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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27135, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477163

RESUMO

RATIONALE: We present the first case of a patient with severe aortic stenosis who developed anaphylactic shock and was successfully treated with adrenaline and landiolol, a highly selective ß1-receptor blocker, to prevent disruption of the myocardial oxygen supply-demand balance caused by tachycardia. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 86-year-old woman was scheduled for simultaneous anterior-posterior fixation for a burst fracture of the 12th thoracic vertebra; 200 mg sugammadex, a neuromuscular blocking agent antagonist, was administered postoperatively, and she was extubated without complications. However, 6 min after extubation, her blood pressure decreased abruptly to 55/29 mm Hg, and her heart rate increased to 78 bpm. Then, we intervened with fluid loading, an increased dose of noradrenaline, and phenylephrine administration. However, her blood pressure did not increase. DIAGNOSES: A general observation revealed urticaria on the lower leg; thus, we suspected anaphylactic shock due to sugammadex administration. INTERVENTIONS: We carefully administered 2 doses of 0.05 mg adrenaline and simultaneously administered landiolol at 60 µg/kg/min to suppress adrenaline-induced tachycardia. Adrenaline administration resulted in a rapid increase in blood pressure to 103/66 mm Hg and a maximum heart rate of 100 bpm, suppressing excessive tachycardia. OUTCOMES: The patient's general condition was stable after the intervention, and circulatory agonists could be discontinued the following day. She was discharged from the intensive care unit on the fourth postoperative day. LESSONS: Landiolol may help control the heart rate of patients with aortic stenosis and anaphylactic shock. The combined use of landiolol and adrenaline may improve patient outcomes; however, their efficacy and risks must be evaluated by studying additional cases.


Assuntos
Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Sugammadex/efeitos adversos , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Rocurônio/antagonistas & inibidores , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Ureia/uso terapêutico
3.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 54(4): 481-492, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated an association between nonselective beta-blockers (NSBBs) and lower risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhosis. However, there has been no population-based study investigating the risk of HCC among cirrhotic patients treated using carvedilol. AIMS: To determine the risk of HCC among cirrhotic patients with NSBBs including carvedilol. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study utilised the Cerner Health Facts database in the United States from 2000 to 2017. Kaplan-Meier estimate, Cox proportional hazards regression, and propensity score matching (PSM) were used to test the HCC risk among the carvedilol, nadolol, and propranolol groups compared with no beta-blocker group. RESULTS: The final cohort comprised 107 428 eligible patients. The 100-month cumulative HCC incidence of NSBBs was significantly lower than the no beta-blocker group (carvedilol (11.24%) vs no beta-blocker (15.69%), nadolol (27.55%) vs no beta-blocker (32.11%), and propranolol (26.17%) vs no beta-blocker (28.84%) (P values < 0.0001). NSBBs were associated with a significantly lower risk of HCC (Hazard ratio: carvedilol 0.61 (95% CI 0.51-0.73), nadolol 0.74 (95% CI 0.63-0.87), propranolol 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.84) after PSM in the multivariate cox analysis. In subgroup analysis, NSBBs reduced the risk of HCC in cirrhosis with complications and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: NSBBs, including carvedilol, were associated with a significantly decreased risk of HCC in patients with cirrhosis when compared with no beta-blocker regardless of complications status. Future randomised-controlled studies comparing the incidence of HCC among NSBBs should elucidate which NSBB would be the best option to prevent HCC in cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(2): 261-268, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256518

RESUMO

Asthma is a heterogeneous lung disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation. It was suggested that patients with mild asthma symptoms could be managed with as-needed short-acting ß2-agonists (SABA) in previous years. In 2019, GINA made a radical change and recommended that SABA should not be used as monotherapy in patients with mild asthma, but instead as-needed low-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)-formoterol or "additional low-dose ICS taken whenever SABA is taken" treatments should be commenced to relieve and control symptoms. The approach emerged in the light of the studies that indicate the increased risk of severe exacerbation and asthma-related death due to overuse of SABA. The present article aimed to enlighten the updates in GINA 2019 step 1 and 2 treatment, the grounds for these updates with the supportive studies.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Antiasmáticos/efeitos adversos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos
6.
Am J Cardiol ; 152: 49-56, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120704

