Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.402
Filtrar
1.
Int Heart J ; 62(1): 193-196, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455988
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD007004, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) is used to reduce proteinuria and retard the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, resolution of proteinuria may be incomplete with these therapies and the addition of an aldosterone antagonist may be added to further prevent progression of CKD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2009 and updated in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of aldosterone antagonists (selective (eplerenone), non-selective (spironolactone or canrenone), or non-steroidal mineralocorticoid antagonists (finerenone)) in adults who have CKD with proteinuria (nephrotic and non-nephrotic range) on: patient-centred endpoints including kidney failure (previously know as end-stage kidney disease (ESKD)), major cardiovascular events, and death (any cause); kidney function (proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and doubling of serum creatinine); blood pressure; and adverse events (including hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury, and gynaecomastia). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 13 January 2020 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared aldosterone antagonists in combination with ACEi or ARB (or both) to other anti-hypertensive strategies or placebo in participants with proteinuric CKD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Data were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. We expressed summary treatment estimates as a risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, or standardised mean difference (SMD) when different scales were used together with their 95% confidence interval (CI). Risk of bias were assessed using the Cochrane tool. Evidence certainty was evaluated using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: Forty-four studies (5745 participants) were included. Risk of bias in the evaluated methodological domains were unclear or high risk in most studies. Adequate random sequence generation was present in 12 studies, allocation concealment in five studies, blinding of participant and investigators in 18 studies, blinding of outcome assessment in 15 studies, and complete outcome reporting in 24 studies. All studies comparing aldosterone antagonists to placebo or standard care were used in addition to an ACEi or ARB (or both). None of the studies were powered to detect differences in patient-level outcomes including kidney failure, major cardiovascular events or death. Aldosterone antagonists had uncertain effects on kidney failure (2 studies, 84 participants: RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.33 to 27.65, I² = 0%; very low certainty evidence), death (3 studies, 421 participants: RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.10 to 3.50, I² = 0%; low certainty evidence), and cardiovascular events (3 studies, 1067 participants: RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.26 to 3.56; I² = 42%; low certainty evidence) compared to placebo or standard care. Aldosterone antagonists may reduce protein excretion (14 studies, 1193 participants: SMD -0.51, 95% CI -0.82 to -0.20, I² = 82%; very low certainty evidence), eGFR (13 studies, 1165 participants, MD -3.00 mL/min/1.73 m², 95% CI -5.51 to -0.49, I² = 0%, low certainty evidence) and systolic blood pressure (14 studies, 911 participants: MD -4.98 mmHg, 95% CI -8.22 to -1.75, I² = 87%; very low certainty evidence) compared to placebo or standard care. Aldosterone antagonists probably increase the risk of hyperkalaemia (17 studies, 3001 participants: RR 2.17, 95% CI 1.47 to 3.22, I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence), acute kidney injury (5 studies, 1446 participants: RR 2.04, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.97, I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence), and gynaecomastia (4 studies, 281 participants: RR 5.14, 95% CI 1.14 to 23.23, I² = 0%; moderate certainty evidence) compared to placebo or standard care. Non-selective aldosterone antagonists plus ACEi or ARB had uncertain effects on protein excretion (2 studies, 139 participants: SMD -1.59, 95% CI -3.80 to 0.62, I² = 93%; very low certainty evidence) but may increase serum potassium (2 studies, 121 participants: MD 0.31 mEq/L, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.45, I² = 0%; low certainty evidence) compared to diuretics plus ACEi or ARB. Selective aldosterone antagonists may increase the risk of hyperkalaemia (2 studies, 500 participants: RR 1.62, 95% CI 0.66 to 3.95, I² = 0%; low certainty evidence) compared ACEi or ARB (or both). There were insufficient studies to perform meta-analyses for the comparison between non-selective aldosterone antagonists and calcium channel blockers, selective aldosterone antagonists plus ACEi or ARB (or both) and nitrate plus ACEi or ARB (or both), and non-steroidal mineralocorticoid antagonists and selective aldosterone antagonists. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effects of aldosterone antagonists when added to ACEi or ARB (or both) on the risks of death, major cardiovascular events, and kidney failure in people with proteinuric CKD are uncertain. Aldosterone antagonists may reduce proteinuria, eGFR, and systolic blood pressure in adults who have mild to moderate CKD but may increase the risk of hyperkalaemia, acute kidney injury and gynaecomastia when added to ACEi and/or ARB.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Viés , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Canrenona/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Eplerenona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Naftiridinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Espironolactona/análogos & derivados , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
