studies of gastrointestinal parasites focus on host-parasite systems that involve either a single parasite or a host species. However, when hosts share habitat and resources, they may also cross-transmit generalist gastrointestinal parasites. Here we explore multi-host-parasite interactions in a single ecosystem to understand the infection patterns, especially those linked to livestock-wildlife interfaces and zoonotic risk. METHODS: We used both coprological methods (flotation and sedimentation; N = 1,138 fecal samples) and molecular identification techniques (rDNA and mtDNA; N = 18 larvae) to identify gastrointestinal parasites in nine sympatric host species (cattle, sheep, goats, wildebeest, Grant's gazelles, Thomson's gazelles, impala, vervet monkeys and baboons) in the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya. RESULTS: We found that the host community harbored a diverse community of gastrointestinal helminths, including 22 species and/or morphotypes that were heterogeneously distributed across the hosts. Six zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths were identified: Trichuris spp., Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Enterobius spp. Oesophagostomum bifurcum, Strongyloides stercoralis and Strongyloides fuelleborni. The dominant parasite was Trichuris spp, whose ova occurred in two morphological types. Baboons were co-infected with Strongyloides fuelleborni and S. stercoralis. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the interface zone shared by wild ungulates, livestock and non-human primates is rich in diversity of gastrointestinal helminths, of which some are extensively shared across the host species. Closely related host species were most likely to be infected by the same parasite species. Several parasites showed genetic sub-structuring according to either geography or host species. Of significance and contrary to expectation, we found that livestock had a higher parasite richness than wild bovids, which is a health risk for both conservation and livestock production. The zoonotic parasites are of public health risk, especially to pastoralist communities living in areas contiguous to wildlife areas. These results expand information on the epidemiology of these parasites and highlights potential zoonotic risk in East African savanna habitats.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Antílopes/parasitologia , Bovinos , Chlorocebus aethiops/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Fezes/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Helmintos/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Gado/parasitologia , Papio/parasitologia , Parasitos , Ovinos/parasitologia
4.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(3): 337-346, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903446

RESUMO

We examined faeces of 76 endangered Tibetan antelopes Pantholops hodgsonii (Abel) in May 2017, from the Hoh Xil Nature Reserve, Qinghai Province, China, and found 62/76 (82%) discharging oöcysts representing five new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. Oöcysts of Eimeria pantholopensis n. sp., found in 54/76 (71%) chiru, are subspheroidal/ellipsoidal, 15-22 × 12-19 (18.6 × 16.1) µm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.0-1.3 (1.2); micropyle cap and 1-3 polar granules are present, but oöcyst residuum is absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 7-11 × 4-6 (9.2 × 5.3) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.6-2.0 (1.7); Stieda body and sporocyst residuum of small, scattered granules are present; each sporozoite contains 2 refractile bodies. Oöcysts of Eimeria wudaoliangensis n. sp. found in 52/76 (68%) chiru, are pyriform, 21-29 × 17-21 (24.9 × 19.0) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.1-1.5 (1.3); micropyle, micropyle cap and 1-4 polar granules are present, but oöcyst residuum is absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 9-13 × 5-8 (11.7 × 6.7) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.4-2.7 (1.7); Stieda body and sporocyst residuum of disbursed granules are present; sporozoites have a single large refractile body. Oöcysts of Eimeria hodgsonii n. sp. found in 20/76 (26%) chiru, are elongate-ellipsoidal, 25-32 × 18-21 (28.9 × 19.8) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.2-1.7 (1.5); micropyle, micropyle cap and 1-3 polar granules are present, but oöcyst residuum is absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 11-14 × 6-7 (12.3 × 6.8) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.7-2.1 (1.8); Stieda body and sporocyst residuum as group of large granules lying along the interface between intertwined sporozoites are present; sporozoites have 2 refractile bodies. Oöcysts of Eimeria schalleri n. sp. found in 49/76 (64.5%) chiru, are ellipsoidal, 26-36 × 19-25 (30.4 × 23.2) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.2-1.5 (1.3); micropyle with micropyle cap and polar granules appearing as many diffuse tiny bodies are present, but oöcyst residuum is absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 12-16 × 7-9 (14.2 × 7.8) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.6-2.1 (1.8); Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present, the latter as a group of small dispersed granules between intertwined sporozoites; sporozoites with 2 refractile bodies. Oöcysts of Eimeria sui n. sp. found in 4/76 (5%) chiru, are ovoidal, 32-38 × 26-30 (36.6 × 28.6) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.0-1.4 (1.3); micropyle and micropyle cap and 1-3 polar granules are present, but oöcyst residuum is absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 15-18 × 8-10 (16.7 × 8.9) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.7-2.1 (1.9); Stieda body and sporocyst residuum are present, the latter as a group of dispersed small granules; sporozoites with 2 refractile bodies. Five of 62 faecal samples in which oöcysts were detected (8%) had a single species infection, 13 of 62 (21%) had two species, 28 of 62 (45%) had three species and 16 of 62 (26%) had four species.