RESUMO

This study examined long-term outcomes and adherence to guideline-based medications in non-revascularized acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients undergoing and not undergoing angiography. We analyzed non-revascularized MI patients hospitalized in Alberta, Canada between 2010-2016 and categorized them according to whether they had undergone coronary angiography. Adherence to guideline-based medications was determined by the proportion of days covered (PDC) and subdivided into categories based on PDC: 0% (none), 1-40% (low), 40-79% (intermediate) and ≥ 80% (high). Patients not undergoing angiography were older, less frequently male, and had more comorbidities. Those not receiving angiography had higher rates of 2-year myocardial infarction (9.9% vs 6.1%, p <0.001), heart failure (14.9% vs 6.1%, p <0.001), and mortality (29.4% vs 7.4%, p <0.001). Optimal medial therapy (OMT), defined by high PDC for the combination of lipid-modifying agents, ß-blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors/receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARBs), was achieved in 32.9%. Patients not undergoing angiography had lower rates of OMT adherence (p <0.001). In patients not undergoing angiography, high-adherence to lipid-modifying agents (HR 0.70 [95% CI 0.57-0.87]), ß-blockers (HR 0.78 [0.62-0.97]), ACE-I/ARBs (HR 0.64 [0.52-0.79]) and OMT (HR 0.56 [0.40-0.77]) was independently associated with lower 2-year mortality. In conclusion, MI patients not receiving angiography had low adherence rates to guideline-based pharmacotherapies and high rates of long-term outcomes, suggesting potential treatment targets to improve prognosis in non-invasively managed MI patients.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Reguladores do Metabolismo de Lipídeos/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária
7.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 337-348, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135591

RESUMO

ß-blockers are a heterogeneous class of drugs, with varying selectivity/specificity for ß1 vs ß2 receptors, intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), and vasodilatory properties (through ß2 stimulation, α receptor blockade or nitric oxide release). These drugs are indicated for the management of arterial hypertension, heart failure or ischemic heart disease (IHD; eg angina pectoris or prior myocardial infarction). Most of the benefit of ß-blockade in these conditions arises from blockade of the ß1 receptor, and, in practice, the addition of ISA appears to reduce the potential for improved clinical outcomes in people with heart failure or IHD. Aspects of the benefit/risk balance of ß-blockers remain controversial, and recent meta-analyses have shed new light on this issue. We have reviewed the current place of cardioselective ß-blockade in hypertension, IHD and heart failure, with special reference to the therapeutic profile of a highly selective ß1-adrenoceptor blocker, bisoprolol.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Bisoprolol/uso terapêutico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071350