7.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(10): 750-756, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, non-urgent outpatient activities were temporarily suspended. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of this measure on the management of the heart failure outpatient clinic at our institution. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical outcome of 110 chronic heart failure patients (mean age 73 ± 9 years) whose follow-up visit had been delayed. RESULTS: At their last visit before the lockdown, 80.9% was in NYHA class II, had an ejection fraction of 37 ± 7%, and B-type natriuretic peptide level was moderately elevated (266 ± 138 pg/ml). All patients received loop diuretics, 97.2% beta-blockers, 64.9% an aldosterone antagonist, 60.9% sacubitril/valsartan (S/V), and 72.2% of the remaining patients were on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or valsartan therapy. Patients were contacted by phone during and at the end of the lockdown period to fix a new appointment and underwent a structured interview to assess their clinical conditions and ongoing therapy and to verify whether they had contracted SARS-CoV-2 infection. Twelve patients (13.2%) contracted COVID-19. None was hospitalized for worsening heart failure or reported defibrillator shocks and none changed autonomously the prescribed therapy. Overall, 75% of patients reported stable or improved general well-being from the last in-person visit, while 25% described subjective worsening due to the social effect of the pandemic. Unchanged body weight and blood pressure values were reported by 86% and 78.4% of patients, respectively. Lower blood pressure values compared to baseline were recorded in 15.2% of patients on conventional renin-angiotensin system inhibition vs 21% of those on S/V, one of whom had to down-titrate S/V for persistent but asymptomatic hypotension; 4 patients up-titrated S/V to 200 mg/day following phone indications. CONCLUSIONS: Cancellation of scheduled follow-up visits during 3 months did not have significant negative effects in a cohort of stable patients with chronic heart failure on optimized medical therapy. Telephone support was effective in keeping connections with the patients during the lockdown, allowing appropriate management and implementation of drug therapy. In particular, patients who received S/V were not affected by delays in scheduled visits, confirming the tolerability and safety of this novel therapy in terms of both clinical and biohumoral parameters.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde , Progressão da Doença , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Recidiva , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico , Telefone , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Suspensão de Tratamento
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237467, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The first phase of the published OPAL-HK study was a single-group treatment phase, which showed that patiromer normalised serum potassium at 4weeks in patients with chronic kidney disease stages 3-4 who were receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors. We utilised real-world data to provide a control comparison to evaluate patiromer's efficacy in lowering serum potassium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Salford Kidney Study (SKS) in the United Kingdom provided a matched cohort. After applying OPAL-HK inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients with an outpatient potassium level between 5.1mmol/L to <6.5mmol/L and whose next outpatient level was checked 24-42 days later were selected. Patients underwent 1:1 matching with the 243 OPAL-HK patients using propensity matching based on 6 variables: age, gender, estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes, heart failure and potassium level. The study outcomes aligned with the OPAL-HK treatment phase: mean change in baseline potassium, and the proportion of patients with a potassium of 3.8 to <5.1mmol/L at follow-up. RESULTS: The study comprised 87 precisely matched patients. The mean follow-up in the 87 SKS patients was 31±5 days. At baseline, matched patients had a mean potassium of 5.5±0.3mmol/L. At follow-up, the mean level was unchanged in SKS patients but was 4.5±0.5mmol/L in the OPAL-HK group (p<0.001), a mean (±SE) change of -1.00±0.06mmol/L. The target range of 3.8 to <5.1mmol/L was reached in 80% of OPAL-HK patients compared with 0% in the SKS cohort. There were very few interventions undertaken to reduce hyperkalaemia in SKS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Using real-world data as a matched control arm for the first phase of the OPAL-HK study, we highlight a potential role for patiromer in lowering potassium levels in patients with CKD 3-4 receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors.