Assuntos
Antílopes/parasitologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/classificação , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Eimeria/citologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Vet Rec ; 184(9): 282, 2019 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819861

RESUMO

Animals from zoological institutions may be used for reintroductions. These individuals are considered healthy, but they are not necessarily free of parasites, despite the minimum husbandry standards required of zoological institutions as described in the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria guidelines. In this sense, parasitism has been identified as the cause of failure, or has added difficulties, in some reintroduction programmes. Here the authors attempt to summarise the risk of parasitism to animals originating from zoological institutions by analysing a questionnaire about parasite prevalence, sampling methods, treatment and control in three ungulates in European zoos. Completed questionnaires were received from 38 institutions (58.5 per cent response rate). Most of the responding institutions (97 per cent) detected the eggs of endoparasites in faeces, but only one reported ectoparasites. Most institutions followed a similar preventive schedule, with ivermectin as the preferred prophylactic treatment for parasites, commonly administered in food every six months. The frequent use of concentrating flotation techniques as the sole method to evaluate the presence of parasite eggs in faecal samples is not recommended because it fails to detect trematode and lung nematode infections, so it would be better to use flotation techniques together with sedimentation procedures or serological and molecular tests. The results suggest that parasite control in zoological institutions can be complicated, indicating the need to implement a specific management schedule for institutions involved in reintroduction projects.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Antílopes/parasitologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Fezes/parasitologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Parasitology ; 145(7): 901-911, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29113593

RESUMO

In Tunisia and other North African countries, there is a lack of knowledge about parasite biodiversity within threatened wild ruminants and there are not any studies on their gastrointestinal nematodes. Thus the aim of this study was to identify gastrointestinal fauna in the faecal samples of Tunisian wild ruminants. A total of 262 faecal samples were collected from domestic sheep and goat, and wild ruminants (Addax, Barbary sheep, Barbary red deer, Dorcas gazelle, Slender-horned gazelle and Scimitar-horned Oryx) living in protected areas. Samples were examined with floatation (saturated sodium chloride solution), polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA. Microscopic analysis allowed the identification of only Nematodirus genus or molecular tools allowed a first identification of five gastrointestinal nematode species in North African wild ruminants: Chabertia ovina (1.6%), Camelostrongylus mentulatus (1.6%), Marshallagia marshalli (4.7%), Nematodirus helvetianus (62.5%) and Nematodirus spathiger (29.7%). This study reported the first records of C. mentulatus and M. marshalli in Addax and of M. marshalli in Dorcas gazelle and it was the first reported record of N. helvetianus and M. marshalli in Tunisia.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Estrongilídios/classificação , Animais , Antílopes/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Estrongilídios/genética , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Tunísia/epidemiologia
7.
Prev Vet Med ; 146: 166-172, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28992923