RESUMO

The heart has a reduced capacity to generate sufficient energy when failing, resulting in an energy-starved condition with diminished functions. Studies have identified numerous changes in metabolic pathways in the failing heart that result in reduced oxidation of both glucose and fatty acid substrates, defects in mitochondrial functions and oxidative phosphorylation, and inefficient substrate utilization for the ATP that is produced. Recent early-phase clinical studies indicate that inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation and antioxidants that target the mitochondria may improve heart function during failure by increasing compensatory glucose oxidation. Adrenergic receptors (α1 and ß) are a key sympathetic nervous system regulator that controls cardiac function. ß-AR blockers are an established treatment for heart failure and α1A-AR agonists have potential therapeutic benefit. Besides regulating inotropy and chronotropy, α1- and ß-adrenergic receptors also regulate metabolic functions in the heart that underlie many cardiac benefits. This review will highlight recent studies that describe how adrenergic receptor-mediated metabolic pathways may be able to restore cardiac energetics to non-failing levels that may offer promising therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012721, 2021 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers and inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system improve survival and reduce morbidity in people with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF); a review of the evidence is required to determine whether these treatments are beneficial for people with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in people with HFpEF. SEARCH METHODS: We updated searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and one clinical trial register on 14 May 2020 to identify eligible studies, with no language or date restrictions. We checked references from trial reports and review articles for additional studies.  SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials with a parallel group design, enrolling adults with HFpEF, defined by LVEF greater than 40%. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included 41 randomised controlled trials (231 reports), totalling 23,492 participants across all comparisons. The risk of bias was frequently unclear and only five studies had a low risk of bias in all domains. Beta-blockers (BBs) We included 10 studies (3087 participants) investigating BBs. Five studies used a placebo comparator and in five the comparator was usual care. The mean age of participants ranged from 30 years to 81 years. A possible reduction in cardiovascular mortality was observed (risk ratio (RR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62 to 0.99; number needed to treat for an additional benefit (NNTB) 25; 1046 participants; three studies), however, the certainty of evidence was low. There may be little to no effect on all-cause mortality (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.00; 1105 participants; four studies; low-certainty evidence). The effects on heart failure hospitalisation, hyperkalaemia, and quality of life remain uncertain. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) We included 13 studies (4459 participants) investigating MRA. Eight studies used a placebo comparator and in five the comparator was usual care. The mean age of participants ranged from 54.5 to 80 years. Pooled analysis indicated that MRA treatment probably reduces heart failure hospitalisation (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.98; NNTB = 41; 3714 participants; three studies; moderate-certainty evidence). However, MRA treatment probably has little or no effect on all-cause mortality (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.06; 4207 participants; five studies; moderate-certainty evidence) and cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.11; 4070 participants; three studies; moderate-certainty evidence). MRA treatment may have little or no effect on quality of life measures (mean difference (MD) 0.84, 95% CI -2.30 to 3.98; 511 participants; three studies; low-certainty evidence). MRA treatment was associated with a higher risk of hyperkalaemia (RR 2.11, 95% CI 1.77 to 2.51; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) = 11; 4291 participants; six studies; high-certainty evidence). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) We included eight studies (2061 participants) investigating ACEIs. Three studies used a placebo comparator and in five the comparator was usual care. The mean age of participants ranged from 70 to 82 years. Pooled analyses with moderate-certainty evidence suggest that ACEI treatment likely has little or no effect on cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.42; 945 participants; two studies), all-cause mortality (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.45; 1187 participants; five studies) and heart failure hospitalisation (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.15; 1019 participants; three studies), and may result in little or no effect on the quality of life (MD -0.09, 95% CI -3.66 to 3.48; 154 participants; two studies; low-certainty evidence). The effects on hyperkalaemia remain uncertain. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) Eight studies (8755 participants) investigating ARBs were included. Five studies used a placebo comparator and in three the comparator was usual care. The mean age of participants ranged from 61 to 75 years. Pooled analyses with high certainty of evidence suggest that ARB treatment has little or no effect on cardiovascular mortality (RR 1.02, 95% 0.90 to 1.14; 7254 participants; three studies), all-cause mortality (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.11; 7964 participants; four studies), heart failure hospitalisation (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.02; 7254 participants; three studies), and quality of life (MD 0.41, 95% CI -0.86 to 1.67; 3117 participants; three studies). ARB was associated with a higher risk of hyperkalaemia (RR 1.88, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.33; 7148 participants; two studies; high-certainty evidence). Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNIs) Three studies (7702 participants) investigating ARNIs were included. Two studies used ARBs as the comparator and one used standardised medical therapy, based on participants' established treatments at enrolment. The mean age of participants ranged from 71 to 73 years. Results suggest that ARNIs may have little or no effect on cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.15; 4796 participants; one study; moderate-certainty evidence), all-cause mortality (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.11; 7663 participants; three studies; high-certainty evidence), or quality of life (high-certainty evidence). However, ARNI treatment may result in a slight reduction in heart failure hospitalisation, compared to usual care (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.00; 7362 participants; two studies; moderate-certainty evidence). ARNI treatment was associated with a reduced risk of hyperkalaemia compared with valsartan (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.01; 5054 participants; two studies; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that MRA and ARNI treatment in HFpEF probably reduces heart failure hospitalisation but probably has little or no effect on cardiovascular mortality and quality of life. BB treatment may reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality, however, further trials are needed. The current evidence for BBs, ACEIs, and ARBs is limited and does not support their use in HFpEF in the absence of an alternative indication. Although MRAs and ARNIs are probably effective at reducing the risk of heart failure hospitalisation, the treatment effect sizes are modest. There is a need for improved approaches to patient stratification to identify the subgroup of patients who are most likely to benefit from MRAs and ARNIs, as well as for an improved understanding of disease biology, and for new therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Sistólico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neprilisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Eur J Intern Med ; 88: 9-14, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941435