Assuntos
Pontuação de Propensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Potássio/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
9.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110112, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721806

RESUMO

In coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), four major factors have been correlated with worse prognosis: aging, hypertension, obesity, and exposure to androgen hormones. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, regulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) action are critical for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) cell entry and infectivity. ACE2 expression and RAAS are abnormal in hypertension and obesity, while TMPRSS2 is overexpressed when exposed to androgens, which may justify why these factors are overrepresented in COVID-19. Among therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2, we hypothesized that spironolactone, a long used and safe mineralocorticoid and androgen receptors antagonist, with effective anti-hypertensive, cardioprotective, nephroprotective, and anti-androgenic properties may offer pleiotropic actions in different sites to protect from COVID-19. Current data shows that spironolactone may concurrently mitigate abnormal ACE2 expression, correct the balances membrane-attached and free circulating ACE2 and between angiotensin II and Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), suppress androgen-mediated TMPRSS2 activity, and inhibit obesity-related RAAS dysfunctions, with consequent decrease of viral priming. Hence, spironolactone may provide protection from SARS-CoV-2, and has sufficient plausibility to be clinically tested, particularly in the early stages of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Androgênios/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/farmacologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/biossíntese , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Receptores Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco , Serina Endopeptidases/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição por Sexo , Espironolactona/farmacologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Maturitas ; 138: 36-41, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menopause is often associated with a central accumulation of body fat. This provokes insulin resistance. The resulting hyperinsulinemia may increase the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. Long-term studies indicate that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) reduces insulin resistance. To broaden knowledge of the mechanisms behind the influence of MHT on glucose homeostasis we focused on the direct short-term effects of MHT with oral combined estradiol and drospirenone on glucose and insulin metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. METHODS: This randomized, placebo-controlled study recruited 80 healthy postmenopausal women. Women were randomized to treatment with estradiol 1 mg continuously combined with drospirenone 2 mg or placebo for 6-8 weeks. All participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) before and after the treatment period. Glucose, insulin, fructosamine and C-peptide levels were measured in serum before and 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min after a 75-gram oral glucose challenge. RESULTS: After intervention, significantly higher glucose levels at 120 min (p < 0.024) and 150 min (p < 0.030) were observed in the MHT group compared with the placebo group. These glucose levels remained within the normal range. A significantly lower insulin peak serum level (p < 0.040) and a non-significantly smaller area under the curve (AUC) for insulin levels (p = 0.192) was observed in the MHT group at the end of the study period relative to baseline. No significant change in the insulin AUC in the placebo group was observed. There were no significant differences in fructosamine, HOMA-IR and C-peptide levels between the MHT group and the placebo group. CONCLUSION: This double-blind randomized study (EC/2008/694) indicates that treating healthy, postmenopausal women with 1 mg estradiol continuously combined with 2 mg drospirenone significantly decreases peak insulin levels and increases peak glucose levels during an OGTT compared to placebo. These glucose levels remained within the normal range.


Assuntos
Androstenos/uso terapêutico , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Glucose/metabolismo , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Insulina/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Glicemia/análise , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa
11.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(10): 660-670, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660835

RESUMO

Renal function is often affected in patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The complex interplay between heart and renal dysfunction makes renal function and potassium monitoring mandatory. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers are a life-saving treatment for patients with HFrEF, regardless of worsening renal function. Uptitration to the maximum-tolerated dose should be a constant goal. This simple fact is all too often forgotten (only 30% of patients with heart failure receive the target dosage of RAAS blockers), and the RAAS blocker effect on renal function is sometimes misunderstood. RAAS blockers are not nephrotoxic drugs as they only have a functional effect on renal function. In many routine clinical cases, RAAS blockers are withheld or stopped because of this misunderstanding, combined with suboptimal assessment of the clinical situation and underestimation of the life-saving effect of RAAS blockers despite worsening renal function. In this expert panel, which includes heart failure specialists, geriatricians and nephrologists, we propose therapeutic management algorithms for worsening renal function for physicians in charge of outpatients with chronic heart failure. Firstly, the essential variables to take into consideration before changing treatment are the presence of concomitant disorders that could alter renal function status (e.g. infection, diarrhoea, hyperthermia), congestion/dehydration status, blood pressure and intake of nephrotoxic drugs. Secondly, physicians are invited to adapt medication according to four clinical scenarios (patient with congestion, dehydration, hypotension or hyperkalaemia). Close biological monitoring after treatment modification is mandatory. We believe that this practical clinically minded management algorithm can help to optimize HFrEF treatment in routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Cardiorrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Cardiorrenal/diagnóstico , Síndrome Cardiorrenal/fisiopatologia , Cardiologia/normas , Doença Crônica , Consenso , Progressão da Doença , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Nefrologia/normas , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(7): 561-568, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-6232