RESUMO

Wildlife, both native and introduced, can harbor and spread diseases of importance to the livestock industry. Describing movement patterns of such wildlife is essential to formulate effective disease management strategies. Nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus) are a free-ranging, introduced ungulate in southern Texas known to carry cattle fever ticks (CFT, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. (B.) annulatus). CFT are the vector for the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis, a lethal disease causing high mortality in susceptible Bos taurus populations and severely affecting the beef cattle industry. Efforts to eradicate CFT from the United States have been successful. However, a permanent quarantine area is maintained between Texas and Mexico to check its entry from infested areas of neighboring Mexico states on wildlife and stray cattle. In recent years, there has been an increase in CFT infestations outside of the permanent quarantine area in Texas. Nilgai are of interest in understanding how CFT may be spread through the landscape. Thirty nilgai of both sexes were captured and fitted with satellite radio collars in South Texas to gain information about movement patterns, response to disturbances, and movement barriers. Median annual home range sizes were highly variable in males (4665ha, range=571-20,809) and females (1606ha, range=848-29,909). Female movement patterns appeared to be seasonal with peaks during June-August; these peaks appeared to be a function of break-ups in female social groups rather than environmental conditions. Nilgai, which reportedly are sensitive to disturbance, were more likely to relocate into new areas immediately after being captured versus four other types of helicopter activities. Nilgai did not cross 1.25m high cattle fences parallel to paved highways but did cross other fence types. Results indicate that females have a higher chance of spreading CFT through the landscape than males, but spread of CFT may be mitigated via maintenance of cattle fences running parallel with paved highways. Our results highlight the importance of documenting species-specific behavior in wildlife-livestock interfaces that can be used to develop effective disease management strategies in the United States and worldwide.


Assuntos
Antílopes/parasitologia , Babesiose/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Babesia/microbiologia , Babesiose/prevenção & controle , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , México , Movimento , Rhipicephalus , Estações do Ano , Texas
8.
Acta Trop ; 165: 17-20, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27887695

RESUMO

Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A. nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles.


Assuntos
Antílopes/parasitologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Haplótipos , Tunísia
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 226: 167-73, 2016 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27514903

RESUMO

Tick-borne hemoparasites (TBHs) are a group of pathogens of concern in animal management because they are associated with a diversity of hosts, including both wild and domestic species. However, little is known about how frequently TBHs are shared across the wildlife-livestock interface in natural settings. Here, we compared the TBHs of wild Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in a region of Kenya where these species extensively overlap. Blood samples collected from each species were screened for piroplasm and rickettsial TBHs by PCR-based amplification of 18S/16S ribosomal DNA, respectively. Overall, 99% of gazelle and 66% of sheep were positive for Babesia/Theileria, and 32% of gazelle and 47% sheep were positive for Anaplasma/Ehrlichia. Sequencing a subset of positive samples revealed infections of Theileria and Anaplasma. Sequences sorted into seven phylogenetically distinct genotypes-two Theileria, and five Anaplasma. With the exception of a putatively novel Anaplasma lineage from Grant's gazelle, these genotypes appeared to be divergent forms of previously described species, including T. ovis, A. ovis, A. bovis, and A. platys. Only one genotype, which clustered within the A. platys clade, contained sequences from both gazelle and sheep. This suggests that despite niche, habitat, and phylogenetic overlap, the majority of circulating tick-borne diseases may not be shared between these two focal species.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Antílopes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Anaplasma/classificação , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasmose/parasitologia , Anaplasmose/transmissão , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/parasitologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Genótipo , Quênia/epidemiologia , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Theileria/classificação , Theileria/genética , Theileriose/parasitologia , Theileriose/transmissão , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 283(1831)2016 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27194703