RESUMO

ß-blockers represent a mainstay in the pharmacological approach to patients affected by heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, underuse of this class of drugs is still reported, especially in the presence of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities, even if they are not contraindications for prescription of a ß-blocker. The prognostic benefit of ß-blockers is relevant in the presence of comorbidities, and achievement of the maximum tolerated dose is an important goal to increase their favorable prognostic role. The aim of the present review is to analyze the available evidence on the use of ß-blockers in HFrEF patients with the most common comorbidities. In particular, we will discuss the role and most appropriate beta-blocker in patients with pulmonary disease (bisoprolol, metoprolol, nebivolol), diabetes (carvedilol and nebivolol), atrial fibrillation (all indicated for rate control, with metoprolol as the first choice followed by bisoprolol, nebivolol, and carvedilol), erectile dysfunction (bisoprolol and nebivolol), peripheral arterial disease (nebivolol), and other conditions, in order to clarify the correct use of this class of drugs in the clinical practice.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Propanolaminas , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Carbazóis , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Propanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico
13.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(6): 66, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961118

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Controversy exists whether beta-blockers should be given before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or to defer their administration for up to 24 hours. RECENT FINDINGS: Animal studies, most of them conducted in the 1970s and 1980s, showed evidence that early beta-blocker administration may reduce infarct size. Subsequent human studies had mixed results on infarct size and survival. More specifically, in the current primary PCI era, only four studies evaluated the impact of early intravenous beta-blocker administration after acute myocardial infarction, only two of them before PCI. All studies agree that in hemodynamically stable patients, early intravenous beta-blocker administration is safe and protected against malignant arrhythmias. Nevertheless, results on infarct size and mortality are equivocal. Considering the heterogeneity of currently available data, further studies are still needed to assess the benefit of early injection of metoprolol in STEMI patients in a large double-blinded and randomized design versus placebo.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metoprolol/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD013121, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 40% to 95% of people with cirrhosis have oesophageal varices. About 15% to 20% of oesophageal varices bleed in about one to three years. There are several different treatments to prevent bleeding, including: beta-blockers, endoscopic sclerotherapy, and variceal band ligation. However, there is uncertainty surrounding their individual and relative benefits and harms. OBJECTIVES: To compare the benefits and harms of different treatments for prevention of first variceal bleeding from oesophageal varices in adults with liver cirrhosis through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the different treatments for prevention of first variceal bleeding from oesophageal varices according to their safety and efficacy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and trials registers to December 2019 to identify randomised clinical trials in people with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices with no history of bleeding. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included only randomised clinical trials (irrespective of language, blinding, or status) in adults with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices with no history of bleeding. We excluded randomised clinical trials in which participants had previous bleeding from oesophageal varices and those who had previously undergone liver transplantation or previously received prophylactic treatment for oesophageal varices. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We performed a network meta-analysis with OpenBUGS using Bayesian methods and calculated the differences in treatments using hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR), and rate ratios with 95% credible intervals (CrI) based on an available-case analysis, according to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Decision Support Unit guidance. We performed the direct comparisons from randomised clinical trials using the same codes and the same technical details. MAIN RESULTS: We included 66 randomised clinical trials (6653 participants) in the review. Sixty trials (6212 participants) provided data for one or more comparisons in the review. The trials that provided the information included people with cirrhosis due to varied aetiologies and those at high risk of bleeding from oesophageal varices. The follow-up in the trials that reported outcomes ranged from 6 months to 60 months. All but one of the trials were at high risk of bias. The interventions compared included beta-blockers, no active intervention, variceal band ligation, sclerotherapy, beta-blockers plus variceal band ligation, beta-blockers plus nitrates, nitrates, beta-blockers plus sclerotherapy, and portocaval shunt. Overall, 21.2% of participants who received non-selective beta-blockers ('beta-blockers') - the reference treatment (chosen because this was the most common treatment compared in the trials) - died during 8-month to 60-month follow-up. Based on low-certainty evidence, beta-blockers, variceal band ligation, sclerotherapy, and beta-blockers plus nitrates all had lower mortality versus no active intervention (beta-blockers: HR 0.49, 95% CrI 0.36 to 0.67; direct comparison HR: 0.59, 95% CrI 0.42 to 0.83; 10 trials, 1200 participants; variceal band ligation: HR 0.51, 95% CrI 0.35 to 0.74; direct comparison HR 0.49, 95% CrI 0.12 to 2.14; 3 trials, 355 participants; sclerotherapy: HR 0.66, 95% CrI 0.51 to 0.85; direct comparison HR 0.61, 95% CrI 0.41 to 0.90; 18 trials, 1666 participants; beta-blockers plus nitrates: HR 0.41, 95% CrI 0.20 to 0.85; no direct comparison). No trials reported health-related quality of life. Based on low-certainty evidence, variceal band ligation had a higher number of serious adverse events (number of events) than beta-blockers (rate ratio 10.49, 95% CrI 2.83 to 60.64; 1 trial, 168 participants). Based on low-certainty evidence, beta-blockers plus nitrates had a higher number of 'any adverse events (number of participants)' than beta-blockers alone (OR 3.41, 95% CrI 1.11 to 11.28; 1 trial, 57 participants). Based on low-certainty evidence, adverse events (number of events) were higher in sclerotherapy than in beta-blockers (rate ratio 2.49, 95% CrI 1.53 to 4.22; direct comparison rate ratio 2.47, 95% CrI 1.27 to 5.06; 2 trials, 90 participants), and in beta-blockers plus variceal band ligation than in beta-blockers (direct comparison rate ratio 1.72, 95% CrI 1.08 to 2.76; 1 trial, 140 participants). Based on low-certainty evidence, any variceal bleed was lower in beta-blockers plus variceal band ligation than in beta-blockers (direct comparison HR 0.21, 95% CrI 0.04 to 0.71; 1 trial, 173 participants). Based on low-certainty evidence, any variceal bleed was higher in nitrates than beta-blockers (direct comparison HR 6.40, 95% CrI 1.58 to 47.42; 1 trial, 52 participants). The evidence indicates considerable uncertainty about the effect of the interventions in the remaining comparisons. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on low-certainty evidence, beta-blockers, variceal band ligation, sclerotherapy, and beta-blockers plus nitrates may decrease mortality compared to no intervention in people with high-risk oesophageal varices in people with cirrhosis and no previous history of bleeding. Based on low-certainty evidence, variceal band ligation may result in a higher number of serious adverse events than beta-blockers. The evidence indicates considerable uncertainty about the effect of beta-blockers versus variceal band ligation on variceal bleeding. The evidence also indicates considerable uncertainty about the effect of the interventions in most of the remaining comparisons.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Prevenção Primária , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Viés , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Ligadura , Metanálise em Rede , Nitratos/uso terapêutico , Derivação Portocava Cirúrgica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Escleroterapia
16.
Herzschrittmacherther Elektrophysiol ; 32(2): 158-163, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822238