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: En pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca y fracción de eyección reducida (IC-FEr), se ha demostrado en ensayos clínicos que diferentes terapias reducen la mortalidad, pero hay pocos datos de la práctica real acerca del efecto en los distintos tipos de muerte. MÉTODOS: Se estudió a 2.351 pacientes ambulatorios con IC-FEr (FE <40%) procedentes de los registros prospectivos multicéntricos MUSIC (n=641, años 2003-2004) y REDINSCOR I (n=1.710, años 2007-2011). Las variables se registraron a la inclusión, y el seguimiento fue de 4 años. Un comité independiente adjudicó la mortalidad y sus causas. RESULTADOS: Los pacientes en el registro más contemporáneo recibieron con mayor frecuencia bloqueadores beta (el 85 frente al 71%; p <0,001), antialdosterónicos (el 64 frente al 44%; p <0,001), desfibrilador automático implantable (el 19 frente al 2%; p <0,001) y resincronización (el 7,2 frente al 4,8%; p = 0,04). La población más contemporánea presentó menos muerte súbita (el 6,8 frente al 11,4%; p <0,001). Tras emparejar por puntuación de propensión, se obtuvieron 2 poblaciones comparables que solo diferían en los tratamientos (575 frente a 575 pacientes): la población más contemporánea presentó menor riesgo de muerte total (HR=0,70; IC95%, 0,57-0,87; p = 0,001) y de muerte súbita (sHR=0,46; IC95%, 0,30-0,70; p <0,001), con una tendencia de muerte por IC (sHR=0,73; IC95%, 0,53-1,01; p = 0,059) y sin diferencias por otras causas (sHR=1,17; IC95%, 0,78-1,75; p = 0,445), independientemente de la clase funcional. CONCLUSIONES: En pacientes ambulatorios con IC-FEr, la mejora terapéutica se asoció con un menor riesgo de muerte, principalmente debido a la significativa reducción de las muertes súbitas


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), several therapies have been proven to reduce mortality in clinical trials. However, there are few data on the effect of the use of evidence-based therapies on causes of death in clinical practice. METHODS: This study included 2351 outpatients with HFrEF (< 40%) from 2 multicenter prospective registries: MUSIC (n=641, period: 2003-2004) and REDINSCOR I (n=1710, period: 2007-2011). Variables were recorded at inclusion and all patients were followed-up for 4 years. Causes of death were validated by an independent committee. RESULTS: Patients in REDINSCOR I more frequently received beta-blockers (85% vs 71%; P <.001), mineralocorticoid antagonists (64% vs 44%; P <.001), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (19% vs 2%; P <.001), and resynchronization therapy (7.2% vs 4.8%; P=.04). In these patients, sudden cardiac death was less frequent than in those in MUSIC (6.8% vs 11.4%; P <.001). After propensity score matching, we obtained 2 comparable populations differing only in treatments (575 vs 575 patients). In patients in REDINSCOR I, we found a lower risk of total mortality (HR, 0.70; 95%CI, 0.57-0.87; P=.001) and sudden cardiac death (sHR, 0.46; 95%CI, 0.30-0.70; P <.001), and a trend toward lower mortality due to end-stage HF (sHR, 0.73; 95%CI, 0.53-1.01; P=.059), without differences in other causes of death (sHR, 1.17; 95%CI, 0.78-1.75; P=.445), regardless of functional class. CONCLUSIONS: In ambulatory patients with HFrEF, implementation of evidence-based therapies was associated with a lower risk of death, mainly due to a significant reduction in sudden cardiac death


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Causas de Morte/tendências , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia
16.
N Z Med J ; 133(1516): 58-71, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525862