RESUMO

Parasites are ubiquitous components of the environment that contribute to behavioural and life-history variation among hosts. Although it is well known that host behaviour can affect parasite infection risk and that parasites can alter host behaviour, the potential for dynamic feedback between these processes is poorly characterized. Using Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti) as a model, we tested for reciprocal effects of behaviour on parasites and parasites on behaviour to understand whether behaviour-parasite feedback could play a role in maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour. Adult male gazelles either defend territories to attract mates or reside in bachelor groups. Territoriality is highly variable both within- and between-individuals, suggesting that territory maintenance is costly. Using a combination of longitudinal and experimental studies, we found that individual males transition frequently between territorial and bachelor reproductive status, and that elevated parasite burdens are a cost of territoriality. Moreover, among territorial males, parasites suppress aspects of behaviour related to territory maintenance and defence. These results suggest that territorial behaviour promotes the accumulation of parasites in males, and these parasites dampen the very behaviours required for territory maintenance. Our findings suggest that reciprocal feedback between host behaviour and parasitism could be a mechanism maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour in the system.


Assuntos
Antílopes/fisiologia , Antílopes/parasitologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Territorialidade , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Quênia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação
11.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 7(5): 788-797, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27020735

RESUMO

Ticks were collected from 191 cheetahs at three breeding centres in North West and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa. Haemaphysalis elliptica, a common tick of large felids, was the most abundant species collected, while Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus simus occurred in lower numbers. In addition to these three species, drag-sampling of the vegetation revealed the presence of Amblyomma marmoreum, Rhipicephalus (B.) decoloratus and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis. The presence of free-ranging antelopes, murid rodents and tortoises at the breeding centres probably contributed to the availability of immature tick stages on the vegetation. Diurnal and seasonal questing patterns of ixodid ticks were investigated at monthly intervals at the largest cheetah-breeding centre. Questing ticks were most abundant on the vegetation during the warm summer months. Most questing H. elliptica larvae and nymphs were collected from the vegetation in the early morning and late afternoon and fewest during the middle of the day.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Antílopes/parasitologia , Cruzamento , Ixodidae/classificação , Larva/fisiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Roedores/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia
12.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0148958, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26863304

RESUMO

Re-examination, using molecular tools, of the diversity of haemosporidian parasites (among which the agents of human malaria are the best known) has generally led to rearrangements of traditional classifications. In this study, we explored the diversity of haemosporidian parasites infecting vertebrate species (particularly mammals, birds and reptiles) living in the forests of Gabon (Central Africa), by analyzing a collection of 492 bushmeat samples. We found that samples from five mammalian species (four duiker and one pangolin species), one bird and one turtle species were infected by haemosporidian parasites. In duikers (from which most of the infected specimens were obtained), we demonstrated the existence of at least two distinct parasite lineages related to Polychromophilus species (i.e., bat haemosporidian parasites) and to sauropsid Plasmodium (from birds and lizards). Molecular screening of sylvatic mosquitoes captured during a longitudinal survey revealed the presence of these haemosporidian parasite lineages also in several Anopheles species, suggesting a potential role in their transmission. Our results show that, differently from what was previously thought, several independent clades of haemosporidian parasites (family Plasmodiidae) infect mammals and are transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Antílopes/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Anopheles/parasitologia , Citocromos b/genética , Feminino , Gabão/epidemiologia , Variação Genética , Haemosporida/genética , Insetos Vetores/genética , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Tipagem Molecular , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
13.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 40(4): 211-214, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28091391

RESUMO

This study was performed to provide information on Tricholipeurus balanicus (Werneck 1938) detected on slender-horned gazelles (Gazella leptoceros) (Cuvier 1842). Four slender-horned gazelles kept in the El Hamma Zoological Garden in Algeria were examined for lice in April 2015. Three of the four gazelles were infested with lice; of 37 lice collected from the infested animals, 14 were females, 16 were males, and 7 were nymphs. Lice were mainly found on the back and hind legs of the gazelles. The lice were collected by a forceps, preserved in 70% alcohol, and cleared in 10% KOH for 24 h. Thereafter, they were rinsed in distilled water, transferred to 70% and 99% alcohol, mounted on slides in Canada balsam, examined under a binocular microscope, and identified as Tricholipeurus balanicus (Werneck, 1938). To the best of our knowledge, T. balanicus on G. leptoceros has been reported for the first time.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Antílopes/parasitologia , Iscnóceros , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Argélia , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Infestações por Piolhos/diagnóstico , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Masculino
14.
J Parasitol ; 102(2): 233-8, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26654121