RESUMO

Pregnancy is a physiological condition with reversible hemodynamic, neurohormonal and coagulation changes to the maternal body during this 9­month period. The occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is altogether rare among pregnant women, but necessitates immediate treatment und further work-up. Despite numerous pharmacological and invasive therapeutic modalities for AF in non-pregnant patients, very few options are considered safe enough for the fetus and the mother during pregnancy. Commonly used medications such as beta blockers, calcium channel antagonists, antiarrhythmic drugs and anticoagulation therapy must be carefully individualized according to the week of gestation and possible underlying comorbidities of the mother, thus highlighting the importance of an interdisciplinary evaluation by a cardiologist and a gynecologist. The current review summarizes the existing knowledge and treatment options for AF in pregnancy and suggests a simplified algorithm for this clinical constellation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
17.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 2): 625-629, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Is to determine the levels of markers of endothelial dysfunction in young men with myocardial infarction and their changes during the treatment with beta-blockers with different pharmacological properties. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 112 male patients of Caucasian race of the Ukrainian population under the age of 50 with MI. Group I received Nebivolol, group II - bisoprolol. RESULTS: Results: During the 6-month follow-up, positive dynamics of NOS-2 and ET-1 was observed. The level of NOS-2 in groups I - II was 4272.3±162.7, 4629.7±161.2 pg/mL, respectively (p<0.05). The dynamics of ET-1 showed significant decrease of its level in all groups. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Significant changes in markers of endothelial dysfunction, namely NOS3/eNOS, NOS2/iNOS and ET-1, are observed in young male patients of the Ukrainian population with MI. During 6 months of treatment, positive changes were observed in the form of an increase in NOS-3 levels and a significant decrease in ET-1 and NOS-2 levels. The inclusion of Nebivolol in the basic therapy for this group of patients is associated with an additional positive effect on the normalization of levels NO synthase and the reduction of ET-1.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Nebivolol/uso terapêutico , Óxido Nítrico
19.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 20(4): 380-383, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852249

RESUMO

Melanoma is a common tumor accounting for around 3–5% of all cutaneous malignancies with worldwide increasing incidence. It is still associated with significant mortality despite the breakthrough of new innovative therapies within the last decade. A wide variety of treatment modalities is currently used for the management of melanoma, ranging from surgical excision of primary melanoma to adju-vant and palliative treatment with target molecules, including BRAF and MEK inhibitors, and immune checkpoint inhibitors. β-blockers have recently demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies to reduce recurrence and to correlate with better overall survival in meta-static melanoma as an additional supportive treatment option, owing to their anti-tumor potential. Further investigation regarding their efficacy and safety profile is needed, since there are only few studies in the literature on this topic. Our aim is to evaluate the role and current status of β-blockers in melanoma management. The literature research includes peer-reviewed articles (clinical trials or scien-tific reviews). Studies were identified by searching electronic databases (MEDLINE and PubMed) till May 2020 and reference lists of respective articles. Only articles published in English language were included. J Drugs Dermatol. 20(4):380-383. doi:10.36849/JDD.5673.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
20.
JAMA Dermatol ; 157(5): 566-572, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787840

RESUMO

Importance: Ulceration is a common complication of infantile hemangioma (IH), which leads to substantial morbidity. Ulceration in IH has not been systematically studied since the advent of ß-blocker therapy for IH. Objectives: To examine treatment interventions used for ulceration in IH and identify clinical prognostic indicators of healing time. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective, multicenter cohort study was conducted on 436 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of ulcerated IH and available clinical photographs. Patients receiving care at tertiary referral centers evaluated between 2012 and 2016 were included; statistical and data analysis were performed from February 7 to April 27, 2020. Exposures: Clinical characteristics, treatment interventions, course, complications, and resource use were analyzed. Treatment interventions for ulceration in IH included local (wound care, topical), systemic (ß-blocker, corticosteroids), and procedural (pulsed-dye laser). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was time to complete or nearly complete ulceration healing. Clinical characteristics were analyzed to determine the responses to most common interventions and prognostic factors for healing of ulceration. Results: Of the 436 patients included in the study, 327 were girls (75.0%); median age at ulceration was 13.7 weeks (interquartile range, 8.86-21.30 weeks). The median heal time was 4.79 weeks (95% CI, 3.71-5.86 weeks) with wound care alone, 5.14 weeks (95% CI, 4.57-6.00 weeks) with timolol, 6.36 weeks (95% CI, 5.57-8.00 weeks) with a systemic ß-blocker, and 7.71 weeks (95% CI, 6.71-10.14 weeks) with multimodal therapy. After adjusting for IH size, a dose of propranolol less than or equal to 1 mg/kg/d was associated with shorter healing time compared with higher propranolol doses (hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.11 to 3.73; P = .02). Size of the IH was identified as a significant prognostic factor for healing time in multivariable analysis. Increasing size of IH portends a proportionately longer time to heal of the ulceration. Conclusions and Relevance: Despite the use of ß-blockers, this cohort study found that a subset of patients with IH ulceration continued to experience prolonged IH healing times. Larger IH size appears to be a poor prognostic factor for time to heal. For patients requiring systemic therapy, initiation of propranolol at lower doses (≤1 mg/kg/d) should be considered.


Assuntos
Hemangioma Capilar/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações , Úlcera Cutânea/diagnóstico , Úlcera Cutânea/terapia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Bandagens , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemangioma Capilar/patologia , Hemangioma Capilar/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Lasers de Corante/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Úlcera Cutânea/etiologia , Timolol/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização
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