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the use of evidence-based heart failure therapies in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Patients with ACS and LVEF ≤40% were identified from the All New Zealand Acute Coronary Syndrome Quality Improvement (ANZACS-QI) registry between June 2017 and May 2018. Data was obtained from retrospective review of clinical records. Dispensed medications were identified from pharmacy dispensing records and compared with target doses recommended in guidelines. RESULTS: Of 292 patients, 28% were seen in cardiology heart failure (HF) clinic, 54% seen in general cardiology clinic and 17% were not seen in cardiology clinic. At one year post-discharge, 52% and 39% were dispensed ≥50% target dose of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi)/ angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), and beta-blockers respectively. Seventy-one percent and 68% of patients were on maximally tolerated doses of ACEi/ARB and beta-blockers respectively. The highest rates of medication up-titration occurred in those seen in cardiology HF clinics. Seventy-four percent and 59% were dispensed ≥50% target dose of ACEi/ARB and beta-blocker respectively. Ninety-five percent and 89% were on maximally tolerated doses of ACEi/ARB and beta-blockers respectively. Thirteen percent were potentially eligible for primary prevention implantable cardiac defibrillator; however, only 24% of these eligible patients had one implanted by one year post-discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based HF therapies were underutilised in this regional cohort of patients with reduced LVEF post-ACS. Strategies to improve use of these therapies should focus on increasing the number of patients seen by HF clinics and reducing clinic waiting times.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 129: 46-52, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563496

RESUMO

Patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have a significantly elevated risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, few imaging data have been correlated to this risk. We evaluated the value of multiple echocardiographic markers of left ventricular (LV) function to predict SCD in HFpEF patients. The Treatment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction with Aldosterone Trial (TOPCAT)-Americas cohort was used to evaluate the echocardiographic predictors of SCD and/or aborted cardiac arrest (SCD/ACA). A retrospective cohort design was used. Cox proportional hazards and Poisson regression models were used to determine the associations between the risk of SCD/ACA and echocardiographic parameters: diastolic dysfunction grade, left ventricle ejection fraction, and LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) during follow-up. Impaired left ventricle ejection fraction and GLS were associated with SCD/ACA in univariate models (p = 0.007 and 0.002, respectively), but not diastolic function grade. After multivariate adjustment, only GLS remained a significant predictor of the incidence rate of SCD/ACA (p = 0.006). There was a 58% increase in the hazard of incident SCD/ACA for every 1 unit increase in GLS (1.58, 95%CI: 1.12 to 2.22, p = 0.009). These findings remained robust in the competing risk analyses. In conclusion, amongst the multiple echocardiographic parameters of LV function, GLS may help prognosticate the risk of SCD/ACA in HFpEF patients.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Diástole , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
18.
Eur Heart J ; 41(19): 1810-1817, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388565