RESUMO

During October 2013, 112 fecal samples were collected from wild blue wildebeest ( Connochaetes taurinus ) in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania, and examined for coccidians. Coccidia were present in 46% of samples, with wildebeest shedding 60 to 18,000 oocysts per gram feces (median, 300; mean, 1,236). Five species, including 4 new species, were identified. Oocysts of Eimeria gorgonis from 18% of samples were ellipsoidal, 23 × 18.4 µm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3, oocyst wall 1-1.5 µm thick. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule absent. Oocysts of Eimeria donaldi n. sp. from 34% of samples were spherical to oblong, 13.4 × 12.3 µm, L/W ratio 1.1, oocyst wall 1 µm thick. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule absent. Oocysts of Eimeria nyumbu n. sp. were ellipsoidal, 30.8 × 22.1 µm, L/W 1.4, oocyst wall 2 µm thick. Large micropyle present, oocyst residuum and polar granule absent. Oocysts of Eimeria burchelli n. sp. in 16% of samples were 34.8 × 24.4 µm, L/W 1.4, oocyst wall 2-2.5 µm thick, with a brown, lightly stippled outer layer. Micropyle present, oocyst residuum and polar granule absent. Oocysts of Eimeria sokoine n. sp. in 5% of samples were 45.8 × 29 µm, L/W 1.6, oocyst wall 3-4 µm thick with a dark brown, very rough, stippled outer layer. Micropyle present, oocyst residuum and polar granule absent. There was no apparent cross transmission of coccidia found in blue wildebeest with those generally reported to infect domestic cattle.


Assuntos
Antílopes/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeriidae/classificação , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Eimeria/ultraestrutura , Eimeriidae/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
15.
Zootaxa ; 4052(5): 577-82, 2015 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26701455

RESUMO

Rumen contents were collected from ten adult female blesbok, five from a mine area with only acid drinking water available and five from a control group consuming normal, non-polluted drinking water. The mean concentration of total protozoa in the normal water group was almost double that in the acid drinking water group, 24.9 x 10(3) versus 14.7 x 10(3). Percent of Entodinium was higher and Diplodinium lower in those animals drinking the acid water. The number of different protozoa species present in animals from both locations was fairly similar. Diplodinium bubalidis, Ostracodinium gracile and Diplodinium consors were present in the highest percentage in the normal water group, 18.8, 18.4 and 17.7 %, respectively. The same three species, plus Entodinium dubardi, were also highest in the acid water group, O. gracile, 21.3 %; D. consors, 12.6 %; E. dubardi, 11.4 % and D. bubalidis, 10.3 %. Seventeen species of protozoa found in this study were a new host record for the blesbok, bringing the total number of species reported from the blesbok to 29.


Assuntos
Antílopes/parasitologia , Cilióforos/fisiologia , Água Potável , Animais , Água Potável/química , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Rúmen/parasitologia , África do Sul
16.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 86(1): 1243, 2015 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26244584

RESUMO

This survey of ixodid ticks was the first to compare the species composition and population dynamics of free-living ticks in intensive, sable antelope breeding enclosures, now commonplace in commercial wildlife ranching in South Africa, with those of multi-herbivore enclosures. The species composition, abundance and seasonal abundance of questing ixodid ticks on the vegetation in intensive breeding enclosures for sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), on which strategic tick control is practised, were compared with those of ticks in a multi-species herbivore enclosure surrounding the breeding enclosures in which no tick control is practised. A total of eight ixodid tick species were collected by drag-sampling the woodland and grassland habitats in each enclosure type monthly from July 2011 to July 2013. Rhipicephalus decoloratus, a potential vector of fatal tick-borne disease in sable antelopes, was the most abundant, accounting for 65.4% of the total number of ticks collected in the sable enclosures, whilst representing only 25.4% of number of ticks collected in the multi-species herbivore enclosure. Rhipicephalus decoloratus and R. evertsi evertsi were more abundant than R. appendiculatus (both p < 0.05) and Amblyomma hebraeum (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Rhipicephalus decoloratus larvae were collected throughout the year, with peak collections in November 2012 and October to December 2013 in the sable enclosures; and in April/May 2012 and February/April 2013 in the multi-species herbivore enclosure. More R. decoloratus were recovered in the second year than in the first year in the grassland habitat of the sable enclosures (V = 7.0, p < 0.05) possibly as a result of acaricide resistance. The apparent temporal over-abundance of R. decoloratus in sable antelope breeding enclosures, in the face of strategic tick control, is of concern and requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Antílopes/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Ixodidae/classificação , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/classificação , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/classificação , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
17.
Acta Trop ; 152: 112-115, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26314229

RESUMO

Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles.


Assuntos
Antílopes/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Animais , Equinococose/transmissão , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Haplótipos
18.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0120800, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25875647

RESUMO

Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia) were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Antraz/diagnóstico , Fezes/parasitologia , Hormônios/metabolismo , Animais , Antílopes/imunologia , Antílopes/parasitologia , Antraz/imunologia , Antraz/veterinária , Eimeria/imunologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Equidae/imunologia , Equidae/parasitologia , Helmintos/imunologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Hormônios/imunologia , Hormônios/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/imunologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Namíbia , Estações do Ano
19.
J Parasitol ; 101(2): 140-4, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25394219

RESUMO

Linognathus samburi n. sp. is described from adult male and female specimens collected from a juvenile female Günther's dikdik (Madoqua guentheri) live-trapped near Olturot Village, Samburu district (Rift Valley Province) in northern Kenya. The new species is distinguished from other species of Linognathus including Linognathus geigyi and Linognathus damarensis, both of which parasitize Kirk's dikdik (Madoqua kirkii). A dichotomous key to the species of Linognathus that are known to parasitize dikdiks is included.


Assuntos
Anoplura/classificação , Antílopes/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Animais , Anoplura/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Quênia , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Masculino
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 7: 614, 2014 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25528582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Theileria and Anaplasma are especially important emerging tick-borne pathogens of animals and humans. Molecular surveys and identification of the infectious agents in Mongolian gazelle, Procapra gutturosa are not only crucial for the species' preservation, but also provide valuable information on parasite and bacterial epidemiology. FINDINGS: A molecular surveillance study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in P. gutturosa by PCR in China. Theileria luwenshuni, A. bovis, A. phagocytophilum, and A. ovis were frequently found in P. gutturosa in China, at a prevalence of 97.8%, 78.3%, 65.2%, and 52.2%, respectively. The prevalence of each pathogens in the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis was 80.0%, 66.7%, 76.7%, and 0%, respectively, and in the tick Dermacentor niveus was 88.2%, 35.3%, 88.2%, and 58.5%, respectively. No other Theileria or Anaplasma species was found in these samples. Rickettsia raoultii was detected for the first time in P. gutturosa in China. CONCLUSIONS: Our results extend our understanding of the epidemiology of theileriosis and anaplasmosis in P. gutturosa, and will facilitate the implementation of measures to control these tick-borne diseases in China.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Antílopes , Vetores Aracnídeos/classificação , Ixodidae/classificação , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , Antílopes/microbiologia , Antílopes/parasitologia , Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Sequência de Bases , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Prevalência , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Especificidade da Espécie , Theileria/genética , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/parasitologia
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