RESUMO

AIMS: The current pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infects a wide age group but predominantly elderly individuals, especially men and those with cardiovascular disease. Recent reports suggest an association with use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a functional receptor for coronaviruses. Higher ACE2 concentrations might lead to increased vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 in patients on RAAS inhibitors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured ACE2 concentrations in 1485 men and 537 women with heart failure (index cohort). Results were validated in 1123 men and 575 women (validation cohort).The median age was 69 years for men and 75 years for women. The strongest predictor of elevated concentrations of ACE2 in both cohorts was male sex (estimate = 0.26, P < 0.001; and 0.19, P < 0.001, respectively). In the index cohort, use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) was not an independent predictor of plasma ACE2. In the validation cohort, ACE inhibitor (estimate = -0.17, P = 0.002) and ARB use (estimate = -0.15, P = 0.03) were independent predictors of lower plasma ACE2, while use of an MRA (estimate = 0.11, P = 0.04) was an independent predictor of higher plasma ACE2 concentrations. CONCLUSION: In two independent cohorts of patients with heart failure, plasma concentrations of ACE2 were higher in men than in women, but use of neither an ACE inhibitor nor an ARB was associated with higher plasma ACE2 concentrations. These data might explain the higher incidence and fatality rate of COVID-19 in men, but do not support previous reports suggesting that ACE inhibitors or ARBs increase the vulnerability for COVID-19 through increased plasma ACE2 concentrations.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Lancet ; 396(10244): 121-128, 2020 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three drug classes (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists [MRAs], angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors [ARNIs], and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 [SGLT2] inhibitors) reduce mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) beyond conventional therapy consisting of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and ß blockers. Each class was previously studied with different background therapies and the expected treatment benefits with their combined use are not known. Here, we used data from three previously reported randomised controlled trials to estimate lifetime gains in event-free survival and overall survival with comprehensive therapy versus conventional therapy in patients with chronic HFrEF. METHODS: In this cross-trial analysis, we estimated treatment effects of comprehensive disease-modifying pharmacological therapy (ARNI, ß blocker, MRA, and SGLT2 inhibitor) versus conventional therapy (ACE inhibitor or ARB and ß blocker) in patients with chronic HFrEF by making indirect comparisons of three pivotal trials, EMPHASIS-HF (n=2737), PARADIGM-HF (n=8399), and DAPA-HF (n=4744). Our primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death or first hospital admission for heart failure; we also assessed these endpoints individually and assessed all-cause mortality. Assuming these relative treatment effects are consistent over time, we then projected incremental long-term gains in event-free survival and overall survival with comprehensive disease-modifying therapy in the control group of the EMPHASIS-HF trial (ACE inhibitor or ARB and ß blocker). FINDINGS: The hazard ratio (HR) for the imputed aggregate treatment effects of comprehensive disease-modifying therapy versus conventional therapy on the primary endpoint of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for heart failure was 0·38 (95% CI 0·30-0·47). HRs were also favourable for cardiovascular death alone (HR 0·50 [95% CI 0·37-0·67]), hospital admission for heart failure alone (0·32 [0·24-0·43]), and all-cause mortality (0·53 [0·40-0·70]). Treatment with comprehensive disease-modifying pharmacological therapy was estimated to afford 2·7 additional years (for an 80-year-old) to 8·3 additional years (for a 55-year-old) free from cardiovascular death or first hospital admission for heart failure and 1·4 additional years (for an 80-year-old) to 6·3 additional years (for a 55-year-old) of survival compared with conventional therapy. INTERPRETATION: Among patients with HFrEF, the anticipated aggregate treatment effects of early comprehensive disease-modifying pharmacological therapy are substantial and support the combination use of an ARNI, ß blocker, MRA, and SGLT2 inhibitor as a new therapeutic standard. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Morte , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(6): 1005-1013, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Potassium-wasting (loop diuretics [LD]) and potassium-sparing (spironolactone) medications used for heart failure (HF) may alter renal potassium handling and confound the use of twenty-four-hour (24-h) urine collections as a surrogate marker for potassium intake, an effect that has been observed with dietary sodium assessment. The objective was to determine the strength of association between 24-h urine collections and weighed food records in assessing potassium intake in HF patients stratified by LD usage and spironolactone usage. METHODS AND RESULTS: Stable outpatients with HF simultaneously completed two 24-h urine collections and two weighed food records on consecutive days. Analyses compared patients stratified by LD and/or spironolactone use. Pearson's correlation and the Bland-Altman method of agreement assessed the relationship between the techniques. Overall, 109 patients (61 ± 11 yrs, 74% male) were included. The mean difference in dietary potassium estimated between 24-h urine collections and food records was -353 ± 1043 mg (p < 0.01) for all patients, with no differences between measures among subgroups. The association between the two methods was r = 0.551 (95% CI, 0.373 to 0.852, p < 0.001) for LD users; r = 0.287 (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.570, p = 0.050) for LD non-users; r = 0.321 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.798, p = 0.043) for spironolactone users, and; r = 0.534 (95% CI, 0.331 to 0.747, p < 0.001) for spironolactone non-users. There were no significant mean biases identified as part of the Bland-Altman analysis. CONCLUSION: Among HF patients, potassium-wasting and potassium-sparing medications do not influence the agreement between the two methods in the assessment of potassium intake.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Nutricional , Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/uso terapêutico , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Absorção Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Potássio na Dieta/urina , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Eliminação Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/efeitos adversos , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Urinálise , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA